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Wptlittt College 


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First Edition, 1898. Second Edition, 1902 ; reprinted, ivith slight changes, 1905, 
1908. Third Edition, 1909 ; reprinted, with slight changes, 1913. 


THE present edition is little more than a reprint of the second. 
A few corrections and additions have been made, chiefly in the 
footnotes ; the most important of these being the insertion at 
p. 404 of the Greek fragment which follows Mark xvi. 14 in the 
Freer MS. of the Four Gospels. 

Of one important source of new knowledge I have been unable 
to make as much use as I could have wished. Professor Deissmann 
and Dr A. Thumb in Germany, and Professor J. H. Moulton and 
Dr G. Milligan in Great Britain, have taught us how much the 
papyri and the inscriptions have to contribute to the study of 
New Testament Lexicography. Most of their researches have 
appeared since the publication of the first edition of this book, 
and it would be impossible to avail myself of them without a 
serious interference with the plates. I can only refer the reader 
to the published papers and books of the above-mentioned 
scholars, and in particular to the Lexical Notes contributed by 
Dr Moulton and Dr Miiligan to the Expositor, and to the work 
which, it is understood, will be based upon them. 

The conclusions with regard to New Testament Grammar 
which have been drawn from the non-literary papyri are not as 
yet, in my opinion, established beyond doubt, and I am therefore 
content still to rely upon the authority of Winer-Moulton, Winer- 
Schmiedel, and Blass. But the subject is one upon which I desire 
to keep an open mind, and the time may come when this com 
mentary will call for a more extensive revision in this respect 
than I am at present prepared to undertake. 

H. B. S. 

F. of St Michael and All Angels, 1909. 


THE years which have gone by since the first issue of this 
Commentary have been singularly fruitful in publications bearing 
upon the study of the Gospels. In the work of preparing a 
second edition for the press these new helps have not been left 
out of sight ; and from several of them more particularly from 
Dr Chase s and Dr Salmond s articles in the third volume of 
Dr Hastings Dictionary of the Bible, the second volume of 
Professor Theodore Zahii s Einleitung in das Neue Testament, 
Sir J. C. Hawkins Horae Synopticae, and Mr P. M. Barnard s 
Biblical Text of Clement of Alexandria much assistance has 
been derived. If my conclusions have not often been modified, 
it is not because I have failed to reconsider them in the light of 
these and other recent contributions to Biblical knowledge. 

I am glad also to acknowledge my debts to the kindness of 
reviewers, and of -not a few private friends and some unknown 
correspondents, who have pointed out errors or deficiencies in 
the first edition of my book. These corrections have all, as I 
trust, received respectful attention, although in some cases the 
plan of the work has refused to lend itself to the proposed changes, 
or after full consideration I have found myself unable to accept 

In the preface to the first edition I expressed a desire to 
discuss more fully at a future time some of the larger questions 
raised by the Gospel of St Mark. This purpose has not been 
fulfilled. The book has been revised throughout; the critical 
apparatus has been enlarged by the use of the fresh evidence 
printed in Mr Lake s Texts from Mount Athos, of which advanced 
sheets were sent to me through the kindness of the author ; the 
foot-notes have been here and there expanded or re-written. But 
the pressure of other work and the call of fresh studies have 
precluded me from attempting the dissertations which I had 
intended to write. My book therefore goes forth under its 
original limitations. But I am confident that younger students 
will be found to fulfil the task which I am constrained to leave. 
The growing interest manifested in all problems connected with 
the Gospels, and more especially the earliest of the Gospels, 


justifies the expectation that the next generation of New Testa 
ment scholars will carry our knowledge more than one step 
nearer to the fulness and certainty which all must desire to 

H. B. S. 

F. of St Peter, 1902. 


THE earliest of extant commentators on St Mark urges as 
his apology for undertaking so serious a task the neglect which 
that Evangelist appeared to have suffered at the hands of the 
great teachers of the Church. While each of the other Gospels 
had received separate treatment, the Gospel according to St Mark, 
so far as he could discover, had been passed by, as if it needed no 
elucidation or none which could not be gathered from expositions 
of St Matthew and St Luke. 

If this plea can no longer be used, it is still true that St Mark 
has gained far less attention than he deserves. The importance 
of his work as an independent history, and the beauty of its 
bright and unartificial picture of our Lord s life in Galilee, are at 
length generally recognised ; but no monograph has yet appeared 
which makes full use of the materials at the disposal of the 

I cannot claim to have supplied this deficiency in the present 
volume, nor has it been my aim to do so. I am content to offer 
help to those who desire to enter upon the serious study of the 
Gospels. Such study should begin, as it appears to me, with the 
Gospel which I believe to be the earliest of the four and, through 
out a large part of the narrative, the nearest to the common 

My chief aids have been the concordances of Bruder and 
Moulton-Geden, the grammatical works of Winer-Moulton, Winer- 
Schmiedel, Burton, and Blass, and the Greek text, introduction, 
and notes of Westcott and Hort. Next to these, I have learnt 
most from the concordance to the LXX. compiled by Hatch and 
Redpath, the text and indices of Niese s Josephus, and the illus 
trations from the later Greek literature which are to be found 


in the pages of Field, Grinfield, Grotius, Kuinoel, Kypke, and 
Wetstein, together with those which Deissmann has collected 
from the papyri. For Aramaic forms I have consulted Kautzsch 
and Dalman, and for Jewish thought and customs the well-known 
works of the elder Lightfoot, Schottgen, Schurer, Streane, Taylor, 
Weber, and Wtinsche. Of ancient expositors Origen, Jerome, 
Victor of Antioch, Bede, and Theophylact have supplied valuable 
help; among those of recent times I have consulted with ad 
vantage Schanz and Knabenbauer, Meyer- Weiss and Holtzmann. 
But no effort has been made to collect and tabulate the views of 
the commentators upon disputed points ; it has been thought 
that a mere list of authorities, apart from a detailed statement 
of the grounds on which their opinions are based, could render 
little assistance to the student and might discourage individual 
effort. Nor have I appealed to any expositor, ancient or modern, 
until an effort had been made to gain light from a careful 
study of the Gospel itself. A prolonged examination of the 
text, and a diligent use of the lexical and grammatical helps 
to which reference has already been made, will almost invariably 
guide the student to a true interpretation of St Mark s rugged 
yet simple sentences. It is chiefly in the attempt to penetrate 
the profound sayings of our Lord, which this Evangelist reports 
in their most compact form, that valuable assistance may be 
gained from the suggestiveness of Origen and the devout insight 
of Bede and Bengel. 

The text of Westcott and Hort has been generally followed; 
the few changes which I have permitted myself to make consist 
chiefly of the introduction within square brackets of words which 
the New Testament in Greek either omits or relegates to the 
margin. Even if we regard as proved the contention of Dr 
Salmon that " what Westcott and Hort have restored is the text 
which had the highest authority at Alexandria in the third 
century " i.e. that it is " early Alexandrian," rather than strictly 
" neutral " we may still reasonably prefer this text on the whole 
to any other as a basis for the interpretation of the Gospels. At 
the same time it is desirable that the student should have before 
him materials for forming a judgement upon all important variants, 
or at least discriminating between the principal types of text, 


and explaining to himself the grounds upon which any particular 
reading- is to be preferred. With the view of enabling him to 
do this, I have printed above the commentary an apparatus of 
various readings, largely derived from the apparatus of Tischen- 
dorf s eighth critical edition, which has been simplified and to 
some extent revised and enriched. 

It had been part of my original plan to discuss in additional 
notes and dissertations some of the points raised by this Gospel 
which seemed to require fuller investigation. But as the work 
grew under my hands, it became apparent that this purpose could 
not be carried into effect without unduly increasing the size of 
the volume and at the same time delaying, perhaps for some years, 
the publication of the text and notes. If strength is given to me, 
I hope to return to my task at a future time ; meanwhile I have 
thrown into the form of an Introduction a portion of the materials 
which had been collected, and I trust that the present work may 
be regarded as complete in itself within the narrower limits which 
circumstances have prescribed. 

It would be difficult to overestimate what I owe to the 
kindness of friends. While in each case I am responsible for 
the final form assumed by the text, apparatus, and notes, 
I desire to acknowledge with sincere gratitude the generous 
assistance which has enabled me to make them what they 
are. To the Bishop of Durham I am indebted for permission 
to use the WH. text of St Mark as far as I might find it con 
venient to do so. My colleague, Professor J. Armitage Robinson, 
has supplied me with copious notes upon the readings of the 
Armenian version, and has also frequently verified and corrected 
my references to the Sinaitic Syriac and the other Syriac versions. 
Mr F. C. Conybeare has contributed a photograph of the page of 
an Armenian MS. in which the last twelve verses of the Gospel 
are ascribed to the "presbyter Ariston." From Mr F. C. 
Burkitt I have received much valuable help, especially in the 
earlier chapters of St Mark, in reference to the readings of the 
Old Latin and the treatment of various points connected with 
Syriac and Aramaic words. Mr H. S. Cronin has given me access 
to his yet unpublished collation of the new fragments of cod. N, 
and to the results of a fresh examination of cod. 2 pe ; and through 


the kindness of Mr A. M. Knight I have been permitted to use the 
proof-sheets of a new edition of Field s Otium Norvicense (pt. iii.). 
Not less important service of another kind has been rendered 
by Mr J. H. Srawley, who has revised the proofs and supplied 
materials for the index of subject-matter, and by Dr W. E. 
Barnes, to whom I owe many corrections which have been embodied 
in the sheets or appear in the list of corrigenda. Lastly, it is due 
to the workmen and readers of the University Press to acknow 
ledge their unvarying attention to a work which has necessarily 
made large demands upon their patience and skill. 

Few readers of this book will be more conscious of its short 
comings than the writer is. The briefest of the Gospels is in 
some respects the fullest and the most exacting ; the simplest of 
the books of the New Testament brings us nearest to the feet of 
the Master. The interpreter of St Mark fulfils his office so far 
as he assists the student to understand, and in turn to interpret to 
others, this primitive picture of the Incarnate Life. To do this 
in any high degree demands such a preparation of mind and 
spirit as can rarely be attained; to do it in some measure has 
been my hope and aim. 

Domine Deus...quaecumque dixi in hoc libro de tuo, agnoscant 
et tui ; si qua de meo, et Tub ignosce et tui. 

H. B. S. 

F. of the Name of JESUS, 1898. 




I. Personal History of St Mark xiii 

II. History of the Gospel in the Early Church . . xxix 

III. Place and Time of writing, and Original Language . xxxix 

IV. Vocabulary, Grammar, and Style xliv 

V. Contents, plan, and sources ...... li 

VI. Comparison of St Mark with the other Synoptists . Ixvi 

VII. Use of the Old Testament by St Mark . . . Ixxvi 

VIII. External conditions of the Life of Christ as depicted 

by St Mark Ixxxi 

IX. St Mark s conception of the Person and Office of our 

Lord ......... xc 

X. Authorities for the text ...... xcvi 

XI. Alternative endings of the Gospel .... ciii 

XII. Commentaries cxiv 




FACSIMILE, facing cxi 









I. The Roman praenomen Marcus was in common use among 
Greek-speaking peoples from the Augustan age onwards. The 
inscriptions offer abundant examples from every part of the 
Empire, and from every rank in society. 

The following are examples of the widespread use of the Greek 
name. Attica: CIG 191 ypa/zyaarevs fiovXrjs /cat Srf/Aov M. Ev/capTrtSov 
A?7iaevs. 192 2<?7TTioi... v E7n/yovos Map/cov, iTTTTOKparr/s MapKou. 
254 M. Ava<Avo-Tios. Lydia : 3162 M. ra/xtas. 3440 M^ioves M. /cat 
Mysia : 3664 M. Pov<ov pwmjs. Nubia: 5109 M. o-Tpari- 
Gyrene: 5218 M. Map/cou. Sicily: 5644 Maap*ov vtos Maap- 
Italy: 6155 Maap/cos Kooxrotmos Maap/cov aTrcAeu^epos. The 
last two inscriptions justify the accentuation Map/cos, which has 
been adopted in this edition after Blass : see his comm. on Acts 
xii 25, and his Gramm. d. NTlichen Griechisch, 4. 2. 

In all these instances the name stands by itself in accordance 
with Greek practice. The same is true of its later Christian use ; 
thus we have a Marcus who was the first Gentile Bishop of 
Jerusalem (Aelia), a Marcus who was a Valentinian leader con 
temporary with Irenaeus, and another who was eighth Bishop of 
Alexandria; even at Rome the praenomen occurs as a single 
name in the case of Pope Marcus (f 336). Christian inscriptions 
of the fourth century collected by Prof. Ramsay in the neigh 
bourhood of Laodiceia combusta supply several examples of the 
same kind. 

1 The first two sections of this Intro- from articles published in the Expositor 
duction have been reproduced in part (v. vi. pp. 80 ff., 268 ff.). 


Mitth. d. k. d. arch. Institute (Athen. Abth.) 1888, p. 233 
55 r<5 Tro^etvoraTO) JJLOV vita Map/ca) 7rpo-/3vTpu>. 56 Map/cai 
IlavXa). 6 1 Mapcu> 

In the N.T. the name occurs eight times (Acts xii. 12, 25,xv. 
37, 39, Col. iv. 10, Philem. 24, 2 Tim. iv. 1 1, I Pet. v. 13). In the 
Acts it is the surname of a Jew of Jerusalem whose name was 
John (xii. 12 *\wdvov rov eiTLKakovpevov M.dp/cov, 25 Iwdvrjv rov 
6 r mic\ f r)6evra Mdp/cov, xv. 37 Icodvrjv rov KaXovfJievov [etruc. &$ C CD 
min nonn ] Mdptcov, 39 rov Mdptcov) : the Epistles use Ma/o/eo? by 
itself and without the article, as if it were the only or at least 
the familiar name by which the person to whom they refer was 
known 1 . 

The N. T. bears witness to the readiness of the Palestinian Jew 
to adopt or accept a secondary name, whether of Aramaic or 
foreign origin 2 . Latin names were frequently used in this way, 
whether epithets such as Justus (Acts i. 23), Niger (ib. xiii. i), 
Secundus, xx. 4, cognomina like Paulus, Lucanus, Silvanus, or 
praenomina, of which Caius (Fa^o? Acts xix. 29, Rom. xvi. 23, 
I Cor. i. 14, 3 Jo. i) and Lucius (Acts xiii. i) are examples. 
Marcus is an exact parallel to Caius and Lucius, except that in 
the Acts, where St Mark appears in Jewish surroundings, his 
Jewish name precedes, and the Roman praenomen which he had 
assumed occupies the place of the cognomen. 

For other examples of the use of Marcus as a secondary name see 
Dittenberger inscr. Att. aet. Rom. 1137 Aev/aos d /cat M., Mapa- 
0awos TraparpiT^s, 1142 "AXics o Kat M. XoAAet S^s fyrjfios (time of 
L. Verus and Commodus) ; Ramsay ap. op. cit. 92 Avp. Map/cw. 

2. The mother of John Mark was a Mary who was a member of 
the Church at Jerusalem (Acts xii. 12). She was clearly a woman 
of some means and a conspicuous person in the Christian com 
munity. Her house (rrjv olicLav Map /a-?) 3 is approached by a porch 
(irv\wv) : a slave girl (TraiSicrtcT)), probably the portress (rj Ovpw- 
po9, Jo. xviii. 1 6, 17), opens the door; there is an upper room or 

1 It seems to have been rarely borne same fact see Deissmann, Bibl Studio, 
by Jews; cf. Chase, in Hastings J>. B. (E. T.), p. 314. 

iii., p. 245. s gee foot-notes to Me. xiv. 14, 52. 

2 On the witness of Josephns to the 


guestchamber large enough to receive a concourse of the brethren 
(rjcrav l/cavol <ruvr)0po(,(TfjLvoi). It is to Mary s house that Peter 
naturally turns his steps, when released from prison; he is con 
tent to leave in the hands of the party who are assembled there 
the duty of communicating the tidings of his escape to the rest of 
the Church ( I<z/t&>/3a> KOI rot? aSeX^ot?) 1 . John is not mentioned 
in this narrative, except for the purpose of distinguishing his 
mother Mary from others of the same name ; but it is reasonable 
to suppose that he was present, and that he was already a believer, 
and intimate with St Peter and the heads of the Church at 

Conjecture has connected the name of John Mark with certain 
incidents in the Gospel history. In the Dialogue of Adamantius 
de recta fide (Lommatzsch, xvL 259) we read : Map/cos ovv /cat 

AoVKttS K TtoV e(3Bo/JLT]KOVTa Kttl SvOU> OVTCS IlavXa) T(3 

cv^yyeXtcravTo. Epiphanius (haer. 21. 6) adds: ets 
TWV tfiSofjLiJKovTa Svo T<Zv Sia<TKOp7ri(r$evTa)j 7Tt T<3 p 
d Kvpios Eav ( TIS /u,ov <^o.yrf TTJV arapKa KT\. The statement is 
probably as baseless as many others which are due to that writer ; 
it may be that the reference to Jo. vt 66 has arisen from what 
is said of John Mark in Acts xiii. 13, xv. 38. That he was the 
veaf I O-KOS of Me. xiv. 51! is not unlikely : see note ad loc. Bede s 
supposition that he was a Priest or Levite, which is probably 
borrowed from the conim. of Ps.- Jerome, or from the preface 
to Mark in MSS. of the Yulgate (cf. Wordsworth- White, p. 171 
"Marcus evangelista...sacerdotium in Israhel agens, secundum 
carnem levita "), rests ultimately upon Mark s connexion with the 
Levite Barnabas. 

John was at Jerusalem during the famine of 45-6, when 
Barnabas and Saul visited the city for the purpose of conveying 
to the Church the alms of the brethren at Antioch ; and on their 
return they took him back with them to Syria (Acts xii. 25). He 
may have attracted them as the son of a leading member of the 
Church at Jerusalem, and possibly also by services rendered 
during the distribution of the relief fund which revealed in him a 
capacity for systematic work. If we assume his identity with the 
Mark of St Paul s Epistles, there was doubtless another reason. 
Barnabas was still leader of the Christian body at Antioch ; he 

1 On the interesting traditions con- in this commentary on Me. xiv. 13 ff., 
nectedwith the house of John Mark see 51 f. 
Zahn, Einleitung ii. 212 f., and the note 


had been sent there by the mother Church (Acts xi. 22), and 
Saul s position in the Antiochian brotherhood was as yet 
evidently subordinate (ib. 25, 30, xii. 25, xiii. I f.). It was for 
Barnabas to seek fresh associates in the work, and John was a 
near relative of Barnabas (Col. iv. 10 o dvetyios ~Bapvd/3a l ). 
Whether the father of John had been uncle to Joseph of Cyprus 
(Acts iv. 36), or the mother his aunt, is unknown ; but the re 
lationship accounts for the persistent favour which Barnabas 
extended to Mark. 

Mark s association with the Antiochian leaders was doubtless for 
the purpose of rendering assistance to them in their growing work. 
As Saul had been brought from Tarsus (Acts xi. 25 f.), so Mark 
was now taken from Jerusalem ; the same verb <rvvn-apa\a(3elv is 
used again in xv. 37, 38, and seems distinctly to indicate the 
position which Mark was called to fill that of a coopted colleague 
of inferior rank (cf. Gal. ii. I dveftriv. . .perd T&apvd/Ba Gvvjrapa\a- 
PGDV KOI Ttroi>) 2 . It was natural that when the Holy Spirit 
designated Barnabas and Saul for a new field of work, Mark 
should accompany them. The general character of his duties is 
now expressly stated ; it was personal service, not evangelistic, to 
which he was called (efyov e KOI ^Iwdvrjv vTTTjpeTrjv) 3 . Blass de 
fines this service too strictly when he comments " velut ad bap- 
tizandum 4 " ; Mark may have been required to baptize converts 
(cf. Acts x. 48, I Cor. i. 14), but his work would include all those 
minor details which could safely be delegated to a younger man, 
such as arrangements for travel, the provision of food and lodging, 
conveying messages, negotiating interviews, and the like. 

An examination of the passages where vTnjpeY^s is used in Bib 
lical Greek will shew that the word covers a wide range of offices : 
cf. e.g. Prov. xiv. 35 Se/cros /3acnAet v. vo^/xcui/ (a courtier ; similarly 
Sap. vi. 4, Dan. iii. 46); Mt. v. 25 /Ar/Trore crc TrapaSw o Kpirqs T<3 
(the officer of a court); Me. xiv. 54 o-vv/ca^/xei/os /XCTO, TWV 
(temple police); Lc. i. 2 {iTnype rat yevd/xcvot TOU Xoyou, Acts 

1 On dvefibs see Bp Lightfoot ad loc. was an extra hand, taken by Barnabas 

2 Cf. Ramsay, St Paul the Traveller, and Saul on their own responsibility." 
p. 71 : "he was not essential to the 3 Acts xiii. 5. For virrip^v D reads 
expedition ; he had not been selected by inrr/peTowTi aurots : E substitutes 

the Spirit; he had not been formally jj.eS eavruv ical I. a s d 
delegated by the Church of Antioch ; he 4 Ac*- App., p. 146. 


xxvi. 1 6 vTTTjptTTfjv Kat fjLapTvpa (a person employed in the service of 
the Gospel); Lc. iv. 20 a?roSovs TO> vTnrjpeTrj (the synagogue minister 
or HO) 1 . Official service, not of a menial kind, is the prevalent 
idea of the word which distinguishes it from SovXo? on the one 
hand, and to some extent from Stcwcoi/o? on the other : see Trench, 
syn. 9. epaTrooi/ is similarly used in reference to Joshua (Exod. 
xxxiii. n, LXX.). 

For such forms of ministry John possessed perhaps a natural 
aptitude (2 Tim. iv. 1 1 evxpijcrros els SiaKoviav), and his assistance 
would be invaluable to the two Apostles, whose time was fully 
occupied with the spiritual work of their mission. But it was 
rendered only for a short time. At Perga in Pamphylia he left 
his colleagues, and returned to Jerusalem (Acts xiii. 13 airo^w- 
ptfaas air avrwv vTretrrpe^v els lepocroXuyaa). If St Luke 
records the fact in words which are nearly colourless, the censure 
which he represents St Paul as having subsequently passed upon 
Mark s conduct at this juncture is severe and almost passionate 
(xv. 38 rj^iov TOV anroffTavra CLTT avrcov CLTTO Tla/ju(f)v\ias KOI p,rj 
<rvve\66vTa avrols et<? TO epyov, prj (rvv7rapa\ajjL/3dvei,v TOVTOV). 
Nevertheless, as Professor Ramsay has pointed out 2 , there is some 
thing to be said on Mark s behalf. He was not sent to the work 
by the Spirit or by the Church, as Barnabas and Saul had been. 
The sphere of the mission, moreover, had not been revealed at the 
first ; and when the Apostles determined to leave the seacoast and 
strike across the Taurus into the interior, he may have considered 
himself free to abandon the undertaking. He had left Jerusalem 
I for work at Antioch, and had not engaged himself to face the 
dangers of a campaign in central Asia Minor (2 Cor. xi. 26) ; and 
he may have felt that duty to his mother and his home required 
him to break off at this point from so perilous a development of 
the mission. 

To Barnabas, at any rate, Mark s withdrawal did not appear in 
the light of a desertion, nor was St Paul unwilling to be associated 
with him again in the work at Antioch ; for from Acts xv. 37 it 

1 Dr Chase (in Hastings, D. B. iii. p. John, the synagogue minister." 
245 f.) suggests that the word may be 2 The Church in the Roman Empire, 

used in this sense of John Mark, trans- p. 61 ; St Paul the Traveller, p. 90. 
latiag, "and they had with them also 

P. M. 2 b 


would seem that he was with the Apostles there till the eve of the 
second missionary journey. St Paul, however, declined to accept 
the cousin of Barnabas as a companion in another voyage to Asia 
Minor, and Mark consequently set out with Barnabas alone. 
Whilst Paul went by land through the Cilician Gates, Barnabas 
sailed with Mark to Cyprus. In the first soreness of the separa 
tion each turned to the home of his family. Barnabas was 
KvTrpios TO) 761/et, for Levite though he was, he belonged to a 
Hellenistic family which had settled in the island (Acts iv. 36), 
and Mark was also probably a Cypriot Jew on one side 1 . Un 
fortunately the author of the Acts leaves the two men at this 
point, and there is no early or even moderately trustworthy 
tradition to carry on the thread of Mark s story. The Acts of 
Barnabas ( jreplo^oi Bapvdffa), a work ascribed to St Mark, but 
of the fourth, or, in its present form, the fifth century, represents 
the Apostle as suffering martyrdom in Cyprus, and adds that after 
his death Mark set sail for Egypt, and evangelised Alexandria. 
The book as a whole is quite unworthy of credit, but it is not 
improbable that Mark proceeded from Cyprus to Egypt, whether 
in company with Barnabas or after his death. 

Barnabas was still alive and at work when St Paul wrote i Cor. 
ix. 5 (rj /xoYos eyo> /ecu, Bapva/:?a<? OVK c^o/xev e^ovo-tav pr] epya^ctr^at ;), 
i.e. in A.D. 57, or according to Harnack 52-3. In the Clementine 
Homilies Barnabas is represented as doing evangelistic work in 
Egypt (i. 9 &c.). McGiffert conjectures, but without probability, 
that B. was the author of i Peter, which with Ramsay he places 
in the reign of Domitian (Hist, of Christianity in the Apostolic age, 
p. 59 7ff.). 

A widespread series of traditions connects St Mark with the 
foundation of the Alexandrian Church 2 . According to Eusebius, 
whose statement is possibly based on Julius Africanus or an 
older authority 3 , his first successor in the care of that Church 
was appointed in Nero s eighth year, i.e. A.D. 61-2. If the date 

1 On Jewish settlements in Cyprus andrian Fathers, Clement and Origen, 
ee Schiirer n. ii. pp. 222, 232 (E. T.), make no reference to any sojourn or 
or ed. 3 (1898) iii. p. 27 n. ; and cf. work of Mark in that city." 

Acts xi. 19, 20, xxi. 16. 3 Cf. Lipsius, Die Apocryphen Apostel- 

2 Against this must be placed the fact geschichten, ii. 2, p. 323 ; Harnack, 
to which Chase (Hastings, D. B. ii. 248) Chronologie, p. 123 f. 

<salls attention, that " the great Alex- 


is approximately correct, it may be that of the departure of 
Mark from Alexandria after the completion of his mission there. 
Such a hypothesis helps to account for part at least of the long 
interval between Mark s separation from St Paul and his reappear 
ance in St Paul s company at Rome. 

The following are the chief early authorities: Eus. H.E. ii. 16 
<f>a(rlv 7Ti TT/S AiyvTTTOv crreiXa/xevov TO vayyeXioi> o Srj /cat o~uj/e- 
ypanj/aro Krjpv^cu, e/c/cX^crtas T TT/KOTOV ITT avrvys AXe^avSpa as 
cracrOa.L. Ib. 24 Nepwvos Se oy8oov ayoi/TOS Trjs /Sao-iXetas ero? 
/Ltera Map/cov TOV evayyeXtcrr?i/ r^s ei/ AXeavSpei a 7rapoi/aa? 
T^/ XeiTovpyt av StaS^erat. Cf. Hieron. c?e wrr. -&7 8 "adsumpto 
itaque evangelio quod ipse confecerat 1 perrexit Aegyptum...rnor- 
tuus est autem octavo Neronis anno et sepultus Alexandriae 
succedente sibi Anniano." Const. Ap. vii. 46 T^S 8 AXc^avSpewv 
Avviavos -rrpujTo? VTTO Map/cov TOV evayyeXto-roi; Ke^etpoTo^rat. Epiph. 
haeT. li. 6 o Map/cos... ypai^as TO ei^ayyeXtov aTrocrreXXeTai VTTO TOT) 
aytov IleTpov ets T^V TWV AiyuTTTt cov ^copav. Of. Mart. Rom. (Apr. 25) 
"Alexandriae natalis b. Marci evangelistae... Alexandriae S. Aniani 
episcopi qui b. Marci discipulus eiusque in episcopatu successor... 
quievit in Domino." 

We have assumed the identity of John Mark of the Acts with 
Mark of the Pauline Epistles. It is placed beyond reasonable 
doubt by Col. iv. 10, where St Paul refers in one sentence to the 
relationship which existed between Mark and Barnabas, and the 
hesitation which the Colossians would naturally feel as to receiving 
the man who had forsaken the Apostles on occasion of their first 
visit to Asia Minor (Map/co? o dve^Lo^ Bapvdfia, Trepl ov \d(3ere 
eVroXa? Eaz> e\0y 777309 v/juds, Be^acrde avrov*). Mark, it appears, 
had thought of visiting the Churches of the Lycus valley some 
time before the writing of the Colossian letter, perhaps when he 
was on the point of leaving Cyprus; and St Paul had on that 
occasion sent orders to Colossae that he was to be received. 
There is nothing to shew that the visit took place ; if our 
hypothesis is correct, it was abandoned for the mission to -Egypt. 
The latter was now at an end, and Mark had proceeded to Rome. 

1 An inference from the ambiguous from the imperial city." But it is 

phrase of Eusebius. Bishop J. Words- explained as easily by the constant 

worth (Ministry of Grace, p. 603 f.) sug- communication between the two cities, 
gests that "the close connection of 2 See Lightfoot ad loc.; for 5ecur0e 

Alexandria with Borne " was "due pro- comp. Me. vi. 10, ix. 37, and Didache 

bably at first to the mission of St Mark c. 1 1 . 



There, perhaps to his surprise, he found St Paul a prisoner. A 
complete reconciliation took place, and the vTrrjpeTTjs of the first 
missionary journey became the crvvepyos of the Roman imprison 
ment (Col. iv. n, Philem. 24). The fact is the more remarkable, 
because of all the Jewish Christians in Rome at this time only 
three were loyal to St Paul, Aristarchus, Jesus Justus, and Mark ; 
his other colleagues, Epaphras, Demas, Luke, were Gentiles. The 
Apostle s grief was alleviated by the ministry of his Jewish 
friends (eyevrjOrjo-dv pot, Traprjyopia), and especially no doubt by 
the revival of his old association with Mark. After this Mark 
seems to have returned to the East, for in 2 Tim. iv. 1 1 , Timothy, 
who is apparently at Ephesus (cf. v. 19), is directed to "pick up 
Mark" on his way to Rome (Maptcov avaka^wv aye yitera aeavrov 1 ). 
The reason which is given assigns to Mark his precise place in the 
history of the Apostolic age; he was evxprjo-ros eZ? Siafcovlav. 
Not endowed with gifts of leadership, neither prophet nor teacher, 
he knew how to be invaluable to those who filled the first rank in 
the service of the Church, and proved himself a true servus servo- 
rum Dei. 

Mark s early history had connected him with St Peter, and 
it is therefore no surprise to find him described by St Peter 
(i Pet. v. 13) as his son 2 / The Apostle who had been most 
prominent in the beginnings of the Church of Jerusalem must have 
known Mary and her son John from the time of their baptism, 
and may have been the instrument of their conversion. Yet 
o u/o? IJLOV does not involve spiritual relationship of this kind, 
which is more naturally expressed, as in the Pauline Epistles, by 
TGKVOV (cf. I Cor. iv. 17, Phil. ii. 22, Philem. 10, I Tim. i. 2, 18, 
2 Tim. i. 2, ii. I, Tit. i. 4). Rather it is the affectionate designation 

1 Lightfoot, Biblical Essays, p. 407. likely that any one else would do it 

2 The Petrine authorship of i Peter save Paul himself " ; the epithet is surely 
may be assumed, notwithstanding the at least as appropriate on the lips of St 
recent attempt of Professor McGiffert to Peter. As to the Paulinism of i Peter 
assign that epistle to Barnabas (History see Hort, Romans and Ephesians, p. 169: 
of Christianity in the Apostolic Age, " St Peter makes them [the thoughts de- 
p. 598 ff.). It is difficult to follow him rived from St Paul] fully his own by the 
when he writes (p. 599 f.) : "that Bar- form into which he casts them, a form 
nabas should speak of him (Mark) as for the most part unlike what we find in 
his son was very natural, but it is not any epistle of St Paul." 


of a former pupil, who as a young disciple must often have sat 
at his feet to be catechised and taught the way of the Lord, 
and who had come to look upon his mother s old friend and 
teacher as a second father, and to render to him the offices of filial 

But the Mark of I Peter is not merely described as St Peter s 
son ; he is represented as being with that Apostle at Rome 1 . 

The words are : acnrd&Tai v//,as vj fv Ba/ftAawi trwe/cXe/on; Kat 
s d vtos /AOV. Babylon 7 has been identified with (i) the 
city on the Euphrates, (2) a fortress in Egypt now Old Cairo 2 , 
(3) Rome. The evidence in favour of the last is summarised by 
Lightfoot, Clement, ii. p. 492, Salmon, Introduction to the N.T. 1 , 
p. 439 ff., and Hort, First Epistle of St Peter, p. 5 f.; the first and 
second identifications are without ancient authority, and beset with 
difficulties. Blass (Philology of the Gospels, p. 27 ff.) regards 
St Peter as having proceeded to Babylon from Antioch (Gal. 
ii. n) shortly after A.D. 46. But apart from Strabo s statement 
that Babylon was at this time a desert, which Blass seeks to 
minimise, the facts which Josephus (ant. xviii. 9 sqq.) relates as 
to the condition of the Jews in Babylonia render this hypothesis 
highly improbable. 

According to the constant and probably true tradition which 
brings St Peter to Rome, that Apostle suffered martyrdom there 
in the time of Nero and at the same time as St Paul (Diony- 
sius of Corinth ap. Eus. ii. 25 e/^aprvprja-av Kara TOV avrov 
Xpovov). " The expression (as Lightfoot urges, Clement, ii. p. 499) 
must not be too rigorously pressed, even if the testimony of a 
Corinthian could be accepted as regards the belief in Rome," or, 
we may add, the testimony of a bishop who lived in the latter 
half of the second century as regards matters of fact which belong 
to the history of the first. Lightfoot himself placed the martyrdom 
of St Peter in A.D. 64, and that of St Paul in A.D. 67 ; but if the 
two martyrdoms may be dissociated, it is open to consideration 
whether St Paul s was not the earlier. 

Harnack 3 , who holds that the two Apostles suffered together in 
A.D. 64, refers to Clem. I Cor. 6 TOVTOIS rots avSpda-iv (sc. Iler/xt) /cat 

1 Cf. Jerome de virr. ill 8 "meminit Churton),ii.p.35sf. ; andcf. A. J.Butler, 
huius Marci et Petrus in prima epistula, Ancient Coptic Churches, i. p. 155 ff. 
sub nomine Babylonia figuraliterEomam 3 Chronologic, p. 708 ff. ; cf. C. H. Tur- 
significans." ner, Chronology of the N. T. (in Hastings, 

2 See Pearson s Minor Th. Works (ed. Dictionary of the BiUe). That the 


Tlav\ti)}...crvvr)OpOLcr6r] iroXv 7r\rj6o<s e/cXcKTtov otrives TroXXats awa ais 
Kat fia<rdvoi<s...V7r6$iyiJLa KaXXwrroi eyei/oi/To. But the words of 
Clement do not necessarily imply that the Apostles and the -rroXv 
TrXrjOos suffered at the same time, or that the martyrdom of the 
Apostles took place at the first outbreak of the persecution. Nor 
does the fact that St Peter was believed to have been buried in 
the Vatican amount to a proof that he was among the first 
sufferers. Early as the tradition is (cf. Eus. H.E. ii. 25), it may 
rest upon inference only. 

An examination of I Peter supplies more than one reason for 
believing the Epistle to have been written subsequently to St 
Paul s death, (i) It is addressed to the Christian communities 
of Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, some of which 
were distinctly Pauline Churches and had received letters from 
St Paul during his imprisonment. It was transmitted to them by 
the hands of Silvanus, a well-known colleague of St Paul. It con 
tains reminiscences of two of St Paul s writings, the Epistle to the 
Romans and the Epistle to the Ephesians 1 . The conclusion can 
scarcely be avoided that at the time when it was written St Paul 
had finished his course. The care of the Churches had fallen on 
St Peter; the two oldest associates of St Paul had transferred 
their services to the surviving Apostle ; both had originally been 
members of the Church of Jerusalem, and, when the attraction of 
the stronger personality had been withdrawn, both had returned 
to their early leader. St Peter on his part is careful to shew 
by the character of his letter and by his selection of colleagues 
that he has no other end than to take up and carry on the work of 
St Paul. (2) Further, it has been pointed out by Professor 
Ramsay that I Peter contemplates a state of things in Asia Minor 
which did not exist before A.D. 64, and was hardly realised before 
the middle of the eighth decade of the century 2 . Reasons have 
been advanced for hesitating to push the year of St Peter s death 
so far forwards as 75, or beyond 7O 3 ; but even 68, the last year 

martyrdom of St Peter took place in p. 168; Salmon, Intr. to the N. TJ, p. 

A.D. 64 is also maintained by Chase 4425. 

(Hastings, D. B. iii. 777!); cf. Zahn, 2 The Church and the Empire, p. 

Einleitung, ii. p. 19. 279 ff. Cf. Exp. rv. viii. 285 ff. 

1 Sanday and Headlam, Romans, p. s Dr Sanday in the Expositor, iv. vil. 

Ixxiv. ff. ; Hort, Eomans and Ephesians, p. 411 f. 


of Nero s reign, will leave time for a considerable interval during 
which Mark may have ministered to St Peter at Rome. 

Of the services rendered by Mark to Barnabas or to St Paul 
the tradition of the Church preserves but the faintest traces ; in 
post-canonical Christian writings his name is persistently associ 
ated with St Peter. 

An exception occurs in Const. A p. ii. 57 TO. evayye Ata a...ol 
(rvvep-yol IlavAou TrapetA^orcs KareAeti^av vfjuv Aov/cas Kat MapKos, and 
another in Hipp. haer. vii. 30 TOVTOVS [sc. TOV? Adyovs] ovre IlavAos 
d aVdo-ToAos ovre MapKos...aV?7yyeiAai/. But the former writer has 
perhaps been influenced by the order of the Gospels with which he 
was familiar ; and the latter seems in this passage to have strangely 
confused St Mark with St Luke (see Duncker s note ad loc.). 

3. One of the oldest and most trustworthy of Christian 
traditions represents Mark as St Peter s interpreter, and as the 
author of a collection of memoirs which gave the substance of 
St Peter s teaching. 

The chief authorities are as follows: (i) Asiatic and Western. 
Papias ap. Eus. U.E. iii. 39 Kat toW o TrpecrfivTepos cAeye- Map/<os 
[Av, IpfjLrjvevTrjs IleVpoi; yei/d/xevos, Sera e/xv^/xdvevcrev aKpt/3(3s eypai//v, 
ov fjivroL ra^ei, TO, VTTO TOV ^ptaTOu rj \x@VTa rj Trpa^Ocvra. ovre yap 
ifjKovo-f. TOV Kvptov ovTC TTaprjKoXovO^aev avru) vo-repov 8e, ws c^y, 
IltTpa), os Trpos ras ^petas 67rottTO ras 8t8acrKaAtas, aAA* ov^ wcrTrep 
orvvra^iv rwv Kvpia/<(i3j/ TTOIOV/XCVOS Xdycov. UKTTC ov&ev ^/xaprc Map/cos, 
OUTOOS 4Vta ypai^as ws aTrc/Avry/xdvevorev evos yap CTrotrfcraTO Trpdvoiav, TOV 
p7)$ev <Sv TJKOVO- TrapaXtTreii/ r; i^evVao-^at rt ^ aurots 1 . Iren. iu. I. I 

/A6TO, Sfi T^|V TOVTWV [SC. TOU IleTpOU Kttt TOU IlauXou] ^o8oi/ MSpKOS, 6 

fj,a6r)Trj<; /cat epfjirjvevTr) 1 ; Uerpov, Kat avro? TO, VTro Xlerpou K^pvo~o"d/xeva 
eyypa^tus 7;/xrv 7rapa8e 8a)K. /6. io. 6 Marcus interpres et sectator 
Petri initium evangelicae conscriptionis fecit sic." Fragm. Murat. 
ad init. " [Marcus... (?) ali]quibus tamen interfuit et ita posuit 2 ." 
Tertullian aofo. J/arc. iv. 5 "licet et Marcus quod edidit Petri 
affirmetur, cuius interpres Marcus." (2) Alexandrian. Clement, 
hypotyp. ap. Eus. H.E. vi. 14 TO 8c KaTa Map/cov ravryv cr^r]K- 
vai TT)I/ otKovo/xtav TOV Tlerpov 8r//xoo-ta i/ PwfjLfj Kr)pvavTo<; TOV 
Adyov Kat Trvev/xaTi TO cvayyeAtov e^etTrdvTos TOVS Trapdvras TroAAovs 
ovTas TrapaKaAeaat Toy MapKOV a5 av aKoXovOijo OLVTOi avT<3 TroppiaOev KOLL 
fjifjnnrjfjivov TWV \f.~^Of.vT^v avaypa i^at TO, ctp /y/x.eya, 7rof)fo"a^Ta Se TO 
evayye Atov /xeTa8ovvat Tots Sco/xevois avrov. o?rep CTTtyvdvTa TOV Herpes 
/X7/T6 KwAvcrat /w,^T 7rpOTpei//acr^at. (Of. Eus. ii. 15 yvoWa 

1 For the interpretation of this pas- cfeew Kanons, i. p. 871 ff. ; Link, in 

sage see Westcott, Canon of the N. T. 6 , Studien u. Kritiken, 1896, 3. 

p. 74 f. ; Lightfoot, Supernatural Eeli- 2 Comp. Lightfoot, S. Ji., T p. 205 ff. ; 

gion, p. 163 f. ; Zahn, Gesch. d. NTH- Zahn, op. cit., ii. p. 14 ff. 


Se TO irpayBiv <acri rov aTroo-roXov, a7ro/caXvi//ai/Tos avr<3 TOV 
ya-OrjvaL r-fj rwv dvSpwv 7rpo$u/aia, Kupwo-ai re TT/V ypacftrjv el<s 
TCU? tKKXrjo-iais KA^/x/tys ev CKTO) rwv VTroTVTrooo-ewv 7rapaT0eiTat TT)V 
lo-roptav.) Adumbr. in I Petfr. v. 13: "Marcus Petri sectator 
palam praedicante Petro evangelium Romae coram quibusdam 
Caesareanis equitibus et multa Christ! testimonia proferente, 
petitus ab eis ut possent quae dicebantur memoriae commendare, 
scripsit ex his quae Petro dicta sunt evangelium quod secundum 
Marcum vocitatur." Origen ap. Eus. vi. 25 Sevrepoi/ B \ru>v recr- 
crapwv evayyeXtW] TO KaTa Map/cov <os IleTpos v^ryy^o-aTO avraJ 
TTonfo-avTa. Jerome gathers up the substance of the traditions 
recorded by Papias and Clement (de virr. ill. 8); but elsewhere 
he follows Origen (see p. xxi). 

It will be observed that while the two lines of tradition have I 
much in common, they are by no means identical, and probably j 
depend on sources partly or wholly distinct. The Asiatic I 
tradition goes behind St Mark s work as an Evangelist, and I 
describes the nature of his services to St Peter. He had been the I 
Apostle s interpreter. According to its usual meaning in later 
Greek, the eppfjvevr^ is the secretary or dragoman who translates 
his master s words into a foreign tongue 1 . 

Thus when Joseph as an Egyptian prince communicates with his 
brethren from Palestine he uses the services of an interpreter 
(Gen. xlii. 23 6 yap ep/x^vcurjys ava /xecror avrwv yv). St Paul directs 
that the gift of tongues shall not be exercised in Christian 
assemblies unless there be an interpreter at hand (i Cor. xiv. 28 
lav Se jjir] rj Step/x-T/veuT^s (v.l. cp/A^vevT^ s), o-tyaT<o ev rf) 

Now John Mark had enjoyed opportunities of becoming a 
serviceable interpreter to an Aramaic-speaking Jew. As a resident 
in Jerusalem he was familiar with Aramaic ; as a Jew who on one 
side at least was of Hellenistic descent, he could doubtless make 
himself understood in Greek. His Graeco-Latin surname implies 
something more than this ; he had probably acquired in Jerusalem 
the power of reading and writing the Greek which passed current 
in Judaea and among Hellenistic Jews. Simon Peter on the other 
hand, if he could express himself in Greek at all, could scarcely 
have possessed sufficient knowledge of the language to address 
a Roman congregation with success. In the phrase e 

1 For a different view see Zahn, Einleitung, ii. pp. 209, 218 ff. 


Herpov 76^0/^6^05 we catch a glimpse of St Mark s work at Rome 
during St Peter s residence in the city 1 . 

The traditions differ also as to some important points con 
nected with the origin of the Gospel. Papias suggests and 
Irenaeus expressly says that it was written after St Peter s death ; 
Clement of Alexandria on the other hand states that the Apostle 
knew and permitted or even approved the enterprise. He adds 
that Mark wrote at the request of the Roman hearers of St Peter; 
but this feature in the story bears a suspicious resemblance to 
the account which the Muratorian fragment gives and Clement 
repeats in reference to the Gospel of St John. On the whole, 
notwithstanding St Mark s Alexandrian connexion, the Alexandrian 
tradition appears to be less worthy of credit than the Asiatic. 
Clement indeed attributes it to "the elders of olden time" (rrapd- 
Soaiv TWV dvetcaOev Trpeo-fivrepcov re6eirai\ meaning probably 
Pantaenus and others before him. But it must have passed 
through several hands before it reached Clement, whereas the 
statement of Papias came from a contemporary of St Mark 2 . 

John the presbyter, on whose witness Papias relies, describes 
the character of St Mark s work with much precision. It was not 
an orderly or a complete account of the Lord s words or works. 
Mark had no opportunity of collecting materials for such a 
history, for he had not been a personal follower of Christ, and 
depended upon his recollections of St Peter s teaching ; and that 
teaching was not systematic, but intended to meet the practical 
requirements of the Church. On the other hand there was no 
lack of industry or of accuracy on the part of the Evangelist ; he 
was careful to omit nothing that he had heard and could recall, 
and in what he recorded he kept strictly to the facts. It will be 
observed that John does not describe St Mark s work as a Gospel. 

1 Jerome ad Hedib. n suggests that assuredly not the interpreter who sup- 

St Peter may have employed more than plied the Epistle with its Greek dress. 
one interpreter, basing his belief on the 2 The Alexandrian elders were so im- 

differences of style which distinguish perfectly informed as to the relative age 

I and 2 Peter ("ex quo inteUegimus pro of the Gospels _that according to Euse- 

necessitate rerum diversis eum usum bius (H. E. vi. 14) they held irpoye- 

interpretibus"). The argument applies ypd^ai r&v ciayye\luv T& 

with greater force to i Peter as com- rds 
pared with St Mark ; the evangelist was 


It was a record of St Peter s teaching or preaching (rrjs 
Kdklas, cf. Iren. I.e. ra VTTO Uerpov KypvavofLeva). "Yet it was 
certainly limited to the Apostle s reminiscences of the ministry of 
Christ (ra viro rov %pt(TTOV rj Xe^tfeWa TJ Trpax^evra), and thus 
in its general scope answered precisely to the book which was 
afterwards known as vayye\iov Kara Mdp/cov. Later forms of 
the story exaggerate St Peter s part in the production. Even 
Origen seems to represent the Apostle as having personally con 
trolled the work (005 Herpos v^rjyijcraTo avrw), whilst Jerome 
(ad Hedib.) says that the Gospel of St Mark was written " Petro 
narrante et illo scribente." 

The subscriptions which are appended to St Mark s Gospel 
in certain cursive MSS. enter into further details, e.g. 293 
subscr. ypd<f>r) tSto^etpws avrov TOV ayuov Map/ccw... /cat Z&SoOrj 
Trapa nrpov...TOts iv Pw/xr; overt Trttrrots aSeA<ois. Others add 
v-rrrjyoptvOr] (or ^LrjyopfvOrj) VTTO Tlerpov, or 7T$6Qr) MapKu) T<3 I 
evayytXicrrr]. On the other hand the subscriptions to the versions 
recognise Mark s authorship without mention of St Peter : e.g. 
" explicit evangelium secundum Marcum " (Latin Vulgate) ; ev- 

7COHC Kd,T^ Md,pKon (Memph.); ^_a 

(Sin. ajid Cur. Syriac) ; 

(Peshitta; similarly Harclean). The last of these seems to be 
an attempt to combine the Papias tradition with the ordinary 
attribution to Mark ; the Gospel is a record of preaching at 
Home, but the preaching is Mark s and not St Peter s. 

4. One personal reminiscence of St Mark survives in a few 
authorities of Western origin. According to Hippolytus (Philos. 
vii. 30) he was known as 6 /co\o/3o$dfCTv\os, and the epithet is 
repeated and explained in the Latin prefaces to the Gospel. A 
Spanish MS. of the Vulgate, cod. Toletanus (saec. Viil), says: "colo- 
bodactilus est nominatus ideo quod a cetera corporis procerita- 
tem (sic) digitos minores habuisset 1 "; whilst the ordinary Vulgate 
preface states that the Evangelist after his conversion amputated 
one of his fingers in order to disqualify himself for the duties of 
the Jewish priesthood ("amputasse sibi post fidem pollicem dicitur 
ut sacerdotio reprobus haberetur"). The explanation is ingenious, 

1 Wordsworth and White, p. 171. 


but it is evidently based upon the conjecture that Mark, like 
Barnabas, belonged to the tribe of Levi. An attempt was made 
by Dr Tregelles 1 to shew that the word is used by Hippolytus as 
an equivalent for deserter/ in reference to Mark s departure from 
Perga. But this account of the matter can hardly be regarded as 
satisfactory ; it is far-fetched at the best ; and so offensive a 
nickname is not likely to have attached itself to the Evangelist in 
Roman circles, where he was known as St Paul s faithful colleague. 
The word itself determines nothing as to the cause of the defect, 
or its extent ; it may have been congenital, or due to accident ; it 
may have affected both hands or all the fingers of one hand or one 
finger only 2 . The preface in cod. Toletanus seems to ascribe it to 
a natural cause. No authority c%n be allowed to a document of 
this kind, but the statement is not in itself improbable ; at all 
events there seems to be no reason for setting aside the literal 
meaning of the word, or for doubting that it describes a personal 
peculiarity which had impressed itself on the memory of the 
Roman Church. Such a defect, to whatever cause it was due, 
may have helped to mould the course of John Mark s life ; by 
closing against him a more ambitious career, it may have turned 
his thoughts to those secondary ministries by which he has ren 
dered enduring service to the Church. 

KoXo/3os is either (i) of stunted growth, or (2) mutilated. Both 
senses occur when the word is used as part of a compound; the 
former appears in KoXofiavOrjSj KoAo/Jo/ce/Daros, KoXo^or/aa^Xo?, the 
latter in /coA.o/3o/cep/cos (Lev. xxii. 23 LXX., where it is coupled with 
Ko\oj36pw (Lev. xxi. 1 8) ; cf. 2 Regn. iv. 1 2 Ko\o/3ovo-Lv 
aura>i> KCU rovs TroSas avrwv. 

As to the time and manner of St Mark s death we have no 
trustworthy information. Jerome, as we have seen, fixes his 
death in the eighth year of Nero, at Alexandria ; but the state 
ment seems to be merely an unsound inference from the Eusebian 
date for the succession of Annianus. The Paschal Chronicle 
assigns to Mark the crown of martyrdom 3 , but the story cannot be 

1 Journal of Classical and Sacred to some mutilation or malformation of 
Philology, 1855, p. 224 f. the toes, resulting in lameness." 

2 Dr Chase (in Hastings, D. B. iii. p. s Chron. Pasch. : iirl TOIJTOV rov Tpcua- 
247) suggests that " the word may refer vov KO.I MapKos o evayyeXurTys ical eiri- 



traced back further than the fourth or fifth century, when it is 
found in the Acts of Mark, an apocryphon of Alexandrian origin 1 ; 
the particulars as they were elaborated at a later time may be 
seen in Nicephorus, or in the Sarum lections for his festival 2 . No 
reference is made to the fact in the prefaces to the Vulgate, 
or by Jerome, though he relates that Mark was buried at 
Alexandria 3 . 

Mark with the Church of Aquileia and 
the translation of his body to Venice 
see the Acta Sanctorum (Apr. 25), and 
as to the latter point cf. Tillemont, 
Memoires, ii. pp. 98 f., 513; Lipsius, 
op. cit., p. 346 ff. On the mission to 
Aquileia Ado of Vienne (t 874) writes 
Chron. vi., Migne P. L. cxxui. col. 78) : 
Marcus evangelista evangelium quod 
Romae scripserat Petro mittente primum 
Aquileiae praedicavit, Ae- 
gyptum pervenit." The extension of the 
older story (Eus. JET. E. ii. 16) in this 
passage is instructive. The mosaic at 
St Mark s, Venice, which represents the 
removal of the Evangelist s body is 
described by Ruskin, St Mark s Rest, 
p. 109 ff. ; for his account of St Mark s 
see Stones of Venice, ii. p. 56 ff. 


1 See Lipsius, Apostelgescli. ii. 2 
321 ff. 

2 Niceph. Call. H. E. ii. 43 els 
A\ej-dvdpeiai> ir&Kiv 1-jra.vei.ffLV, orrov 
ras dia.Tpi(3as irot-o^^evos fjv ev rots 
K\OV 6vofj.aofj(.evois /jierd TIVWV dde 
irappriaiq, rbv "xpiGrbv Krjptiffffuv. ol 
vvv rCjv el&<j3\<j}v Oepairevral 

is TOI>S ?r6i 

el\ov . . . oijrd) dy <rvp6- 
rb irveviMO. iraparLdrfoi r$ deip. 
Procter and Wordsworth, Sanctorale, 
col. 262 f. The day of his martyrdom 
was Pharmouthi 30 in the Egyptian 
Kalendar, and vin Kal. Mai = Apr. 28 in 
the Roman (Lipsius, op. cit., p. 335). 

3 For the traditional connexion of St 






I. A work which was ascribed by contemporaries to a dis 
ciple and interpreter of St Peter, and believed to consist of carefully 
registered reminiscences of the Apostle s teaching, might have 
been expected to find a prompt and wide circulation in Christian 
communities, especially at Rome and in the West, where it is said 
to have been written. Yet the letter addressed to the Corinthian 
Church by Clement of Rome, c. A.D. 95, contains no certain refer 
ence to the Gospel according to St Mark, although it quotes 
sayings which bear a close affinity to the Synoptic record. 

Clem. R. I Cor. 23, vrpwrov /xev <uAAoppoet, eTra j3Xa.<rro<s yiWrou, 
ctra </>uA.Aov...eiTa arracfrvX.}) TrapecrT^/cwa, reminds the reader of 
Me. iv. 28, 29; but the passage in Clement is part of a quotation 
(cf. ypa.(f>r]...oTrov Xeyet) which occurs again in Ps.-Clem. 2 Cor. n 
and appears to be derived from some Christian apocryphon (cf. 
Lightfoot ad loc.), so that the reference, if there be any, is 
indirect. In Clem, i Cor. 1 5, OUTOS 6 Xao? rots x f ^ (rlv /* TL l Ji ^) tf & 
/capSia avrajv Troppco aTrcortv ctTr e/x,ov, Isa. xxix. 13 is cited in words 
which are nearer to Me. vii 6 than to the LXX., but the quotation 
is given by Mt. in an almost identical form, and Clement (cod. A) 
differs from both Evangelists and from the LXX., writing aTrecmv 
for aTre xei. The passage had probably (Hatch, Essays, p. 177 f.) 
been detached from its context and abbreviated by some compiler 
of testimonia before the middle of the first century, and, if so, no 
argument can be built upon the general coincidence of the form 
used by Clem, with that which appears in Me. Ib. i Cor. 46, oval 
T<3 av0pa>7ra> eKetVo) KaXov yv auraJ et ov/c eycvi/r/^, agrees fairly well 
with Me. xiv. 21, but still more exactly with Mt. xxvi. 24, and 
may have been cited from a pre- evangelical tradition. 

The same may be said of the writings of Ignatius, Polycarp, 
and Barnabas. Bishop Westcott, after a careful examination, 
arrives at the conclusion that "no Evangelic reference in the 


Apostolic Fathers can be referred certainly to a written record 1 ." 
Yet these writers with Clement represent the chief centres of 
both East and West Rome, Antioch, Smyrna, and perhaps 
Alexandria. If we add other documents of the same period 
the Didache, the so-called second Epistle of Clement, the Epistle 
to Diognetus, the martyrdom of Polycarp, the fragments of Papias 
and the Elders the general result will not be different 2 . On the 
other hand the Shepherd, which is the next document emanating 
from the Roman Church, and cannot be placed later than A.D. 156, 
while it may possibly belong to the first years of the second 
century, seems clearly to shew the influence of the second Gospel. 

Herm. sim. ix. 20 ot TOIOVTOI ovv Svcr/coAtos eto-eAevcrovTai ets 
rrjv /?acriAetav TOV 0eov...Tots TotovVots 8vcr/coXov ecrriv ets T. /?. 
r. 0. eto-eA.0eu/ (cf. Me. x. 23, 24; Mt. has merely 7r\ovcno<s eto-eAev- 
o-eTai ets T. ft. TOJI/ ovpavwv, and Lc. drifts further away from the 
Marcan form of the saying). Ib. mand. ii. 2 ei/o^os ea-y r^s d/zapTt as 
(cf. Me. iii. 29). On the general question as to the use of our four 
Gospels by Hermas see Dr C. Taylor, Witness of Hermas, p. 5 ff. 

In Justin, again, we have an echo of Christian opinion at 
Rome, and though the point is open to dispute, there is ground 
for believing that he not only refers to the second Gospel, but 
identifies it with the " memoirs of Peter." 

Dial. 1 06 TO etTretv /xercovo/AaKei/at avrov He rpov eVa TWV aTrooroAeoi/ 
/cat yeypa<$eu ev rots aTro/xvry/Aovev/xacrtv CLVTOV yeyevT^eVov /cat TOVTO 
jjira rov KOL aAAovs Suo a3eA.</>ovs vtovs Ze/3eS(Hou ovras /jtercovoyLtaKe 
ovofJidTi TOV Boai/epyes, o Icrnv vtot ySpoi/r^s, (Ttq^vriKOV 3\v rov 

CLVTOV Ktl/OV St" OV Kttt TO CTTCOl/V/AOV ittKO)/? TO) Icrpa^X e7Tt/<A.^^e 

It is clear from this that Justin knew certain ATTO/X 

HeVpov which contained the words oj/o/xa Boai/epyes, o 
vtot /3povT?7s, or their substance. But the actual words occur 
in Me. iii. 17, and in no other evangelical record 3 . The assump 
tion that they were borrowed not from our second Gospel but 
from Pseudo-Peter appears to be arbitrary, notwithstanding the 
support of some great names (Harnack, Bruckstucke d. Ev. d. 
PetruSj p. 37 ff., and Sanday, Inspiration, p. 310). A second 
reference to Me. has been found in Dial. 88 TeWovos vo/x,to/x,eVov 

1 Canon of the N. T. 6 , p. 63. possibly a reminiscence of the saying in 

2 Ignatius has^(J^- 16) the Marcan Me. ix. 35, tffTai...iravTwv 5idicoi>os, but it 
phrase rb irvp rb acr/3e0Toj , out cf. Mt. iii. is too uncertain to establish direct in- 
i?=Lc. iii. 17 ; all the passages rest on debtedness. 

Isa. Ixvi. 24. In Polyc. Philipp. 5 (TOV 3 See the writer s Akhmim Fragment, 

Kvplov 6s eytvero didicovos Trdvruv) there is p. xxxiii. ff. ; J. Th. St. ii. p. 6 ff. 


(Me. vi. 3); other passages might be quoted, but they relate to 
contexts which are common to Me. and Mt. or Lc., or to the 
non-Marcan verses xvi. 9 20 (see Intr. xi.). 

Meanwhile the Gospel was known and used by more than one 
of the earlier Gnostic sects, and in other heretical circles both in 
East and West. 

Thus Heracleon (ap. Clem. Al. strom. iv. 72) in a catena of 
extracts from the Synoptic Gospels cites Me. viii. 38 ; cf. Zahn, 
Gesch. d. NTlichen Kanons, i. p. 741 f. Irenaeus (i. 3. 3) refers 
fco the use of Me. v. 31 by a Yalentinian school, and Me. i. 13 
is distinctly quoted by the Eastern Yalentinians, Clem. exc. 85 
(avTi/ca 6 /cvpios /xera TO /3a7TTto-/xa ytVerai 7rpa>TOi> fjiera Orjpiwv iv 
Tfl ep?7/x,a)). A Docetic sect mentioned by Irenaeus manifested a 
preference for the Second Gospel (iii. n. 7 "qui autem lesum 
separant a Christo et impassibilem perseverasse Christum passum 
autem lesum dicunt, id quod secundum Marcum est praeferentes 
evangelium "). But a mistake may perhaps lurk in this state 
ment. Basilides, we know (Clem, strom. vii. 17), professed to have 
received instruction from one Glaucias, who is styled an interpreter 
of Peter. If this Gnostic rival of St Mark wrote a Gospel, it is 
possible that the words of Irenaeus refer to the Gnostic Gospel, 
and not to the true St Mark. In Pseudo-Peter there are distinct 
indications of the use of St Mark (Akhmim Fragment, p. xL). 
The Ebionite Clementine Homilies also shew an acquaintance 
with it, e.g. xix. 20 rot? avrov /ACETOUS KO.T tScav Trjs r<Zv 
ovpavuv /3a<TiAei as {AvoT^ pta (Me. iv. 34) ; a reference to Me. xii. 
29 in horn. iii. 51 is less certain, but probable (cf. Sanday, Gospels 
in the second century, p. 177 f.). Hippolytus (phil. vii. 30) 
strangely represents St Mark s Gospel as forming part of the 
canon of Marcion 1 . But apart from Marcion the Second Gospel 
seems to have found no opponents in early Christian communities, 
heretical or catholic. 

The early circulation of St Mark s Gospel is further attested by 
its place among the primary Gospels, which were regarded, perhaps 
before the middle of the second century, as a sacred quaternion. 

This idea is first expounded by Irenaeus iii. n. 8 eVetS?/ re 
K\Lfj.ara TOV /cooyxov ei> a> eoyAev t<7t Kat rca-crapa KaOoXiK 
Kareo-Traprat Se 77 cK/cA^crta CTTI Trcurty? njs yr7S...eiKOTO)? (consequens est) 
recrcrapas ^X et>/ a ^ r *7 1 CJTV A.OVS . . . e wv <j>avf.pov on 6 T&V a7ravT<t)i> 

6 KaOljfJLVO<S 7Tt TtOV ^(pOV/3lfJi KO.I (TVVe^tDV TO, 7TO.VTa, 

rots di/^pw7rots IScu/cei/ yjfjuv rerpa/xop^ov TO tvayyiXiov 
(quadriforme evangelium}, evt Se TrvevfJMn o-we^o/Aevov. But the 
conception of a TTpa/xop^)ov evayyeAcov does not seem to have 

1 Marcion was probably acquainted with St Mark (cf. Westcott, Canon 6 , 
p. 316 n. ; Zahn, Geschichte, p. 675). 


originated with the Bp of Lyons. Dr C. Taylor ( Witness of Hermas, 
i. passim] with much probability traces it to Hernias, i.e. to 
the generation before Irenaeus. Between Hermas and Irenaeus 
we have the witness of Tatian, whose Diatessaron reveals the fact 
that the four Gospels which had received general recognition were 
none other than those of the present canon. Moreover there is 
reason to believe (J. R. Harris, Diatessaron, p. 56) that Tatian s 
Harmony was not the first attempt of its kind; certainly the 
harmonising of portions of the Synoptic narrative appears to 
have begun before his time. 

If it be asked why St Mark s Gospel took its place among the 
four, the answer must be that in the belief of the post- Apostolic 
Church it was identified with the teaching of St Peter. It did not ji 
appeal in any special manner to the interests of the Ancient 
Church, or, like the first and fourth of our Gospels, bear an 
Apostolic name. It was saved from exclusion, and perhaps from 
oblivion, by the connexion of its writer with St Peter. Thus its 
position in the primitive canon bears witness to a general and I 
early conviction that it was the genuine work of the interpres 

In Irenaeus the identification of the work of St Mark with the j 
Second Gospel is formal and complete. The great Bishop of 
Lyons is "the first extant writer in whom, from the nature of 
his work, we have a right to expect explicit information on the j 
subject of the Canon 1 ," and he does not disappoint our expectations jl 
here. He quotes our Gospel repeatedly, he quotes it as St Mark s, J 
and he declares the author to have been St Peter s disciple and 

Iren. iii. 10. 6 "Marcus interpres et sectator Petri initium evan- i 
gelicae conscriptionis fecit sic : initium evangelii lesu Christi filii 
Dei" etc. (Me. i. i 3). Elsewhere Irenaeus quotes verbatim 
Me. i. 24 (iv. 6. 6), v. 31 (i. 3 . 3 ), 4 i, 43 ( v . 13. i), viii. 31 (iii. 
16. 5), 38 (iii 1 8. 6), ix. 23 (iv. 37. 5), 44 (ii. 32. i), x . 3 8 
(i. 21. 3), xiii. 32 (ii. 28. 6), xvi. 19 (iii. 10. 6). The last of these 
passages shews that the Gospel as he possessed it included the 
supplementary verses, and that he attributed the whole to Mark : 
"in fine autem evangelii ait Marcus Et quidem Dominus lesus, 
postquam locutus est eis, receptus est in caelum, et sedet ad dexteram. 

1 Lightfoot, Supernatural Religion, p. 271. 


The century ends with the witness of an anonymous Roman 
writer, the author of the so-called Muratorian fragment, and that 
of Tertullian, who represents the belief of the daughter Church of 

The Muratorian writer recognised four Gospels ("tertio secun- 
dum Lucam . . . quarti evangeliorum lohannis"), and the single line 
which is all that remains of his account of St Matthew and 
St Mark doubtless refers to St Mark. The words are quibus 
tamen interfuit et ita posuit. Quibus may be regarded as the 
second half of aliquibus, the first two syllables having perished 
with the preceding leaf of the MS., or quibus tamen may represent 
ots Se in the Greek original 1 . The sentence cannot mean that 
St Mark was on certain occasions a personal attendant on our 
Lord, as the next sentence (" Lucas... Dorninum... nee ipse vidit 
in carne ") 2 clearly shews, and must therefore refer to St Peter s 
teaching 3 , which Mark reported carefully so far as he had oppor 
tunity. This may be either a reminiscence of the words of 
Papias (ovSei/ ^aprc MapKos, OV TOOS evict ypa^a? <Js aTre/ii/^/zo- 
vevo-ev), or part of an independent Roman tradition. In either 
case it is important as evidence of Roman opinion at the end of 
the second century. 

Tertullian s belief is clearly shewn in adv. Marc. iv. 2, 5 " nobis 
fidem ex apostolis loannes et Matthaeus insinuant, ex apostolicis 
Lucas et Marcus instaurant... licet et Marcus quod edidit Petri 
affirmetur, cuius interpres Marcus." His references to Mark are 
few, but some of them at least admit of no doubt ; they will be 
found in Ronsch, d. N. T. Tertullians, p. 148 ff. 

From the end of the second century the literary history of 
St Mark is merged in that of the canon of the Four Gospels. 
The Gospel according to Mark holds its place in all ancient 
versions of the New Testament and in all early lists of the 
canon. No voice was raised against its acceptance; East and 
West, Catholics and heretics, tacitly recognised its authority. 
The evidence comes from all the great centres of Christian life ; 
from Edessa and Antioch, from Jerusalem and Asia Minor, from 
Alexandria and the banks of the Nile, as well as from Rome, 
Carthage, and Gaul. 

The Gospel according to St Mark was contained in the Old 
Syriac version (it appears in both the Curetonian and Sinaitic 

1 So Chase in Hastings, D. B. iii. p. tung, ii. pp. 200, 201. A later tradition 

247. represented St Mark as one of the 

* Lightfoot, 8. R. p. 271. Seventy (Adamant. Dial. p. 10 (ed. 

* See on the other hand Zahn,Einlei- Bakhuyzen), Epiph. haer. 51 6). 

S. M. 2 C 


texts), in the Egyptian versions, both Bohairic and Sahidic, and 
in the oldest forms of the Old Latin. It finds a place in all the 
catalogues which enumerate the Gospels, both Eastern and Western 
(see Westcott, Canon, app. D; Preuschen, Analecta, p. 138 ff.). 

2. But while no doubts are expressed by any early writer as 
to the genuineness of St Mark, it cannot be denied that the Gospel 
received comparatively little attention from the theologians of th 
ancient Church. This relative neglect is noticeable from the very 
first. It has been pointed out that with the exception of Hernias 
the Apostolic fathers contain no clear reference to St Mark, and 
that their quotations as a whole are in closer agreement with thel 
first Gospel than with the second 1 . But it is doubtful whether . 
the earliest post-apostolic writers of the Church made use of 
written Gospels at all. Papias expresses the general feeling of the 
age which succeeded the Apostles when he records his preference! 
for "the living voice, * i.e. the oral testimony of the elders who yet , 
survived from the first generation ; even the Memoirs of St Peter 
would not be widely used so long as the stream of oral tradition 
continued to flow. This consideration may serve to account for 5 
the absence of quotations from St Mark in such writers as Clement 
of Rome and Ignatius of Antioch. It is less easy to explain the 
apparent neglect of this Gospel long after it had taken its place in 
every Greek codex of the Gospels and in every version of the New 
Testament. The commentator known as Victor of Antioch, a 
compiler whose date is certainly not earlier than the fifth century, 
complains that, while St Matthew and St John had received the 
attention of a number of expositors, and St Luke also had 
attracted a few, his utmost efforts had failed to detect a single 
commentary upon St Mark. 

Victor, hypoth. : TroAAoov ets TO Kara MaT^cuov /cat eis TO KOTO, 
Iwavv?7V...cnn TaavTUM> VTro/xv^/xara, oAtyoov ets TO Kara AovKav, 
ovSevos oe oAws, 005 ot/xat, cts TO Kara Map/cov e^m/T^a ayAei ou, CTTCI 
ju^Sc /u-eXP 1 T^/xepov d/of/coa KOL TOVTO TroAvTrpay/xov^o-as Trapa TO>I> 
<nrov$r)v 7roiov/x,cVo>v TO, TOOV ap^atoTe/owv crvvdyeiv Trov^/xara /crA. 

1 Sir J. C. Hawkins (Hor. Syn. p. 179) the purposes of catechetical or other 

finds a correspondence between " the de- teaching." Traces of such adaptation 

gree of familiarity with the language of are fewest in St Mark, and this fact 

the three Gospels which appears to have suggests a reason for the comparative 

existed among Christians" and the re- neglect of St Mark in the sub-apostolic 

lative adaptation of the Gospels "for age. 



The cause is doubtless partly to be sought in the prestige 
attaching to the first Gospel, which was regarded as the im 
mediate work of an Apostle, and the greater fulness of both 
St Matthew and St Luke. St Mark offered, after all, merely a 
disciple s recollections of his master s teaching. There was little 
in St Mark which was not to be found in St Matthew or St Luke, 
or in both. Moreover, St Mark was believed even by Irenaeus 
to have been written after St Matthew ; and from this view men 
passed by easy steps to the conclusion that the second Gospel 
was a mere abridgement of the first. 

Iren. iii. I. I 6 /xci/ STJ Margate?... ypcu>}v e^vcy/cei/ evayyeAiov TOV 
Tltrpov /cat TOV IlavAov cv Pco/XTy euayyeAio/Aeva)v.../u,Ta Se rrjv TOVTCOV 
!oSov MapKos KT\. Victor, hypoth. icrreov OTL /xera Mar^atov Map/cos 
6 evayyeXttmJs <rvyypa<^V Trotetrat. Aug. de cons. evv. i. 3, 4 " isti 
quatuor evangelistae...hoc ordine scripsisse perhibentur : primum 
Matthaeus, deinde Marcus... Marcus eum subsecutus tanquam 
pedissequus et breviator eius videtur. cum solo quippe loanne 
nihil dixit, solus ipse perpauca, cum solo Luca pauciora, cum 
Matthaeo vero plurima et multa paene totidem atque ipsis verbis 
sive cum solo sive cum ceteris consonante." 

I Such an estimate of St Mark was sufficient to counterbalance the 
weight which was attached to this Gospel as the work of St Peter s 

Something may be learnt as to the relative importance of the 
[Gospels in the judgement of the Ancient Church from the order 
[in which they are placed in catalogues and MSS. The two 
>rincipal groupings are as follows : 

(1) Mt. Me. Lc. Jo. (or Mt. Me. Jo. Lc.); 

(2) Mt. Jo. Lc. Me. (or Jo. Mt. Lc. Me., or Jo. Mt. Me. Lc., or 
[t. Jo. Me. Lc. 1 ). 

le first is that of nearly all the Greek MSS. and of the great 
ajority of the catalogues and ecclesiastical writers, and in its 
mdary form it appears in the Curetonian MS. of the Old 
tyriac, and in the Cheltenham list. The second is the order of 

1 Gregory, Prolegomena, p. 137 f. ; siaster and the list of the Sixty Books 

anday, Studio, Biblica, iii. p. 259 f. ; have Mt. Lc. Me. Jo., where the Apos- 

lestle, Textual Criticism of the N.T. tolic Gospels are placed first and last, 

(E. T.), p. 161 f. The O. L. MS. k has but Me. retains its usual Western posi- 

i order Jo. Lc. Me. Mt., whilst Ambro- tion. 


the Gospels in Codex Bezae and one Greek cursive, in certain Old 
Latin MSS. (a b e f ff q r), the Gothic version and the Apostolical 
Constitutions, in the Latin stichometry of Codex Claromontanus, 
in Tertullian, and in the vocabularies of the Egyptian versions. 
Each of these groupings rests upon an intelligible principle. The 
second, which embodies the original order of the West (cf. Tert. 
adv. Marc. I.e.), places in the first pair the Gospels which were 
ascribed to Apostles, and after them those which were the work 
of followers of the Apostles. The first, which ultimately prevailed 
in the West as well as in the East, arranges the four according to 
the supposed ordo scribendi\ In both the relative inferiority of 
St Mark is apparent; in (i) he follows Mt. as his pedissequus ; in 
(2) he is preceded not only by the two Apostles, but usually also 
by St Luke. The two exceptions are probably due to a mixture of 
(2) with (i); the scribe began with the Western order, but when 
he reached the apostolici, he reverted to the customary arrange 
ment, in which Mark precedes Luke according to the order of 
time 2 . 

Another indication of the attitude of the ancient Church 
towards the Gospel of St Mark is to be found in the distribution 
of the evangelical symbols among the Four Evangelists. From 
the time of Irenaeus the four Gospels were associated in Christian 
thought with the four Cherubim of Ezekiel, and the correspond 
ing &>a of the Apocalypse. Irenaeus (iii. n. 8) quotes the 
Apocalypse only, but he calls the living creatures Cherubim, 
and refers to Ps. Ixxix. (Ixxx.) 2 LXX. (6 Kadrfiievos eVl rwv 
^epovj^eifju, 6fj,(f)dv7)()t,). It is the Eternal Word, he says, Who 
sits upon the Cherubim, and their four aspects represent His 
fourfold manner of operation (irpay^aTeia, dispositio) ; the lion 
answers to His royal office and sovereign authority and executive 
power (TO e/jLTrpafcrov avrov teal tfye/JLOvi/cov /cal fiacrCKiicov) ; the 

1 Cf. Clem. Al. in Eus. H. E. vi. 14. 1456, give the same order. It may have 

2 The Eev. H. T. Tilley informs me come from the Commentary on the 
that in the tower of Wolston Church near Apocalypse which is printed under the 
Rugby there is a fifteenth century bell name of Victorinus of Pettau, where the 
which bears the inscription + MAECVS Evangelists are mentioned in this order 
MATHEVS . LVCAS IOHES, and that some (Migne, P. L. v., col. 324). 

tiles at Malvern Priory Church, dated 


calf symbolises His sacrificial and priestly character ; the human 
face, His coming in human nature ; the flying eagle, the gift of 
the Spirit descending on His Church. The Gospels accordingly, 
which reflect the likeness of Christ, possess the same character 
istics ; St John sets forth the Lord s princely and glorious genera 
tion from the Father, St Luke emphasises His priestly work, 
St Matthew His human descent, St Mark His prophetic office : 

Iren. I.e. MapKOS Se O.TTO TOV Trpot^rjr LKOV Trvev/xaros TOV e vif/ovs 
cTTtovros rots av$pw7rois Tyv o.p\^ v tToirjcraTO Aeycui/ Ap^i; TOV evay- 
ycAi ov Ir/o-ov Xptorov, cos yeypaTrrat ev Htrata T<3 Trpo<f>rjT-rj t rrjv 


Kal 7raparp)(OV(Tav TTJV xaTayyeAiav TrcTrot^raf 7rpo^)TyTt/cos yap 6 


Thus Irenaeus, it is clear, regards the Eagle as the symbol of 
St Mark, whilst St Matthew, St Luke and St John are repre 
sented by the Man, the Calf, and the Lion respectively. This 
interpretation of the symbols is followed in the lines prefixed 
to the Gospel-paraphrase of Juvencus, according to which 
"Marcus amat terras inter caelumque volare, 
Et vehemens aquila stricto secat omnia lapsu." 

But the method by which it was reached is so arbitrary that 
later writers did not hesitate to rearrange them at discretion. 
Thus in the notes on the Apocalypse attributed to Victorinus of 
Pettau the Eagle is assigned to St John and the Lion to St Mark. 
Through the influence of Jerome this became the popular view, 
and impressed itself on mediaeval art, although it was based on 
grounds not more reasonable than those which led Irenaeus to the 
opposite conclusion. 

Hieron. in Marcum tract, ad init. "in Marco leonem in heremo 
personat...qui in heremo personat utique leo est." Cf. Yictorin. in 
Apoc. c. iv. (Migne, P.L. v. I.e.) "simile leoni animal Marcum 
designat in quo vox leonis in heremo rugientis auditur... Marcus 
itaque Evangelista sic incipiens... leonis habet effigiem." 

Other arrangements were freely proposed. Thus in the Pseudo- 
Athanasian Synopsis 1 Matthew is the man, Mark the calf, Luke 

1 Migne, P. G. xxvni., col. 431 : TO /card Mapicov etfayyAtoi . The second 
rfoo-apa yap el8e xepou/Sei/* ovros 6 irpo- symbol is attributed to the second 
01JT77S...TO detirepov dfJiotov /J.6ffxv> TOUT^GTI Evangelist. 


the lion, John the eagle. Augustine finds the lion in Matthew, 
the man in Mark, the calf in Luke, the eagle in John. He 
complains with justice of the puerility of deciding the character 
of a book from the opening sentences, and not from the general 
purpose and aim of the writer ; and he justifies his assignment of 
the man to St Mark on the ground that the second Gospel sets 
forth the human life of Christ rather than His royal descent, or 
His priestly office. 

De cons. evv. i. 9 "de principiis enim librorum quandam coniec- 
turam capere voluerunt, non de tota intentione Evangelistarum... < 
Marcus ergo, qui neque stirpem regiam neque sacerdotalem vel cog- 
nationem vel consecrationem narrare voluit et tamen in eis versatus 
ostenditur quae homo Christus operatus est, tantum hominis figura 
in illis quatuor aniinalibus significatus videtur." 

A table will shew the extent of these variations 1 . 

Irenaeus. Victorinus. Augustine. P$.-Athanasius. ; 
MT. Man Man Lion Man 

Me. Eagle Lion Man Calf 

Lc. Calf Calf Calf Lion 

Jo. Lion Eagle Eagle Eagle. 

It will be seen at a glance that while in three out of the four 
distributions St Matthew is the Man, St Luke the Calf, and 
St John the Eagle, to St Mark each of the symbols is assigned in 
turn. This fact illustrates with curious precision the difficulty 
which the ancient Church experienced in forming a definite 
judgement as to the place and office of his Gospel 2 . Irenaeus 
indeed has rightly seized upon the rapid movement of the narra 
tive as one of its features, and Augustine calls attention to 
another and deeper characteristic, the interest which the writer 
shews in the humanity of the Lord. But it remained for a later 
age to realise and appreciate to the full the freshness and exact 
ness of the first-hand report which has descended to us from the 
senior Apostle through the ministry of John Mark. 

1 A fuller treatment will be found in symbols in connexion with certain Irish 

Zahn, Forschungen, ii. p. 257 ff. MSS. "in which, while the text followed 

See Professor Lawlor s Chapters on the Vulgate order, the symbols adhered 

the Book of Mulling (p. 17 ff.) for an to that of the older versions." 
interesting discussion of the evangelical 



I. According to the prevalent belief of the ancient Church 
St Mark wrote his Gospel in Rome and for the Roman Church. 
Chrysostom transfers the place of composition to Egypt, but he 
is sufficiently refuted by the testimony of Clement of Alexandria 
and Origen. 

For the Alexandrian evidence see p. xxii . Chrysostom s words 
(prooem. in Mt.} are as follows : KCU Map*o? Sc iv AlyvTrro) TOJK 
/xaflr/Twv Trapa/caXeo-avTO)!/ avrov OLVTO TOVTO Troifjcrai (sc. (rvvOeivai TO 
evayye Xiov, as the context shews). The error has possibly arisen 
from the statement of Eusebius (If. E. ii. 16), Mao/cov irpu-rov <ao-iv 
CTTI rrjs AtyuTTTou orTeiXa/zevov TO eJayye Xioi/ o Brj <rvv-ypauf/a.TO Krjpv^ai : 
cf. Jerome, de virr. ill. 8 "adsumpto itaque evangelio quod ipse con- 
fecerat perrexit Aegyptum." Epiphanius for once expresses him 
self with greater care (haer. li. 6 cv e P<V?7 eVtrpeTrerat TO euayyeXtoi/ 
/c$eV$ai, Kat -ypauf/as aTroaTeXXeTat VTTO TOV ayiov Uerpoi; ets TT)V TWV 
AtyuTTTtwv X">pw)- The subscriptions to the Gospels vary; while the 
majority of those which fix upon a locality are in favour of Rome, 
others refer only to the preaching of the Gospel at Alexandria, 
e.g. a codex quoted by Mill has CTrcSoOrj Map/o TW evayyeXto-T^ KCU 
fKrjpvxOr] iv AXe^avSpeta /cat Trdcrrj rrj Trepi^wpu) avT^s (cf. Ps. Ath. 
synops. 76). Tischendorf mentions the subscription lypd<f>7)...v 
as found in certain MSS. which he does not specify. 

2. But if the Gospel was written at Rome or for the Church of 
Rome, at what time was it written ? After the departure (e 

1 For o5os in this sense cf. Lc. ix. ye\Lov tKdoffiv, and Grotius (Annot. p. 

31, 2 Pet. i. 15, Jos. ant. iv. 8. 2 (^TT 523) quotes /uerA rotrov tKdoaiv from 

t68ov TOV fa}. The citation from Ire- "an old MS."; but the Latin of Ire- 

naeus which follows Victor s argument naeus post vero horum excqssum supports 

(Possin. cat. p. 5, Cramer, p. 264) the printed Greek text. 
begins pera TTJV TOV Kara ~M.aTda.iov cvay- 


of St Peter and St Paul, says Irenaeus ; while St Peter was yet 
alive/ is the answer of the Alexandrians. The former is the more 
credible witness, whether we consider his relative nearness to the 
age of St Mark, or his opportunities of making himself acquainted 
with the traditions of Rome and Asia Minor. 

According to the subscriptions of many of the later uncials and 
cursive MSS. of Me., the Gospel was written in the tenth or twelfth 
year after the Ascension 1 . This computation is doubtless based 
on the tradition which represents Peter as taking up his abode in 
Rome in the second year of Claudius (Eus. H. E. ii. 14, Hieron. 
de virr. ill. i). If we dismiss this story, we are left free to adopt 
the terminus a quo fixed by Irenaeus and at least implied in the 
statement of Papias. It is more difficult to settle the terminus ad 
quern. As we have seen, Jerome s date for the death of St Mark 
(the 8th year of Nero) rests upon a mistake 2 . The Paschal 
Chronicle with greater probability places it in the reign of 
Trajan; the young man who was the vTrvjpeTijs of Saul and 
Barnabas in A.D. 42 might have lived to see the last decade of 
the first century 3 . On the other hand an earlier date is suggested 
by the circumstances under which, if we accept the Alexandrian 
tradition, the Gospel was composed. The request for a written 
record of St Peter s teaching would naturally be made soon after 
the Apostle s death, while the Church was still keenly conscious 
of its loss. Thus we are led to think of A.D. 70* as a probable 
limit of time, and this conclusion is to some extent confirmed 
by the internal evidence of the Gospel. The freshness of its 
colouring, the simplicity of its teaching, the absence of any indi 
cation that Jerusalem had already fallen when it was written, 
seem to point to a date earlier than the summer of A.D. 70. 

3. It may be assumed that a Gospel written for Roman be 
lievers in the first century was composed in Greek. Even if Greek 
was not the predominant language of the capital, it certainly pre- 

1 The form is usually et-edbdv] yuerct xpto-rou di/aXi^ews <rweypd<j)ir} v Pcfyz?;. 

Xpovous i (or i/3 ) TT}S TOV xpto-rou ava\-/i- Cf. Harnack, Chronologie, pp. 70, 124. 
\f/ws (so codd. G 2 KS and many cur- 2 See pp. xviii. f., xxvii. 

sives) ; cf. Thpht. prooem. in Me. rb /card 3 Comp. Harnack, op. cit., p. 652. 

etayytXiov pera 5^/ca %TT\ 7-775 TOV 4 See p. xxii. f. 


bailed among the Roman Jews and the servile class from which the 

tarly Roman Church was largely recruited 1 . The Gospel of St Peter s 

taterpreter, if of Roman origin, was doubtless written in the 

I janguage which was employed by St Paul when he addressed the 

I phristians of Rome, and by Clement when he wrote in the name 

:| If the Christians of Rome to the Church at Corinth. A Latin 

. Grospel would have appealed to comparatively few of St Peter s 

I Roman friends. Moreover it can scarcely be doubted that Greek 

Lnd not Latin was the tongue into which St Mark had been 

J Accustomed to render St Peter s Aramaic discourses, whether at 

I Jerusalem or at Rome. Bishop Lightfoot indeed maintains 

;he opposite 2 , on the ground that the Apostle knew Greek enough 

i |o address a Greek-speaking people without the aid of an inter- 

: preter. But the scanty knowledge of colloquial Greek which 

; .! ufficed the fisherman of Bethsaida Julias in his intercourse 

pith Galileans, may well have proved inadequate for sustained 

i Discourses delivered at Rome. The occasions would have been few 

I vhen the Apostle would have needed to use the Latin tongue, and 

In is at least uncertain whether Mark, a Jew probably born and 

:\ brought up in Jerusalem, could have rendered him assistance 

;, Here. 

A few MSS. (e.g. codd. 160, 161) in their subscriptions to St Mark 
support the view that the Gospel was originally composed in Latin, 
and the form of words which they adopt (typd(f>y Poo/mio-xt tv 
Pw /nfl) suggests the origin of the mistake. The same error appears 
in the subscriptions to the Peshitta and Harclean Syriac (see 
p. xxvi.); on the other hand the preface to the Latin Vulgate is 
content to say, "evangelium in Italia (or "in Italiae partibus") 
scripsit." Yet it was once believed that the autograph of St Mark 
existed in a MS. of the Latin Yulgate at Venice (Simon, hist, critique 
ii. p. 114, and Dobrowsky, Fragm. Pragense Ev. S. Marci vulgo 
autographi (Prague, 1778); cf. Gregory, prolegg. p. 185, Scrivener- 
Miller, ii. pp. 84, 259). 

Professor Blass 3 maintains that St Mark s Gospel was originally 
mtten in Aramaic, and that Papias, who knew the Gospel only in 

1 The evidence is stated most fully by Commentary on Eomans, p. lii. ff. 
/aspari, Quellen zur Geschichte des Tauf- 2 Clement, ii. p. 494. 

ymbols, iii. p. 267 ff. ; a useful summary 3 Philology of the Gospels (1898), p. 
oay be seen in Sanday and Headlani s 


a Greek form, mistook a translation for the original. Blass sup 
ports his theory by two arguments: (i) "Luke in the first part 
of his Acts followed an author who had written in Aramaic. 
Mark is very likely to be the author who first published these 
stories; he seems therefore to be Luke s Aramaic authority. If 
Mark s Acts were written in Aramaic, his Gospel originally was 
written in Aramaic also." (2) "Secondly, the textual condition of 
St Mark s Gospel suggests the idea that there existed a plurality 
of versions of a common Aramaic original." It is difficult to 
take the first of these arguments very seriously. Granting that 
St Mark wrote a book of Acts in Aramaic, it is manifestly unsafe 
to infer that Aramaic was also the original language of his 
Gospel ; for Mark was ex hypothesi bilingual, and he would use 
either Aramaic or Greek according to circumstances. The second 
argument is supported by examples which open an interesting 
field of enquiry, but cannot be regarded as supplying a secure 
basis for so large an inference. When he adds that the Aramaic 
words in St Mark are "relics of the original, preserved by the 
translation," Blass seems to overlook the fact that they are followed 
in almost every case by a rendering into Greek. A translator 
might have either translated the Aramaic or transliterated it; but 
transliteration followed by interpretation savours of an original 

But the theory of an Aramaic original has to meet a stronger 
objection. A translator may shew a partiality for certain words 
and constructions by employing them as often as the author 
gives him the opportunity. But an examination of St Mark s 
vocabulary and style reveals peculiarities of diction and colouring 
which cannot reasonably be explained in this way. Doubtless 
there is a sense in which the book is based upon Aramaic 
originals ; it is in the main a reproduction of Aramaic teaching, 
behind which there probably lay oral or written sources, also 
Aramaic. But the Greek Gospel is manifestly not a mere trans 
lation of an Aramaic work. It bears on every page marks of the 
individuality of the author. If he wrote in Aramaic, he translated 
his book into Greek, and the translation which we possess is his 



Iwn. But such a conjecture is unnecessary, as well as at variance 
dth the witness of Papias. 

Blass s supposition that "Papias s presbyter knew of different 
Greek forms of Matthew besides the Hebrew (or Aramaic) original, 
but in the case of Mark, the interpreter of Peter, he knew only 
one Greek form of that Gospel, and nothing at all of an Aramaic 
original," imputes to this contemporary witness something worse 
than ignorance. It is evident that the presbyter means to con 
trast the original work of St Mark with the many attempts which 
had been made to translate the Xoyia of St Matthew. 



i. A complete vocabulary of St Mark 1 will be found at tl 
end of this volume. It contains some 1330 distinct words, 
which 60 are proper names. This is not the place to attemj 
a full analysis of the Greek of St Mark, but it may be usei 
to the student to have access to a few tables which will enabl 
him to form some estimate of the relation in which St Marl 
vocabulary stands to that of other writers in the New Testamenl 

i. Words in St Mark (excepting proper names) which occur 
no other N.T. writing : 

*<rypeviv, * aXaXo?, dXeKTOpo<awa, dXXaxov, * d|i<j>if3dXXav, * 
oSov, dvaKvXfciv, avaXos, * aVcwnySav, * avacrTva^tv, aTro Sry/Aos, ctTrc 
pye g, * yvafavs, * (Wxi Xioi, * 8v<ncoXos, 
iv, J eKTreptcrtrwg, * evay/caXi^co-tfai, * vei 
* ea7rira, * e^ovSevctv, Impairmv, 
*6afj./3LcrOaL 9 *6vyaTpiov, * KarajBaptivciv, * 
KOTTTCIV, * KarevXoyetv, * KaroCKT]<ris, K6VTvpa>v, ]J! K<{>aXiovv, 

t KOVfJL, * KvA.iet!/, KCO^diroXtS, * fJL7]KVVLV t * 




J irpop.pijjLvav, * irpoo-apparov, * 7T/3oo-K^>aAaiov, 
iropcuco-dcu, J Trvy/x^, * (TKwA^, cr/xvpvt^tv, J o-Trc/covXarw/o, crracrtac 
<rrtpds, *<rr(Xptv, * a-vpirocriov, * <rvv8X(piv, *o-wXv7reto-^at, *< 
tTaXi0(, Jr^Xavyws, Tpi eu>, *TpvftaXwi, * V7repr)<j>avia, J VTrepTre/cucrc 

(Words in this list marked by an asterisk occur in the 
Thick type denotes that Mt. or Lc. uses another word in the 
place. Transliterations peculiar to Me. are distinguished by f, 
other words which appear to be a?ra Xeyo/^i/a, by .) 

i Me. xvi. 9 ff. is not included in in the Index of Greek Words at the 
this examination of the Marcau vocabu- of the volume. 
lary. Its words will be found, however, 


ii. Words peculiar to St Mark and one or both of the other 
Synoptists : 

dyavctKTctv, dyyapeuciv (Mt.), dyeXiy, ayva<os (Mt.), dyopa, dypos, 
dXd/?a<rrpos, dXeevs, aXi eii> (Mt.), dvayatov (Lc.), dva^e/xart^etv (Lc.), 
(Lc.), dvcuretetv (Lc.), aviTrros (Mt.), di raXXay/xa (Mt.), 
, aTraXds (Mt.), aTrapveio-^ai, aTroS^/xetv, aTTOKe^aXi^etv, aTro- 
ieiv, ctTTocrTacrtov (Mt.), ap^tcrwaycoyo? (Lc.), acrflfO TOs, CUTKOS, 
acr<aXak (Lc.), avrojuaTos (Lc.), a^eSpwi/ (Mt.), ySaTTTifm;?, (3dro<; (Lc.), 
/3Xa7rreiv (Lc.), J3ov\vnj<s (Lc.), yaXijvr}, yevecria (Mt.), yovuTreTetV 
(Mt.), Scpyaarivos (Mt.), 8ta/3Xe7Tti/, StayiVccr^at (Lc.), 8taXoyt^(r^at, 
Stavotyciv (Lc.), StttTrepav, Stapler <reiv, StapTra^etv (Mt.), StacrTrai^, ota- 
<f>r)fJLieiv (Mt.), 8wti/ (Lc.), Svo-KoXcos, et<T7ropeueor^at, e/<aTOi/Ta7rXa<jtojv, 
ticStSoor^ai, K?rX/;oro-a-^at, e/CTrvetf (Lc.), CKcrrao-ts (Lc.), e/CTti acrcretv, 
cK<f>vtiv (Mt.), EXXr/vi s (Lc.), eXtot (Mt.), e/x7rcuetv, fjjLTTTvew, eVSiSvV- 
KCti/ (Lc.), eat(vr7? (Lc.), c^avareXXetv (Mt.), e^avto-raVat (Lc.), e7rai/i- 
crTavat (Mt.),7rty8X>;/xa, cTriypa^, eTn-Xveiv ( Lc.), 7rt(TKta^eti/, eTrtcrwayetv, 
fprf/xaxris (LXX.), VK07T09, HpwSiavos, 6*poc, ^Xa^civ, OopvjSfiarOai 
(Lc.), Oopvftos, ifJKiTi&iv (Lc.), i^^vSioj/ (Mt.), Ka^eSpa (Mt.), 
Xoyetv, Kcx/x^Xos, Kavavatos (Mt.), KarayeXav, KaraxXav (Lc.), 
(Lc.), Kara/xaprvpctv (Mt.), Karao-K^votv, Karao-rp^ftv, Ka 
xara^ctv (Mt.), Kare^ovo-ta^civ (Mt.), Kepa/xtoi/ (Lc.), K^VCTOS (Mt.), 

K\07nj (Mt.), KoSpaVTTJS (Mt.), KO\OJ3ovV (Mt.), KOTTtt^tl/ (Mt.), KOpOLVlOV 

(Mt.), Kpao-TreSov, Kp7;/xvos, KT%>ta, Ki;XXos (Mt.), Kvvapiov (Mt.), KCO</>O S, 
Xap:a (Mt.), Xaro/xeiv (Mt.), Xeytwv, XeVpa, XcTrpo s, XCTTTOV (Lc.), XuVpov 

(Mt.), /xaKpos (Lc.), /xar^i/ (LXX., Mt.), /XCO-OVVKTIOV (Lc.), ^ 

yuo Sios, fJLOt^aaOai. (Mt.), /xofo<^)^aX/.cos, Na^apr/i-o? (Lc.), V^CTTIS (Mt.), 

VO(T05, VVfJi<f>WV, OlKoSeO-7TOT^9, O/X/Xtt, OI^IKOS (Mt.), Op^OJ? (Lc.), O 

opKt^etv, 6p/xav, opvVaeu/, opxeur&u, oi/^c (Mt.), TrapaKOvetr (Mt.), Trapa- 
XVTIKOS, TrapaTTOpevea^at (Mt.), Trapa^e peiv (Lc.), Tre Sv; (Lc.), TTC^ (Mt.), 
Trei/tfepa, 7rept/?Xe7recr^at (Lc.), TreptXvTros, Trcpto-crw?, Trept^copos, Trerpwoiys 
(Mt.), Tn/pa, TriVa^, Trvtyeiv (Mt.), Troppw (LXX.), Trpo^atVetv, TrpocrKvXtetv 
(Mt.), Trpoo-TrtTTTeiv, Trpoo-rao-o-eiv, Trpoo-rpe^etv (Lc.), Trpvfjiva (Lc.),7rpwro- 
Ka$eSpi a, TrpwroKXicria, Trvpyos, Trupeo-cretv (Mt.), pa/cos (Mt.), pa^>is 
(Mt.), pvo-ts (Lc.), cra/?ax^avt (Mt.), SaSSovKaio?, travSaXtoi (Lc.)> 
LXX.), crtVaTri, crtvSwv, <rta>7rav, o-KX^po/cap8t a (Mt.), (TKuXXciv, 
(Lc.), o-Trapa crcreii/ (Lc.), (TTrXayxvt^co-^at, crTroptjaov, <rra ;(vs, 
arpoovvvrai, <m;yva^tv (Mt.), <rv/n/3ovXioi , (rvvaKoXov^etf (Lc.), 
<rvvava/<eto-^ai, crw^evyvvetv (Mt.), (TW^TCII/ (Lc.), <rvvKa6rjcr@ai (Lc.), 
(TWAcaXeu (Lc.), o-v^XaXttv, crvvTrriyeiv, crw7ropV(r(9at (Lc.), (rvixnrapacr- 
creiv (Lc.), cri;i/T7;ptv, ^vpos, (r<^vpis, reWtov (Mt.), TeXajv^ 
paKio-xtXioi, rpiySos (LXX.), Tpv /?Xiov (Mt.), 
(Mt.), <e yyos, ^paycXXow (Mt.), 
(Mt.), \l/i-^iov (Mt.). 

iii. Words peculiar to St Mark and St John s Gospel : 

o.Kai/0tvos, vra^>iao-/>tos, tfupoopo s, 
vapSos TTIOTIKOS, TrXotaptov, TrpocratrTys, Trrretv, pafiftowfL, paTTtcr/xa, 



iv. Words peculiar to St Mark, one of the other Synoptists, 
St John : 

apto/xa (Lc.), yao<vXaKiov (Lc.), e/A/?pi/xao-0ai (Mt.), itca s (Lc.)!J 
Kpa/3arTOS (Lc.), /*ot X a (Mt.), oi/aos Mt.), TrXe/cetv (Mt.), pa/3 ft* 
(Mt.), o-vroyyos (Mt.), <avepc3s (Lc.), uxrawa (Mt.). 

v. Words peculiar to St Mark and the Pauline Epistles (ii 
eluding Hebrews): 

afij3d, aXaXaeiv, 

(LXX.), d<f>poa"vvrj, d^etpoTro 117x0?, /3a7rrta /xo5, 
eop7xrorciv, ev/catpos, cvKOiptas, T^Sews, 6Xo/cavTco/xa, 
, 7rpoXa/x/3ai/eiv, <TvvaTro6vr)<TKeiv, rpo/xos, vo-repr/o-is. 

vi. Words peculiar to St Mark, one of the other Synoptists, 
the Pauline writings : 

(Lc.), a8?7/xoveiV (Mt.), aKvpovv (Mt.), a7rt(TTca (Mt.). 
(Lc.), a7TOTao-(re<r$ai (Lc.), appaxrros (Mt.), aprvetv (Lc.] 
atruveros (Mt.), an/AOS (Mt.), yovu (Lc.), SiaTropevccr^ai (Lc.), 8iSao> 
Xta (Mt.), St^yeto-^at (Lc.), e/<Ave<T#ai (Mt.), eK^epetv (Lc.), 
^Lc.), evraX/xa (Mt.), e^avr^s (Lc.), eTrato-^wecr^at (Lc.), eTri 
(*Lc.), ep^/xta (Mt.), e}/<cupU> (Lc.), ^Xvs (Mt.), 0A^e/ (Mt.] 
OpocL<r@ai (Mt.), Ka^atpetv (Lc.), yaao-rt^ (Lc.), /x,Ta/Aop^>o)o-^at (Mt.] 
/xwpos (Mt.), i/eoV^s (Lc.), oLKoSofjLij (Mt.), TTavTa^ov (Lc.), Trdvrot 
(Lc.), TrapaSocrts (Mt.), Trapatretcr^at (Lc.), TrapaTrrw/xa (Mt.), TTC 
rrjptw (Lc.), TreptfcaXvTrretv (Lc.). 7TpLKcl(rOai (Lc.), irXtto-Tos (Mt.), 

TTpOCTKCUpOS (Mt.), 7TpOO-KapTptV (Lc.), <T^W\3VO.l (Mt.), (TTTOpOS (LlC.), ,J 

<rvv(rts (Lc.), cr^oXa^etv (Lc.), VTroBela-Oai (Lc.), X aXav (Lc.), 

TTOl^TOS (Lc.). 

vii. Words peculiar to St Mark and the Catholic Epistles : 
Sa/xaeiv (Jas.), 8o>peto-^at (2 Pet.). 

viii. Words peculiar to St Mark, one other N.T. writer, and the 
Catholic Epistles : 

(Lc., I Pet., 3 Jo.), ayvoeti/ (Paul, 2 Pet.), ayptos (Mt., 
Jude), aa-e Xycta (Paul, I Pet., 3 Jo.), 0ep/xcu veo^ai (Jo., Jas.), XatXai^ 
(Lc., 2 Pet.), TToXvreXrys (Paul, I Pet.), arevd&Lv (Paul, Jas.), <rwrpe- 
(Lc., i Pet.), rpe/xetv (Lc., 2 Pet.). 

ix. Words peculiar to St Mark and the Apocalypse, or to 
St Mark, the Apocalypse, and one other N.T. writer : 

SptVavov, Kav/xaTteev (Mt.), Xcu/caiveii/, /xeyicrrav, tteXt (Mt.), /zvXo? 
(Mt.), TTopvevetv (Paul), irop^vpa (Lc.), 7rrd>/>ta (Mt.), o-roXij (Lc.), 

Such tables may easily be multiplied 1 with the help of the 
index at the end of this volume and a good concordance. But 

1 For a good comparative table of the characteristic words in Me., see Haw 
kins, Hor. Syn., p. 10 f. 


those which are given above suffice to bring out certain features 
in St Mark s vocabulary. Of the 1270 distinct words (excluding 
proper names) which it contains, 80 are peculiar to St Mark, 
about 150 are shared only by St Matthew and St Luke, and 100 
more are among the less widely distributed words of the New 
Testament. This is not a large proportion of peculiar or unusual 
words. St Luke s Gospel has more than 250 aira^ \y6fi,va, 
besides a large number of words common only to itself and the 
Pauline writings 1 . On the other hand the aira^ \eyo^eva of 
St Mark, if not relatively numerous, are often striking ; while he 
has comparatively few of the compounds in which the later Greek 
delighted, we meet in his pages with such survivals as eZrei/, 
jrcuSioOev, such colloquialisms as KevTvpiwv, fecrr???, irian/cos, 
<T7re/cov\dTci)p, and such transliterations as tcopfidv, Ta\ei6a KOV/J,, 
e<f)(t>a0d, paftfiovveL If we might generalise from these features 
of St Mark s Greek as compared with the Greek of St Luke, we 
should be led to conclude that the writer was a foreigner who spoke 
Greek with some freedom, but had not been accustomed to employ 
it for literary purposes 2 . He is not at a loss for an unusual word 
when it is wanted to convey his meaning or give point to his 
narrative, but under ordinary circumstances he is comparatively 
limited in his choice, and he displays no familiarity with the 
habits of the Hellenistic writers of his age. 

2. The Greek of St Mark s Gospel is characterised by pecu 
liarities of construction and style which force themselves upon 
the attention of every student. A few of these may be parti 
cularly mentioned. 

(a) Frequent use of eu/ai and eXOelv with a participle : i. 6 rjv. . . 
ev&e&vjJiei o$...Kal o-$o>i/, 33 ^i/...e7rtcrwr/y/xevr;, 39 rjXOev Kypvcrcrwv, 
40 2pxTai...7rpoo-KaA.(3i/, ii. 3 ep^ovrat <epovre9, 5 rjcrav KaOijfJievoi /cat 
StaXoyt^o/xevoi, v. 5 rjv /cpau)v /cat KaraKOTrra)!/ eauroV, ix. 4 Jjcrav 
cnn/AaAovrT5, x 32 ^o-av...aVa/3aiVovTes.../cal yv Trpoaywv, xiii. 13 
ecrecr$ /xto-ov/xevot, 23 etrovrat TrtTTTOvres, XV. 43 rjv 

1 See Plummer, St Luke, p. lii. ff. "the non-classical words. ..occur with 

2 Sir J. C. Hawkins (Hor. Syn. , p. 106) considerably more frequency in the 
has collected a list of 26 " rude, harsh, special vocabulary of St Mark than in 
obscure or unusual words or expressions those of the other Synoptists." Comp. 
in St Mark," and points out (p. 171) that Encycl. Bibl. ii. 1 767 f. 



(6) Multiplication of participles: i. 21 TrpocrekOuv 
KpaTycras, 41 o"7rXa,yxvr$ets KTetWs...i7i/faTO, v. 25 ff. ovcra . . . /ccuiBj 

a\ovo-ao-a...eX0ovo-a rj\}/aTO, xiv. 67 t8ovcra...e/x^X^ao-a Xe yei, xv. 43! 

(c) Use of article with infinitives and sentences: i. 14 /xeTo-TcJ 
TTdpo.ooB nvaL TOV IOKXVWV, iv. o otot TO JJUYJ Vtv pc^a-Vy V. 4 OKX TO OLVTOV 
SeSeV^at Kat Sico-TraV^at -UTT avTOv KTX, ix. 23 TO ei SvVy, xiv. 28/4* 
TO eycpOrjvai /xe. 

(c?) Frequent use of tvOvs, which occurs 34 times in Me. i. ixj| 
and 7 times in x. xvi. 

(e) Use of av in such sentences as iii. ii 6Vav CCVTOV 

VI. 56 07TOV CtV lO-7rO/3VTO...OO-Ot O.V TJlj/aVTO, Xi. 19 OTttV yVOt/TO. 

(/) Use of broken or imperfect constructions, in cases of parei 
thesis (ii. 22, iii. 16 18, vii. 19), or mixture (ii. i, iv. 15, 26,* 
30 31, vi. 8, n, viii. 2, xiii. 34), or extreme compression (v. ; 
vi. 43, viii. 8), or ellipse (x. 40). 

(g) Construct ad sensum : ix. 20 tSwv avTov TO Tn/ev/xa, xiii 

t /x^Scv etTnys, v. 3 

(h) Repetition of negative: i. 44 
ovSets eSwaTO, xvi. 8 ovScvt ovSev 

(z) Frequent use and careful discrimination of prepositions: 
e.g. i. 39, ii. i, 2, ip, 13, iii. 8, iv. 7, 19, 21, vi. 5, 6,^1.3, 
42, x. ii, 22, 24, xi. 4, xii. i, 17, xiii. 51; cf. aTTOKvXiW, 
xvi. 3 f. 1 

3. Such examples, however, give no just conception of St 
Mark s general style. The body of the work consists of a series | 
of sentences connected by the simplest of Greek copulas, each 
contributing a fresh fact to the reader s knowledge, and each 
by its vivid and distinct presentation of the fact claiming his 
close attention. St Mark knows how to compress his matter, 
where a multitude of words would only weaken the effect, or i 
where the scheme of his work forbids greater fulness; on the [ 
other hand, when words can heighten the colouring or give life 
to the picture, they are used without regard to brevity and with 
little attention to elegance. 

1 To these stylistic peculiarities may 
be added (j) a frequent use of the his- 
toric present 151 instances are quoted 
as against 78 in Mt. and 4 or 6 in Lc.; 
(k) preference of Kal to 3<?; (I) use of 

asyndeton (Hawkins, Hor. Syn.,pp. 108 ff ., 
ii3ff., i2off.); and (m) disposition to 
employ pleonastic forms (Salmond, in 
Eastings, D.B. iii. p. 251). 


For instances of compression see especially Mark s summaries of 
our Lord s teaching or of the comments of the hearers, e.g. i. 27, ii. 
7, viii. 29, xii. 38 40 (comp. Mt.). For his habit of adding word 
to word where one might have sufficed see i. 32 ot/rt a?...ore cfuo-ei/ 6 
77X109, 35 Trpwt fvvv^ai XtW, V. 26 (see above 2 6), vi. 25 eu6v<> /xera 
o-TrovS^s, vii. 13 rrj TrapaSoVet rj TrapeScoKare, viii. 25 Ste/SXei/ cv /cat 
aTreKaTtcrrr] /cat eve/?Xe7rev, 37 V7rep7repicro-<os e^eTrX^o-o-ovro, xii. 14 
!ecrTtv 8owat...S<j3/xi/ 77 /XT) 8uyxev;, 44 TraWa ocra t;(ev /?aXv, oXov 
TOV /3tov avr^s, xiv. 3 a\a/3a.crrpov vdpSov TTIO-TIK^S TroXureXovs, 68 ovre 
oTSa ovre eTrtcrra/xat, XV. I e#v? Trpcot, xvi 8 rpo/xos Kat K(TTao-i9. 
"Under the same head may be placed the frequent instances in 
which a statement is made first in a positive and then in a negative 
form or the reverse (e.g. i. 22, ii. 27, iii. 29, v. 19, x. 45). 

Two other points, which the tables do not shew, deserve 
be emphasised here : ( I ) the relatively frequent use of certain 
characteristic words; (2) the use of certain ordinary words in 
in uncommon and sometimes enigmatic sense. 

Examples of (i) are: d/ca&xpros 11 (in the term Tryev/xa d/ca^aprov), 

tTrm/xai/ 9 , evayye Xioi/ 7 , $a/A/3eur$at 3 , 
irapaXatt/JdVetv 4 , TrapaTropcvecr^at 4 , Trept^XeTrecr^at 6 , 7rX^pco/za 3 , Trpoayetv 6 , 
Trpoo-KaXcrcr^at 9 , Trwpova^at (Trwpwcrts) 2 , cruv^TCU 8 , VTrayetv 16 , c/>t/xo{5- 
<r^at 2 . Under the second head we may place eVet^cv (vi. 19), Trvy/a^ 
(vii. 3), aVe xet (xiv. 41), eVi/foXtuV (xiv. 72). 

Further, St Mark gives movement to his history by the 
jmarkable freedom with which he handles his tenses. 

Changes of tense occur (i) with a corresponding difference of 
meaning: v. 15 ff. TOV Sat/xovio/xi/oi ...6 SaiyU-ovio-$ets, vi. 14 ff. 
ey7ypTai...T7yep$?7, vii. 35 tXvOrj . . . fXdXci . . .8tecrrtXaro...8teo-TeXXTO, 
ix. 15 ^OafJ./3~^Orj(Tav ...... ycnrd^ovTO, XV. 44 TC^V^KCV ...... a,7re#avev : 

(2) apparently for the purpose of giving life to a dialogue : ix. 
34 ff. eTrr/pwra.. .Xeyt...T7rV, xi. 27 ep^ovTat.../cat !Xeyoj/...er7rev... 
Xyovo~ti / . . . Xeyet. 

Thus present, perfect, imperfect, aorist, are interchanged, 
>t through ignorance of the laws of the Greek language, or 
ith conscious artificiality, but from a keen sense of the reality 
living interest of the facts. Sometimes the historical tenses 
used almost exclusively throughout a paragraph (e.g. ii. 3 
[O, xv. 20 24) ; more frequently they alternate with the imper- 
and aorist (e.g. iv. 35 41, vi. 30 51). Even in indirect 
s. M. 2 d 



narration the present and perfect are freely used (ii. I, xv. 44, 47, 
xvi. 4), when the writer desires to place the reader for the moment 
in the speaker s point of view. On the other hand St Mark 
frequently uses the imperfect in a sense which is scarcely dis 
tinguishable from the aorist, except that it conveys the impression 
of an eye-witness describing events which passed under his own 
eye (cf. e.g. v. 18, vii. 17, x. 17, xii. 41, xiv. 55). 

Much has been written as to a supposed tendency on the 
of this writer to adopt Latin words and forms of speech. The 
occurrence of such words as Brjvdpiov, Kevrvpiwv, KoSpavrr)?, KpaM 
/9arT09, Xeyitov, fe<TT?79, o-Tre/covXdrtop, and such a phrase as licavbv 
iroieiv, lends a,prima facie support to this view. But some of th< 
Latinisms occur in other Gospels as well as in St Mark, and it 
may be doubted whether they prove more than a familiarity 
with the vulgar Greek of the Empire, which freely adopted Latin 
words and some Latin phraseology 1 . Nevertheless their relatively 
frequent occurrence in St Mark is one indication amongst others 
of his larger acquaintance with the Greek which was spoken in 
the Roman world, and it accords well with the tradition which 
represents the writer of this Gospel as a professional interpreter/ 
and as having resided for some years in Rome. 

1 Blass, Philology of the Gospels, p. 2 1 1 f. 



I. Attempts were made at an early time to break up the 
Gospels into sections corresponding more or less nearly to the 
nature of the contents. Besides the stichometry which measured 
the text by lines 1 , and the Ammonian sections which divided it 
in such a manner as to shew its relation to that of the other 
Gospels, there were systems of capitulation under which it was 
arranged in paragraphs for reading. Two such systems survive in 
cod. B and cod. A respectively. In the former, which is the more 
ancient 2 , St Mark is broken up into 62 sections as against 170 in 
ISt Matthew and 152 in St Luke; in the system represented by 
cod. A 8 (the so-called Kefyakcua maiora or rtrXot) St Mark has 
|48 sections, St Matthew 68, and St Luke 83 4 . 

The following table will enable the student to compare the 
capitulation of codd. BA with the paragraphing adopted in the 
text of Westcott and Hort. Italics are used where two of the 
three systems coincide; where the three agree the verse-numbers 
are printed in thick type. 

Cod. B Cod. A 

I. i 



1 For the variations of the sticho- 

Zin St Mark see Studio, Biblica, p. 
; J. E. Harris, Stichometry, p. 49; 
Th. St. i. p. 444 f., ii. p. 250; the 
ijority of the subscriptions in MSS. give 
1600. The Ammonian sections fluctuate 
stween 232 and 242 (Gregory, Prolegg., 
. p. 1 52 f. ; cf. Burgon, Last twelve verses, 
3iof.). On the Church lessons in 


I. i 




St Mark see Gregory, p. 162, Scrivener- 
Miller, p. 80 flf. 

2 Found also in cod. JEf. 

3 Found also in codd. CNKZj and 
possibly of Alexandrian origin; cf. J. 
Th. St., i. p. 419. 

4 Cod. D has a system peculiar to it 
self, in which Me. is divided into 148 
sections (Scrivener, Codex Bezae, p. xx.). 




Cod. A 







L 23 











II. i 

II. 3 









III. i 

III. i 









IV. i 

IV. 2 










V. i 

V. i 







VI. I 



VI. 7 













VII. i 

VII. i 








Cod. A 







VIII. i 

VIII. i 










2 7 

2 7 





IX. 2 

IX. 2 












X. i 

X. 2 




J 7 











XI. i 

XI. i 







xii. 27 i 

xii. 2 1 

















XIII. 3 


3 2 


XIV. i 



XIV. 3 








Cod. B Cod. A WH. 


27 27 


43 43 

53 53 

66 66 

XV. i XV. j- 

16 16 



42 XV. 42 42 

XVI. i XVI. i 


The rir\oi which precede the Gospel in cod. A give the 
contents of the successive chapters as follows 1 : 

Tov Kara Map/cov evayyeXtov at Trcpto^at. 

a . Trepi TOV 8at/xovto/xevov. ft, Trepi T^S Trevtfepas IleTpov. 

y . Trepi TOOV ta0evTa>v (XTTO TrotKtXa>v voVtov. 8 . Trepi TOV XeTrpov. 
e . Trepi TOV TrapaXvTtKov. g~ . Trepi Aevi TOV reXwvov. ^. Trept 
TOV r)pav e^oi/ros ^etpa. 17 . Trept TT^S TOOV dTrotTToXcov eKXoy^s. 

. Trept T^S 7rapa/3oX^s TOV cnropov. i. Trept T^9 eTrtTt/x-^o-ews rov 
dve/Aov Kat r^s ^aXao-o-^?. ta . Trept TOV Xeyecovo?. ty^. Trept -nys 
Qvyarpos TOV dp^wruvaywyov. ty . Trept r^s at/xoppoovcr^?. tS . Trept 
7T^5 Staray^s ro>v dTrocrroXwv. te . Trept loodwov Kat Hpa>8ov. 

i~ . Trept TWJ/ Trevre aprwi/. i^ 7 . Trepi TOV ei/ OaXdcra-rj TreptTrarov. 

; . Trepi r^5 Trapa^aa-ew? T^S ei/roX^s TOV ^eoO. i^. Trept T^S 

^otvtKto-cr^s. /c . Trept TOV /x,oytXaXov. /ca . Trept TOJI/ eTrra apTcov. 
K/3 . Trepi TT^S v///>7s TO>V ^aptaatW. /cy . Trepi TOV Tv<Xov. K8 . Trepi 
eV Kanrapta eTrepwT^aews. Ke . Trepi T^S //.eTa/AOp^xoo-ews TOV 

/eg- . Trepi TOV o"eXr7i/iao/>i,eVov. K^ . Trepi T<3i> 8taXoyt^o/xe- 
vwv Tts /xet^wv. /o/. Trepi TWV ^7repcoT^o-avTo>v <E>apto-ata)v. K0 . Trepi 
TOV eTrepcoT^o-avTos avTov TrXovo-tov. X 7 . Trepi TWV vtciov Ze/?eSatov. 
Xa . Trepi BapTt/xatov. X/3 . Trepi TOV TrwXov. Xy . Trepi T^S 

O~VK^S. X8 . Trepi d/AVTyo-iKa/aas. Xe . Trepi TOJI/ eTrepw- 

TOV Kvptov dp^tepewv Ktxi ypa/xyaaTewv Ev TTOIO. e^ovcrta Tavra 
Trotets ; Xg- . Trept TOV a/xTreXwvo?. X^ . Trept TWI/ ey/ca^eVtov 8ta TOV 
Krjv(rov. Xrf. Trepi TCOV ^a88ov/cattov. X^ . Trept TWV ypa/x/>iaTe(ov. 
/x . Trepi T^S TOV Kvptov eTrepwTTycreto?. /na . Trepi TT^S TO, 8vo XeTrra. 
/x^. Trepi rjys crvvTeXeta?. /xy . Trept -n^S lytiepas Kai topas. /xS . Trepi 
T^S aXeti^aoTys TOV /cvptov /xvpw. /xe . Trepi TOV Traa-^a. /xg- . Trepi 

1 For the variants of codd. LA see the Latin Vulgate, cf. Wordsworth and 
Tregelles, p. 486! ; for the capitulation White, p. 174; and for tables of Latin 
of cod. Amiatinus and other MSS. of tituli, Thomasius, opera, i. p. 303 sqq. 


7rapa8oo-<os Trpoc^Teia. /x . apwjo-is Ilerpov. p.rf. Trepi rfjs al-nj- 


The following conspectus shews the contents as they are 
| arranged in the present edition. 

I. i. Superscription. 

2 8. Preparatory ministry of John the Baptist. 

9 ii. The Baptism. 

1 2 1 3. The Temptation. 

14 15. First preaching in Galilee. 

1 6 20. Call of the first four disciples. 

21 28. Casting out of an unclean spirit in the synagogue 
at Capernaum. 

29 31. Healing of Simon s wife s mother. 

32 34. Miracles after sunset. 

35 39. Withdrawal from Capernaum and first circuit of 


40 45. Cleansing of a leper. 
II. i 12. Healing of a paralytic in a house at Capernaum. 

The forgiveness of sins. 
13 14. Call of Levi. 

15 17. Feast in Levi s house. 

1 8 22. Question of fasting. The Old and the New. 

23 28. Cornfield incident. Question of the Sabbath. 

III. i 6. Healing of a withered hand on the Sabbath. 
7 12. Second great concourse by the Sea. 

13 i9 a . Second withdrawal from Capernaum, and choice of 

the Twelve. 
i9 b 30. Question of the source of the Lord s power to 

expel unclean spirits. 

31 35. Errand of the brothers and the mother of Jesus, 
and teaching based upon it. 

IV. i 9. Teaching by parables. The parable of the Sower. 
10 12. Reasons for the use of parables. 

13 20. Interpretation of the parable of the Sower. 

21 25. Parabolic warnings as to the responsibility of hear 

ing the word. 
26 29. Parable of the automatic action of the soil. 

30 32. Parable of the mustard seed. 

33 34. General law of parabolic teaching. 
35 41. Stilling of the wind and sea. 

Y. i 13. Casting out of the legion at Gerasa. 

14 17. The Gerasenes alarmed and hostile. 

1 8 20. The restored demoniac sent to evangelise. 
21 34. Petition of Jairus. Healing of the cu/xoppoovo-a. 
35 43. Raising of the child of Jairus. 
VI. i 6 a . Departure from Capernaum. Preaching at Naza 

6 b 13. Another circuit of Galilee. Mission of the Twelve. 



14 1 6. 
3 44. 
VII. 113. 


VIII. 19. 

14 - 21. 

22 - 26. 



34-IX. i. 
IX. 28. 


3 32- 



X. i. 

2 - 12. 

13 1 6. 

28 - 31. 



XI. i ii. 

12 - 14. 

20 - 25. 

XII. I 12, 

The fame of Jesus reaches the Tetrarch. 

Episode of John s imprisonment and death. 

Return to the sea. Feeding of the five thousand. 

Walking on the sea. 

Ministry in the Plain of Gennesaret. 

Question of ceremonial washings. 

Teaching based upon the question. 

In the region of Tyre and Sidon. The daughter oi 

a Syrophoenician delivered from an evil spirit. 
Return to Decapolis. Healing of a deaf man whc 

spoke with difficulty. 
Feeding of the four thousand. 
Fresh encounterwiththe Pharisees near Dalmanul 
The leaven of the Pharisees and the leaven 


Arrival at Bethsaida. A blind man recovers sight 
Journey to the neighbourhood of Caesarea Philippi, 

Question as to the Lord s Person. 
The Passion foretold. Peter reproved. 
Public teaching on self-sacrifice. 
The Transfiguration. 
Conversation about Elijah, during the descent froi 

the mountain. 

A demoniac boy set free, and the sequel. 
The Passion again foretold. 

Return to Capernaum. Question of precedence. 
On the use of the Name by a non-disciple. 
The teaching resumed. On the consequences 

conduct towards brethren in Christ. 
Departure from Galilee; journeys in Judaea an< 


Question of divorce. 
Blessing of children. 

The rich man who wanted but one thing. 
The rich and the Kingdom of GOD. 
The reward of those who leave all for Christ s sake 
The Passion foretold for the third and last time. 
Petition of the sons of Zebedee. Teaching 

on the incident. 
Passage through Jericho: Bartimaeus restored 


Solemn entry into the precinct of the Temple. 
Fig-tree in leaf but without fruit. 
Second day in the Precinct. Breaking up of tl 


Conversation on the withering of the fig-tree. 
Third day in the Precinct. Authority of Jesus 

challenged by the Sanhedrists. 
Parable of the Husbandmen and the Heir. 
The Pharisees question. 


1 8 27. The Sadducees question. 

28 34. The scribe s question. 

35 37 a . The Lord s question. 

37 b 40. Denunciation of the Scribes. 

41 44. The widow s two mites. 

XIII. i 2. Destruction of the Temple foretold. 

3 13. Question of the Four: first part of the Lord s 

14 23. Troubles connected chiefly with the Fall of Jerusa 

24 27. End of the Dispensation foretold. 

28 29. Parable of the budding fig-tree. 

30 32. The time known to the Father only. 

33 37- Final warning. 

XIV. i 2. The day before the Passover. 

3 9. Episode of the Anointing at Bethany. 

10 1 1. Interview of Judas with the Priests. 

12 1 6. Preparations for the Paschal meal. 

17 21. Paschal Supper : the Traitor pointed out. 

22 25. Institution of the Eucharist. 

26 31. Departure to the Mount of Olives. The desertion 

and denial foretold. 

32 42. The Agony in Gethsemane. 

43 50^ Arrival of the Traitor: arrest of Jesus: flight of 

the Eleven. 

51 52. Story of the young man who followed. 

53 65. The Trial before the High Priest. 

66 72. Peter denies the Master thrice. 

XV. i 15. The Trial before the Procurator. 

1 6 2o a . The Lord mocked by the Procurator s soldiers. 

2o b 22. The way to the Cross. 

23 32. The Crucifixion, and the first three hours on the 


33 37- The l as ^ three hours on the Cross : the Lord s Death. 

38 41. Events which immediately followed. 

42 47. The Burial of the Lord. 

XVI. i 8. Visit of the women to the tomb on the third day. 

[9 n. Appearance to Mary of Magdala. 

12 13. Appearances to two disciples. 

14 1 8. Appearances to the Eleven. 

19 20. The Ascension, and its sequel.] 

2. We are now in a position to consider how far the contents 
px>up themselves into larger sections 1 , revealing the existence of a 

1 Zahn (Einleitimg, ii. p. 224 ff.) di- Dr Salmond (in Hastings, D. B., iii. 249) 

rides the Gospel, apart from the intro- suggests a division in accordance with 

luction and appendix, into five very the geographical data (i. 14 vii. 23, 

inequal parts (i. 1645, ii. i iii. 6, vii. 24 ix. 50, x. i 31, x. 32 xv. 47). 
Iii. 7 vi. 13, vi. 14 x. 53, xi. i xvi. 8). 


purpose or plan in the mind of the writer. Even a hasty exami 
nation will shew that the book deals with two great themes, 
the Ministry in Galilee (i. 14 ix. 50), and the Last Week at 
Jerusalem (xi. I xvi. 8), and that these sections are connected 
by a comparatively brief survey of the period which intervened 
(x. i 52). The first fourteen verses of the Gospel are evidently 
introductory ; the last twelve have the character of an appendix, 
which links the Gospel history with the fortunes of the Church 
in the Apostolic age. 

The first of the two great sections of St Mark bears manifest j 
signs of brevity and compression, especially in certain parts of the 
narrative. On the other hand there are indications of the writer s 
desire to follow the order of events, as far as his information 
permitted him to do so. It is shewn by the notes of time and | 
place which continually occur. 

The following are examples : Trapaywv Trapa ryv OdXao-a-av (i. 16)... 
Kat Trpo/3as oAtyov (19)... /cat eurTropevovTat ets Kac/>apvaou/u,, /cat ev#v? 
rots crd/3{3a.(riv eio-fXOwv eis rrjv a-vvaywyyv (21)... /cat cvOvs e/c rfjs j 
o-waywy?7S ceA$ovTs (29)...6i/aas 8e yevo/xev^s (32)... /cat Trpcot ei/w^a 
Atav aVacrras ef)\@ev (3 5)... /cat eto~eA0wv TraAtv ets Kac/>. oY ^epwv (ii. i) j 
.../cat e^-rjXOev 7raA.iv Trapa Tr)v $aAaercrav (13)... /cat Trapaycov (14)... /cat 1 
ewnyA^ev TraAtv ets o-vvayajy^v (iii. I ) . . . /cat . . . dve^prjcrev Trpos TT/V @d- 
Xao-crai/(7).../cat ava/?atVet cts TO opos (i3)...Kat epx^rat t? ot/cov (20)... 
Kat TraXtv rjp^aro StSacr/cetv Trapa rr)v ^aAaoxrav (iv. i).../cat ore e-ycvero 
Kara //.was (io)...Kat Xtyet avrots ev e/cctvTy rf) tjfJ-tpa oi/ ta? yei/o/^e^? > 
AteA^w/xev ts TO Trcpa? (3 5)... Kat rjXQov ci<s TO Wpav (v. i).../cal , 
StaTTtpao-avTOS TOV Iryo-ov ev TU> TrAota) TraAtv (21)... /cat t^rjXOev cKfWev 
(vi. i).../cat TTCpt^ycv Tas Kw^as (7)... /cat aTn^A^ov ev T<p TrAotw et? 
(.pf]jjLOV TOTTOV (3 2)... Kat StaTTCpacravTcs 7rt T^V y^v ^A^ov ets T 1 ewrjaraper i 
(53)...KfWV 8e avao"Tas aTrrjXOev ets TO, opta Tvpov (vii. 24)... Kat 
Tra Aiv e^eA^wv K TWV optW Tvpov ^A^ei/ Sta StSaJvos ets T^V OdXao-a-av 
(31)... Kat eu0vs e/A^Sas ets TO TrAotOV. . .^A^V ets Ta ftep?; AaA/xai/ov^a 
(viii. I o)... Kat... TraAtv e//,/3as aTnyA^ev ets TO Trepav (13)... Kat ep^ovTat t 
ets B-^o-atSa v (22). ..Kat<; Tas Kw/x,as Katoraptas (27). ..Kat 
/xeTa 7;yu,epas e^...dvac/>epet avrovs ets opos fnfnrjXov (ix. 2)... Kat KaTa/Jat- 
VOVTWV avTwv e/c Tov opovs (9)...Kat to"eA^ovTos avTov ets otKov (28)... 
KctKet^ev e^eA^o vres erropeiWro 8ta T^S FaAetAatas (30)... Kat ^A$ov ets 
Kac/>apvaou/>t (33). 

It is impossible to resist the impression that the writer ; 
who constructed this chain of sequence believed himself to be 
presenting his facts upon the whole in the order of their actual i 


Kicurrence ; and this impression is not weakened by the occasional 
Iropping of a link (as e.g. at i. 40, ii. 23, vii. i), for such excep- 
jions suggest that he was unwilling to go beyond his information, 
,nd that the indications of order which he gives are sound so 
ar as they go. This view is supported by the absence of his 
feivourite evQvs at the points of transition; at such times the 
isrriter vouches for the relative order only, and not for the im- 
jaediate succession of the events. The kind of sequence which 
^e aims to establish is consistent with the omission of many 
incidents or discourses, and with the bringing into close proximity 
If others which were separated by considerable intervals, but not 
rith a disregard of chronological order; nor is it his habit to 
xoup together materials of similar character, or which appeared 
o illustrate the same principle 1 . 

But granting that the writer intended to follow the relative 
rder of time, is there reason to suppose that he has succeeded ? 
an we recognise in this part of his work the steady and natural 
velopment of events which possesses historical verisimilitude ? 

The answer makes itself distinctly heard by the careful 
udent. He observes a progress in the history of the Galilean 
inistry, as it is depicted by St Mark, which bears the stamp 
truth. The teaching of Christ is seen to pass through a 
iccession of stages in an order which corresponds to His method 
dealing with men : first there is the synagogue homily, then 
le popular instruction delivered in the larger auditorium 
pplied by the sea-shore or the neighbouring hills, then the 
caching by parables of the multitudes who had proved them- 
Ives incapable of receiving spiritual truth, and lastly the 
dtiation of a select few into the mysteries of the Kingdom, 
hich they were afterwards to proclaim to the world. And 

1 Dr Sanday, however, (Smith, D.B. 2 , as wholes are in chronological order, the 

p. 1224, cf. Hastings, D.B., ii. p. 613) events within each section are obviously 

nds some instances of this: "Some massed in groups"; "within his first 

Actions (according to Holtzmann, ii. section St Mark certainly groups events 

; iii. 6, iv. 21 25, ix. 33 50, x. 2 by subject-matter rather than by time." 

i, xi. 2326) shew marks of artificial The general attitude of St Mark to- 

mposition." Mr C.H.Turner (Hastings, wards chronological order is stated in a 

.., i. pp. 406, 410) expresses himself few careful sentences by Dr Salmoud, 

ith less reserve: "even if the sections in Hastings, D. B., iii. p. 255. 


the course of events as sketched by St Mark answers tc 
this progress in the teaching and partly explains it. We seei 
the crowd growing daily in numbers and enthusiasm, the 
opportunities of teaching increased, the necessity arising for ^ 
division of labour, the consequent seleetion and training of the] 
Twelve ; and on the other hand, the growing hostility of the 
Scribes, their reinforcement from Jerusalem, their alliance withj 
the party of Herod, the unintelligent and dangerous excitement 
of the common people, the awakened curiosity of Antipas. A* 
we look more closely into St Mark s picture, the plan of the 
Ministry begins to shape itself. We see that it includes (i) the| 
evangelisation of the lake-side towns and country, both in the 
tetrarchy of Antipas and in that of Philip; (2) the extensiorj 
of this work to the rest of Galilee during intervals of enforceoj 
withdrawal from the lake-district; and (3) the instruction andj 
disciplining of the men who were ultimately to carry the preach 
ing of the Divine Kingdom to the ends of the earth. The whol 
of this complicated process moves onwards in St Mark s historjl 
in so easy and natural a manner that we are scarcely conscioi 
of the movement until we come to analyse the contents of th( 
Gospel. But in fact the scheme is developed step by step, 
incident forming a distinct link in the sequence 1 . 

According to Papias St Mark wrote aKpi/?ak, ov fievroi raei, and 
this has been taken to mean that, while his recollections were 
faithfully reproduced, he made no attempt to arrange them chrono 
logically 2 . But rais is order of any kind, and its precise meaning I 
must be interpreted by the context in which it occurs. In this 
case the context supplies a clue, for Papias goes on to say thai 
St Peter taught ov^ wcrTrep (rvvra^iv ran/ KvpiaKwv Trotov/xevos Xoywv, 
i.e. not with the view of producing a literary work. A o-wrais if 
a set treatise which follows the rules of orderly composition ; thus] 
the writer of 2 Maccabees at the end of his task (xv. 39) finds 
comfort in the reflexion TO T^S Karao-/cev^s rov Aoyov repTret ras ctKoacj 
TCDV evTvy^ai/oi/Twi/ TT/ (rwrd^L. Papias himself claims that his logim 
were compiled o-wraKTiKws : OVK OKVT/CTW Se troi KOI oo-a TTOTC Trapa Ttovj 
7rp0-/3uTpooi/ KaAxos tpaQov /cat /caXws e^vrjfjiovfva-a o-uvKarara^at (t 

1 The solitary exception is the ex 
planatory episode of the Baptist s death 
(vi. 1729). 

2 For various explanations of this] 
omission see Salmon, Intr. 7 p. 91. 


<rvi/raai) rats ep^veicus. St Mark s work, being a mere echo of 
St Peter s aTroju.v^/xoi cv/zaTa, was not in this sense orderly; it 
belonged to a different category from the artificial treatises which 
were in fashion, and for the most part was a mere string of notes 
connected in the simplest way. The structure of the Second Gospel 
is wholly in harmony with this view. The paragraphs, often 
extremely brief, are connected by the simplest of Greek copulas. 
Tore, which abounds in St Matthew, is not once used by St Mark 
as a note of transition ; ouv, St John s favourite copula, is employed 
in narration only by the writer of the supplementary verses; Se 
occurs in this connexion but four times in the first nine chapters. 
Yet in the longer subsections the writer of this Gospel shews him 
self willing to vary the monotony of the repeated KCU by the use 
of dAAa, yap, tSov, or by dispensing with copulas of any kind. His 
invariable use of /cat at the commencement of a paragraph 1 may 
therefore be attributed to the deliberate purpose of connecting his 
notes together in the least artificial manner; and this feature of 
his work sufficiently explains the words of Papias. 

When we pass from the narrative of the Galilean Ministry 
(i. 14 ix. 50) to the brief summary of the Judaean and Peraean 
journeys which followed it, St Mark s manner changes perceptibly. 
le is still, at least in c. x., a compiler of \jiro^vr]^aTi(T^oi, but 
lis memoranda are no longer accompanied by notes of time, 
ind the notes of place are few (x. I, 17, 32, 46). When Jerusalem 
s reached such indications of fuller knowledge appear again ; the 
mccession of the events is carefully noted, and the places where 
;hey occurred are specified (e.g. xi. I, 11,12, 15, 19, 20, 27 ; xii. 41 ; 
mi. I, &c.). The hand of the writer to whom we owe the first 
jreat section of the book is clearly to be seen in the last. Yet 
;here is a change of manner which is perhaps not wholly due 
the difference of theme. The narrative of the Passion is on a 
scale which is out of all proportion to that on which the Ministry 
is drawn. The subsections become noticeably longer ; instruction 
lolds a more prominent position ; the terseness of the earlier 
sayings is exchanged for specimens of more prolonged teaching (e.g. 
si. 23 25, xii. 24 27, 29 31, 38 40); a whole chapter (xiii.) 
is occupied by a single discourse ; the style is more varied, and 
the monotonous ical gives place more frequently to 3e or some 
other equivalent. These are among the signs which point to a 

1 See above, p. xlviii. n. 


partial use in these chapters of a source distinct in character froml 
that which supplied the materials of the first nine or ten chapters.! 
3. The tradition which from the days of Irenaeus hasjj 
identified the Second Gospel with the teaching of St Peter is tool 
early and too consistent to be wholly set aside, unless the internal! 
evidence of the book requires us to abandon it. There is certainly! 
but little in this Gospel which did not fall within the limits ofl 
St Peter s personal knowledge. He may have been present on all! 
the occasions in our Lord s life to which St Mark refers except the! 
Baptism, the Temptation, and the Crucifixion and the scenes whichl 
followed it. On certain occasions he was one of three selected! 
witnesses. It is true that the figure of Simon Peter does now 
loom large in the Second Gospel, and some pages in the history! 
where he fills a prominent place are wanting in St Mark ; it! 
is St Matthew who relates the high commendation passed upon! 
Peter s confession of faith, while St Mark gives only the story 
of his subsequent miscarriage; the story of Peter s walking 
on the sea, and of the stater in the fish s mouth, are also ini 
Matthew only; indeed the only long paragraph in Mark which 
concerns St Peter is the account of his three-fold denial of the 

This difficulty presented itself to the acute mind of Eusebius 
of Caesarea, and he met it by what is probably on the whole the 
true explanation of the facts the Apostle s reluctance to call 
attention to himself in a record of the words and works of Christ; 
dem. ev. iii. 3 ravra. //,/ ovv 6 Herpes CWCOTOOS irapacrKaTraarOai iJiW 
Oio^ /cat Map/cos avra TrapeAorci/, TO, 8c Kara TTJV apvyaw avrov is TrdVras 
tK-qpvgev av6pu)7rov<s... Map/cos (JLCV ravra ypcu^ci, Herpes Se ravra Trepl 
cavrov ^apn;pet. Such reticence may indeed serve to disarm sus 
picion when we remember that the Pseudo-Peter writes in the 
first person (Ev. Petr. ad Jin. eyo> Sc 2t/xo>v Herpes KOI Aj/opc as 6 
dSeA<os /xov), and that the same feature appears in other Christian 
pseudonymous literature. 

But if tokens of Petrine origination are not prominent in 
St Mark s Gospel, they are not wanting altogether, and the 
unobtrusiveness of those which meet the eye of the careful 
student increases his sense of their importance. Thus, while the 
Second Gospel omits a series of incidents relating to St Peter 
which find a place in the first and third (e.g. Mt. xiv. 28 f., xv. 15, 



xvi. 1 8, xvii. 24 ff., xviii. 21, Lc. v. 3 ff., xii. 41, xxii. 31), and 
contains no such incident which the other Synoptists omit, it 
occasionally identifies St Peter where St Matthew and St Luke 
are indefinite. 

Simon, Peter, or Simon Peter is mentioned 28 times by Mt., 25 
by Me., 27 by Lc. Of Mc. s references to the name in separate 
contexts four are peculiar to him (Me. i. 36, xi. 21, xiii. 3, xvi. 7), 
whilst, except in the passages cited above, Mt. has no reference 
which is not shared by one or both of the other Synoptists. Lc. 
has four (viii. 45, xxii. 8, xxiv. 12, 34), but the last two are found 
elsewhere (Jo. xx. 3 ff., i Cor. xv. 5). 

There are other facts which point to the same conclusion. The 
reader of the Synoptist Gospels is frequently struck by the appear 
ance in St Mark of minute details or touches which suggest first 
hand knowledge. This impression may be partly due to St Mark s 
characteristic style, though on the other hand it is possible that 
the style itself may have been moulded by intercourse with an 
eye-witness. Such striking phrases as e^pifirja-d/iLevo^ avru> 
s efe /3aXez> avrov (i. 43), 7rep/3Xe^a/u,eyo9 avrovs yLter opyr/s 
<7vv\V7rovfj,vo<? eVl T$ r rrwp(t)<7i T?}? icapSias avrwv (iii. 5), Trepie- 
/5\67T6TO IBeiv TJ]V TovTO iToiijcracrav (v. 32), ai/eVecrai/ Trpa<rial 
irpacriai (vi. 40), can hardly be attributed to the fancy of a 
compiler. Certainly no amount of realism will account or the 
scores of unexpected and independent details with which St Mark 
enriches the common narrative ; as Bishop Westcott observes, 
"there is perhaps not one narrative which he gives in common 
with St Matthew and St Luke to which he does not contribute 
some special feature 1 ." 

Examples maybe found in Me. i. 14 f., 20, 27, 29, 33, 35 ff., ii. 2, 
3, 4, 13, 15, 23, iii. 4, 7, 9, 14 f., 17, 20 f., 31, 32, 34, iv. 33, 34, 
35> 3 6 , 38, v. 13, 20, 21, 26, vi. i, 5, 30, 32, 37, 45, 48, 51, 53, 56, 
vii. 24, 26, 31, viii. 12, 22 ff., 34, ix. 13, 15 ff, 28, 33 ff, x. 16, 
21 ff, 32, 46 ff, xi. 8, n, 13, 16, 19, 20 f., 27, xii. 12, 35, 37, 41, 

43, xiii 3, xiv. 40, 58, 59, 65, 66, 67, 72, xv. 7, 8, 21, 23, 25, 41, 

44, 45, 46, xvi. i, 3, 4, 5, 8. 

Was St Peter the eye-witness who supplied this mass of 
c| independent information ? There are three narratives in the 
i| Synoptic tradition which must have been derived originally from 

1 Westcott, Introduction to the Study of the Gospels, p. 562. 


St Peter, St John, or St James; and there is one of which 
St Peter alone was competent to give a full account. A com 
parison of St Mark s account of these incidents ought to throw 
light upon the question. 

(i) Me. v. 37 43 (Mt. ix. 23 25, Lc. viii. 51 56). Me. 
alone distinguishes the successive stages of the Lord s way to the 
dead child (ov/c d<?7Kev ovSej/o, /ACT O.VTOV crvvaKoXovOrjcrai et /xi; 
/crX. .../cat epvovTai ets TOV OLKOV...KOI eio~X0(W...eicr7ropevTai OTTOV rjv 
TO TraiSiov) ; in Me. only the Lord s words are preserved in Aramaic, 
and the child s age is mentioned at this point to account for her 
rising and walking (TrepteTraTci, r)v yap erwi/ SwSeKa) ; lastly, it is Me. 
only who connects this miracle with the departure from Capernaum 
which followed (vi. i). (2) Me. ix. 2 13 (Mt. xvii. i 13, Lc. ix. 
28 36). Here Mt. is in some respects fuller than Me., and seems 
to have had access to another tradition. But Me. has several 
striking features, some of which point to Peter as their source. 
Such a phrase as o~Ti\/3ovTa XCVKO, Xiav ota yva<evs /crX., the untrans 
lated "Rabbi" of Peter s answer, the explanatory clause ov yap rj&ci 
TL aTTOKpiOfj, the mention of the suddenness with which the vision 
vanished (e^aTrtva Trepi/^Xei^a/Acvot ov/ceri ovBeva etSov), the reference 
to the reticence which the three practised (TOV \6yov expor^o-ai/. . . 
o-vvZflTovvTcs KT\.) are just such personal reminiscences as St Peter 
might have been expected to retain. (3) Me. xiv. 33 42 (Mt. 
xxvi. 3746, Lc. xxii. 4046). Here Mt. agrees with Me., yet a 
close examination reveals the greater originality of Me., and some 
probable traces of a Petrine source ; thus it is Me. only who pre 
serves the Aramaic a/3/2a, and the Si /twv of the Lord s address to 
Peter; moreover the characteristic ov/c ^Seicrav TL a7roKpi0a>criv avrw 
clearly comes from the same mind which supplied the similar note 
in the Marcan account of the Transfiguration. (4) Me. xiv. 54, 
6672 (Mt. xxvi. 58, 6975, Lc - xxii - 54 62). All the Synoptic 
accounts here depend on St Peter, for St John s report (Jo. xviii. 
17 1 8, 25 27) is quite distinct. But Mc. s narrative manifests 
special knowledge of the lesser details (e.g. ?v...0/o/Aau/6>j>os Trpo? 
TO <<os, ifiovaa TOV TleTpov ^ep/xaivo /xevov, eis TO 7rpoavAiov, IK ScvTfpov, 
e7ri/3aA(oV). His dialogue also has greater freshness and verisimili 
tude; cornp. KCU o-v /X,TO. TOV Na^apryvov rfvOa TOV I^o-ov with Mt. s 
Kai o-v rjvOa /XCTO. Iiyo-ov TOV FaXctXatov, and the answer OVTC otSa ovre 
cyVra/mt <& TL Xe yet? (Me.) with the tamer OVK oT8a TL Xeyeis (Mt.), 
OVK oiSa avTov, yvi/at (Lc.). 

The internal evidence does not amount to a proof of Petrine 
origination. But it is entirely consistent with the tradition which 
represents St Mark as specially indebted to St Peter ; and the 
tradition is at once too early and too wide-spread to be abandoned 
unless the evidence of the Gospel itself renders its acceptance 


It is another question whether the present book can be 
assigned as a whole to St Peter or even to St Mark 1 . The last 
twelve verses, as we shall see, almost certainly belong to another 
hand ; the first verse is possibly no part of the original work. 
To St Mark and not to St Peter must probably be ascribed the 
episode of the Baptist s martyrdom, the story of the veavia-icos in 
Gethsemane, such explanatory notes as vii. 3 4, 19 b, and the 
interpretations of Aramaic words and names. It may be doubted 
whether the long discourse of c. xiii. was derived from St 
Peter s teaching ; indeed the note in v. 14 (o avaywoMTicwv voeira)) 
seems to point distinctly to a written source which St Mark 
has incorporated. At xiv. I we come upon the traces of another 
source ; the words TJV 8e TO Trdo-^a KOI TO. a^vpa /JLCTO, &vo 
fjfjiepas have the air of a new beginning and are not in St Mark s 
style, and the incident which follows, although it might have formed 
a suitable introduction to a detached narrative of the Passion, 
breaks St Mark s order of time, carrying us back, as St John 
shews, to the day before the Lord s entry into Jerusalem. Thus 
it is probable that at this point St Mark has availed himself of an 
earlier document, into which he has worked his recollections of 
St Peter s teaching and such other materials as his own residence 
at Jerusalem had placed within his reach 2 . 

On the whole it seems safe to assume as a working theory of 
the origination of the Gospel that its main source is the teaching 
of St Peter, which has supplied nearly the entire series of notes 
descriptive of the Galilean Ministry, and has largely influenced the 
remainder of the book. But allowance must probably be made, 
especially in the last six chapters, for the use of other authorities, 
some perhaps documentary, which had been familiar to the 
Evangelist before he left the Holy City. 

1 The present writer has risen from undergone. 

his study of the Gospel with a strong 2 For an account of the attempts 
sense of the unity of the work, and can made by critics since the time of Baur 
echo the requiescat Urmarkus which to discover a tendency or a dogmatic 
ends a recent discussion. But he is not purpose in the Second Gospel, see Sal- 
prepared to express an opinion as to the mond in Hastings, D.B. iii. p. 260; and 
nature and extent of the editorial re- on the supposed Paulinisms of St Mark 
vision which St Mark s original has cf. Encycl. BibL ii. p. 1844. 

S. M. 2 



If we accept the traditional account of the origin of St Mark s 
work, the writer was far from regarding it in the light of 
a Gospel, i.e. as one of a series of attempts to produce a record 
of the life of Christ. It is not impossible that the present 
headline Ap^H rof eyArreAi oY MHCOY Xpicrof maybe due to a later 
hand; the superscription KATA AVxpKON was certainly added by 
a generation which had conceived the idea of a tetrad of Gospels. 
The interpreter of Peter, if he gave a title to his book, was 
doubtless content to call it by such a name as we find in Justin 

But though originally an independent work, St Mark stands 
to the first and third of our present Gospels in a relation which 
is not accidental or artificial, but vital. When the three writings 
are compared together, they are found to deal with the same 
great cycles of events, and to describe them in words which are 
often nearly identical. The literary problem which arises from 
this remarkable fact belongs to the general Introduction of the 
Gospels, and cannot be usefully discussed here 1 ; nor, indeed, is it 
one which directly concerns the student of St Mark. But he will 
do well to take note of the distinctive features of the second 
Gospel as compared with the first and the third, and to examine 

1 For a comprehensive treatment of Encyclopaedia Biblica is unhappily dis- 

the subject the reader may be referred figured, more especially in the section 

to Professor Stanton s article Gospels on the Credibility of the Synoptics, by 

in the second volume of Dr Hastings the dogmatic statement of conclusions 

Dictionary of the Bible. An elaborate which are quite insufficiently supported. 
and able article on the same subject in 


their bearing upon the origin and character of the book upon 
which he is engaged. 

The following table will shew how far the First and Third 
Gospels cover the ground which is covered by St Mark, and the 
relative order which they follow. For the contents of the sections 
see v. p. li ff. 








I 12 

III. i6, 1517 

9 n 


21 22 









16 20 


1 8 22 
















12 16 


I 12 



17 26 




15 17 

10 13 


1 8 22 











6 ii 




13 i 9 a 

i 9 b 30 




12 16 

14 26 




19 21 






10 12 

10 15 

9 10 





16 18 

26 29 











22 25 


J J 3 











40 48 












35- X. i, X. 



5- XL i 

14 16 


I 2 





19 20 







IX. 10 17 





XV. 19 


10 19 


21 28 


29 ff. 31 


I 10 

32 39 a 


39 b-XVI. 4 

14 21 

XVI. 5i2 

22 26 



18 21 

3 1 33 



34-IX. i 





XVII. i8 


9 *3 

9 J 3 


14 20 

37 43 a 



43 b 45 


XVIII. i5 








XIX. 12 

2 12 


13 16 

XVIII. 1517 

17 22 

1 6 22 









XX. 17 19 



20 28 





i ii 

XXI. i ii 

XIX. 29 45* 




12 17 

45 b 48 

20 25 

I9 b 22 


23 27 

XX. i8 


I 12 



13 17 

XXII. 1522 

20 26 






35 37 a 



37 b 40 

XXIII. i 3 8 



XXI. i4 


I 2 

XXIV. i2 







20 24 



25 28 











Me. Mt. Lc. 
XIV. i2 XXVI. i5 XXII. i2 

39 613 

10 ii 14 16 3 6 

12 16 1719 713 

1721 2025 14, 2123 

2225 2629 1720 

26 3i 3035 3139 

32 42 36 46 40 46 

435 47 5 6 4753 

5365 5768 54 a , 63 71 

66 72 69 75 56 62 

XV. 115 XXVII. 126 XXIII. 125 

16 2o a 27 31* 

2o b 22 3 b 33 2633* 

2 332 3444 33 b 43 

3337 455 44 45 a 

3841 5 1 56 45 b 55 

4247 57 61 50 ^5 

XVI. 1-8 XXVIII. i2o 56 XXIV. 

1. It appears from this table that out of the 106 sections of 
the genuine St Mark there are but three (excluding the head-line) 
which are wholly absent from both St Matthew and St Luke ; 
and of the remaining 102, 96 are to be found in St Matthew, 
and 82 in St Luke. On the other hand, as the table shews with 
equal distinctness, there are large portions of St Matthew and St 
Luke (e.g. Mt. i. ii., v. vii., Lc. i. ii., ix. 51 xviii. 14) which are 
either entirely wanting in St Mark, or represented there only by 
an occasional fragment. This is but a rough statement of the 
case, but it suffices to indicate the relation of St Mark to the 
other Synoptists 1 in regard to the extent of the fields which they 
respectively occupy. 

2. Further, the table reveals a marked difference of order in 
that part of the common narrative which belongs to the Galilean 
Ministry. From the beginning of the journeyings to Jerusalem 
to the Resurrection the order of the sections differs but slightly. 
St Matthew (xxi. 19 f.) brings the withering of the fig-tree into 
immediate connexion with the sentence pronounced upon it, and 

1 Compare Mr W. C. Allen s paper in Exp. T. xii., p. 279 ff. (The dependence 
of St Matt, i xiii upon St Mark). 


St Luke (xxii. 21 f.) places the detection of Judas after the distri 
bution of the Eucharist. With these exceptions the order of Me. 
x . i xvi. 8 is generally followed by St Matthew and St Luke. 
But in the sequence of the events narrated in Me. i. 14 ix. 50 
there is no such consensus. St Luke, indeed, is generally in fair 
agreement with St Mark, where the two are dealing with the same 
events ; but St Matthew s displacements of the Marcan order are 
numerous and serious in the earlier chapters. 

The chief differences of order in St Luke are as follows : (i) the 
charge of collusion with Beelzebul follows the arrival of the 
mother and brethren; (2) the parable of the mustard seed is 
detached from that of the sower and stands in a later context ; 
(3) the preaching at Nazareth is placed at the outset of the 
Ministry. St Matthew s order is essentially different from 
St Mark s as far as Me. vi. 13, although from that point the 
two are in almost complete agreement. 

It may be taken as a prima facie argument in favour of St 
Mark s order that it is " confirmed either by St Matthew or St 
Luke, and the greater part of it by both 1 / Moreover, when one 
of the other Synoptists strikes out a path peculiar to himself, 
his order usually has less verisimilitude, and is open on internal 
grounds to suspicion. 

Thus (i) when Mt. places the gathering of crowds from Decapolis 
and Judaea at the very outset of the Ministry (Mt. iv. 25), there 
can be little doubt that he antedates a state of things which Me. 
rightly places at a later stage (Me. iii. 7 ff.). (2) The crossing to 
the Gadarene (Gerasene) country, if preparatory to an evangelistic 
tour in the Decapolis, seems to come too early in Mt. s order, 
and on the other hand he places the calling of the Apostles too 
late ; in Me. both incidents occupy places which accord with what 
appears to be the natural course of events. (3) The synagogue 
scene at Nazareth, which Lc. fixes before the commencement of the 
Lord s residence at Capernaum, bears upon its surface the evidence 
of a later date (cf. Lc. iv. 23 ocra TyKovo-a/xei/ yevo/>ti/a ets ryv Ka<ap- 
vaov /z KT\.). (4) Again the notes of time and place in Me. are 
frequently precise where in Lc. they disappear, or exist only in a 
weakened form e.g. Me. i. 22 v#vs rot? tray8/3a<riv (Lc. ev TOIS o-.), 
11. I cicreX^obv 7raA.iv ts Ka</>apvaov/x, Si* T^/xepwv (Lc. tycvfro fv /xia TOJV 
17/x.epoji/), iv. 35 ei/ Kewrj rfj yptpa. (Lc. iv ftict ran/ ij/xepwi/) whilst in 

1 Mr F. H. Woods in Studio, Biblica* ii. p. 62 : cf. Dr Sandav s remarks i 
Smith s D.B. a (p. 1224). 



Mt. the incidents have sometimes fallen into new surroundings 
which are inconsistent with those assigned to them in Me. or Lc. 
or in both j comp. e.g. Mt. viii. I KaTa/3avro<s Se avrov O.TTO rov opovs 
(Lc. Iv TO> eTvat avrov i/ /xia TCUV 7roXti)i>), ix. 1 8 ravra avrov XaXowTOS 
(Me. and Lc. place the preceding parables in other contexts). 

3. The comparison of St Mark s matter with that of the corre 
sponding narratives in St Matthew and St Luke has been to some 
extent anticipated in the preceding section (p. Ixiii if.). But it 
may be useful to illustrate a little more fully the relative fulness 
of St Mark s knowledge in matters of detail 1 . The following 
examples are taken from the first four chapters of the Gospel. 


i. 20 d^tVres TOV, avrojj/ Z e /? e - 
Satov ev T<5 TrXotu) 


. 35 Trpou 
Xtav di/acrTas 
Kai, aTrfjXO 


^vs e^e/JaXev 
TOV, Kat Xeyet aura) 


. 2 


S TO. ?rpos Ovpav, 
ii. 23 rjpavTO oSov 

TTOietV TtXXoVTC? T0l)5 

iii. 6 

4>aptcratot ev^v? /xera 
i/ xrX. 

. 1 4 

avrov Kat ?va airo- 


i\ T . 22 d^>VT? TO 

TrXotov Kai TOV Tra- 
repa avrwv 

viii. 4 Kat Xeyet 

xii. I rjpa.VTo 

X. I 
/xevo? TOVS 

Tots i^ovariav 


V. II KaTayayov- 

TS TO. TrXottt 7Tt T^|V 


v. 42 


V. 14 Kat avros 


vi. i tTtXXov ot 
avrov KOL 
iov TOV<S o-Ta^vas. 
vi. II avrot 8e 


vi. 13 Trpo<T<f>(i>v- 


ttTT* aVTWV 8(0- 
StKO. . . 

1 Cf. Papias ap. Eus.: 

Trpoj/oiaj/, roO p.tj5ev uv -fjnovcre irapa.Xnreti . 


Me. Mt. Lc. 


. 1921 
rat eis otKOV /cat 

6 oxXos, wo-re 
-$at avr 
aprov c/>ayetv. 

Trap avrov 

Kparrj(raL avrov, e- 

Xeyov yap on ee- 


IV. 10 OTyVTO 

Kara /xoVas, rjpwTtov 
O.VTOV ol Trept avrov 
<rvv TGI? 

xiii. 10 Trpoo-cX- 


iv. 34 Kar 
Se rot? tSt ots 


iv. 36 7rapaAa/u./2a - 
vov<rtv avrov <os ^v iv 
TO> TrXotw, /cat aXXa 
TrXota f)V /x,T* av- 

iv. 38 /cat avros ^ 
cv rrj TrpvfjLvrj tirl 
TO 7rpoo-/cc/>aA.aiov 

v. 39 
TO) ave/xa) /cat 
TiJ 6a\d(T(Ty 

viii. 23 e/A/2aVrt 
3 ets 


Viii. 2 6 f7TTL/Jir)- 

crev rots ai/cjaots Kat 


v. 24 avros 

v. 9 
8 aim)!/ ot 
avrov KrX. 

Viii. 22 avros ei e- 

ets TrXotov Kat ot 


v. 23 

dc/>v7Tva)O ev. 


Viii. 24 7TTt/>tT7- 

o~ev TO) av/xo) Kat TO) 

KXvScovt TOV 


When St Mark does not add to our knowledge, his presentation 
of a fact or saying is often distinct from that which it assumes in 
St Matthew and St Luke, and has the appearance of being the 
original from which one or both of the other accounts have been 

The following examples from the same chapters may suffice : 

Me. Mt. Lc. 

i. 1 6 St/xcoi/a Kat iv. 1 8 Svo a8eX- 

AvSpeav TOV a 8eXc/>ov 

iv. __ ___ _ 

2t]u.a>va TOV 
\ey6fjLcvov IleVpov 

Me. Mt. Lc. 


t "AvSpeav TOI/ a- 

i. 26 cnrapd^av av- 

ii. 1 2 TOV Kpai/3a.T- 
ii. 17 

v. 3 5 
15 TO 

ix. 6 TTJV K\W7)V. 

ix. 13 /caXeVai... 

ii. 21 ei Sc /XT;, atpet 

TO 7T A?7p(0tia OLTT aVTOV 

lii. I 6 Kttl 7T@r]Kl 

Tpov, Kat laKW/Jov. 
iv. ii v/xu> TO /xv- 

iv. 1 6 atpei yap 
TO 7rA/7p<ju/Aa 
a?ro TOV t/xartov. 

IV. 21 p;(Tai 6 

xiii. n v/Atv - 
Sorat yvwvat TO, /xv- 

V. 15 

V. 24 TO 

V. 32 Ka\O"at d- 

/XapTCoXoV? t? (J.TOL- 


v. 36 et 8c />^/y, 

Kttt TO KatVOf (T\iCTL 

Kat T(3 TraAatoj ov 

TO 7Tl- 


vi. 14 ^Ljjutiva ov 
Kat o>vop,ao*V He- 
Tpov . . . Kai laKwjSov. 

viii. 9 v/xtv 8e So- 
Tat yvwvat TO, 

viii. 1 6 

iv. 22 ov yap co~- 

Tll KpVTTTOV ttV /XT^ IVtt 

iv. 31 oj? KOJCJCW. 

X. 26 ovScv yap 
mv Ke/caXv/x/xe vov 


xiii. 31 6/xoia 0-- 

TIV. . .KOKKU). 

viii. 17 ov yap 


x. 19 /xota 


Although in several of these instances St Mark s mode of ex 
pressing himself is briefer than that which is preferred by the other 
Synoptists, his style is not on the whole distinguished by brevity. 
On the contrary his treatment of incident is constantly fuller than 
theirs, partly through the habit, already illustrated, of filling up 
his picture with an abundance of minute details, partly from his 
way of (i) presenting facts in a vivid and pictorial form, and 
(2) interpreting character and conduct. 

Examples of (i) may be found in the story of the Gerasene 
demoniac, the narrative of the cleansing of the ai/xoppoovo-a and 
the raising of the child of Jairus, the Baptist s martyrdom, the 
discussion arising out of the question about Koivat x^P S ^ ne 
healing of the Syrophoenician girl, the epileptic boy, and the son 
of Timaeus, the scribe s question, the anointing at Bethany. This 
feature in Me. is most apparent when he is compared with Mt. 


Lc. has a fulness of his own, but it is of another character, and 
largely due to a literary style; cf. Me. ii. 22 with Lc. v. 37!, v. i 
with Lc. viii. 26, v. 17 with Lc. viii. 37, viii. 30 with Lc. ix. 21, 
viii. 34 with Lc. ix. 23, ix. 32 with Lc. ix. 45, xi. 8 with Lc. xix. 
37, xiii. 7 f . with Lc. xxi. 9 ff. 

The following may serve as illustrations of (2) : Me. i. 41 
o-TrAayxvio-flets, i. 43 e/A/fyi/^o-ajatvos, iii. 5 /XCT* opyvjs (rwAvTrov/xevos, 
v. 30 eTTiyyovs cv eavTw rrjv e avrov, v. 36 Trapa/cotVas rov 
Aoyov AaAov/ACvof, vi. 19 evet^ev avTu> KT\., vi. 20 <o/3iTO...7roAAa 
TjTTopei KCU TySe ws avrov r)K.ovf.v, vi. 52 TJV CLVTOJV 77 KapSia TreTrw/aw/xevr;, 
vii. 19 KaOapL^fov Trdvra ra /Jpooyaara, X. 21 /x/3Aei//as avra) ^yaTr^o-ev 
bV, x. 22 CTTvyvcuras CTTI T<3 Aoycu, xv. 15 /?ovAo/Avos TO) o^Aa) TO 
TTOI^O-CU, xvi. 8 ovSevt ovSev etTrov, t(f>o(3ovvTO yap. 

As a result of this characteristic fulness of St Mark, some 
eighty verses in his Gospel find no direct parallel in the other 
Synoptists. Although he seldom introduces a narrative or a 
parable which is not also found in St Matthew or St Luke, the 
aggregate of matter peculiar to the Second Gospel cannot fall 
much below one-sixth of the whole book. 

In one respect, indeed, St Mark is concise where the other 
Evangelists are full. With a single exception (c. xiii.) he repre 
sents the longer discourses of St Matthew and St Luke by a few 
compact sentences. Thus, the Sermon on the Mount finds only 
an occasional echo in the Second Gospel (e.g. iv. 21, ix. 50, x. n); 
the long charge to the Twelve (Mt. x.) is reduced by St Mark 
to a few verses (vi. 8 11); of the final denunciation of the 
Pharisees, which occupies a whole chapter in St Matthew (xxiii.), 
St Mark gives merely a specimen (xii. 38 40). Such public 
teaching as St Mark reports is chiefly parabolic (ii. 19 22, iii 
2 3 2 7> i y - 3 3 2 > y ii- I5> xii. i 9); yet his parables are few in 
comparison with those of either Matthew or Luke. On the other 
hand instructions delivered privately to the Twelve are some 
times given more at length by St Mark than by the other twoi 
Synoptists (cf. e.g. vii. 18 23, viii. 17 21, ix. 33 50, xiii. 
34 37)- And such sayings as St Mark records are often, like 
his narrative, characterised by touches which possess a singular 
freshness and originality. 

^The following are examples: i. 14 ireTrAr/pomu 6 Kayo s, ii. 27 TO 
craft fiaTov Sta rov avOpwrov cyeVcro /cat ofy 6 avOpuiros Sia TO (rdftfiaroVy 


iii. 23 Trtos SvvaraL ^arava? ^aravav e/c/3aXXetv; 26 dXXa reAos 
29 Ivo^o? eo-Tcu ataw ov d/xapr^/AttTO?, iv. 8 dva^atvovra /cat avav6fjifva y 
13 OVK oiSare Tr/f TrapafioXrjv rav-rrjv KrA., vii. 13 Trapo/xoia roiavra 
TroXXa TToietrc, vii. 27 a<es TrpaJroi/ ^opTa.crO fjvaL TO. reKva, viii. 21 OVTTO> 
o~vvLfT ; ix. 23 TO Ei Svv??, TravTa Swara TO> TrttrrevovTt, ix. 29 TOVTO TO 
yci/os tv ovSevi SvraTat c^eX^eti/ t /LIT) ev Trpoa-eu^, x. 30 /ACTO. Sicoy/xwv, 
xi. 22 ex T 7rt/ " TtI/ ^eov, xii. 27 TroXv 7rAavao-#e, xii. 34 ov fjMKpav t 
dfl-o T^S /SeurtXccas TOU 0cov, xiv. 36 iravra. SuvaTa trot. 

To sum up these remarks. It would appear that the relation of 
St Mark to the other Synoptists is that of an early but fragmen 
tary record towards records of a somewhat later origin 1 and more 
complex character. In compass St Mark falls far short of the 
other two 2 , but he excels them in approximation to chronological 
order and in life-like representation of the facts 3 . His narrative 
moves in a more contracted field; he reports bat one of our 
Lord s longer discourses in full, and comparatively few of His 
sayings and parables. But where the three Synoptists are on 
common ground, St Mark is usually distinguished by signs of the 
minuter knowledge which comes from personal observation or 
from personal contact with an eye-witness 4 . 

1 For a discussion of this point see the marvellous. With the phenomena 
Hastings, D. B. iii. 259 f., Enc. Bibl. ii. of the Apocryphal Gospels before our 
1847 f. ; the literature upon it will be eyes it will surely be reckoned a sign of 
found in Moffatt, Historical N. T., p. decadence that our Second Evangelist 
262 f. dilates so exuberantly on the Gadarene s 

2 Jerome, de virr. ill. 8, " Marcus... ferocity and the epileptic s paroxysm." 
breve scripsit evangelium." The comparison of St Mark with the 

8 On the genius of St Mark s Gospel Apocryphal Gospels is unfortunate. It 

see Salmond in Hastings, D. B., p. 253 ff . calls attention to the essential difference 

4 Mr F. P. Badham in St Mark s between the real and the realistic, a 

Indebtedness to St Matthew uses the report based upon a first-hand authority 

>icturesqueness of St Mark s narrative and an historical romance. For a criti- 

an argument against his priority ; see cism of Mr Badham s method the student 

j. p. 44 : " consider the frequently may be referred to Mr A. Wright s Some 

ivial character of these details... con- N. T. problems, p. 256 ff. 
der, too, the tendency to emphasise 



This Gospel contains 68 distinct references to the Old Testa 
ment, of which 25 are either formal 1 or nearly verbal quotations. 
Only seven of the references are peculiar to St Mark. 

In the following table quotations are distinguished by an 
asterisk; (Mt.), (Lc.), indicate that the passage is used by 
St Matthew or St Luke in a corresponding context; a dagger 
before a Marcan reference shews that it contains a quotation 
peculiar to St Mark. 


i. 27 
ii. 24 
xviii. 14 
xxx vii. 20 
xxxviii. 8 
iii. 6 

XX. 12 

XX. 12 17 

xxi. 17 
xxiv. 8 
xiii. 49 
xix. 1 8 
xxvii. 17 

iv - 35 
v. 1 6 

V. 17 20 

vi. 4 


xiii. i 

xxiv. i 
xxiv. 14 
xxv. 5 
xxx. 4 
i Sam. xv. 22 





Me. x. 6 (Mt.) 
x. 7 f. (Mt.) 
x. 27 (Mt., Lc.) 
xii. 7 (Mt., Lc.) 
xii. 19 (Mt., Lc.) 
xii. 26 (Mt., Lc.) 
vii. io a , x. 19 (Mt.) 
x. 19 (Mt., Lc.) 
vii. i b (Mt.) 
xiv. 24 (Mt.) 
i. 44 (Mt., Lc.) 
xii. 31, 33 (Mt., Lc.) 
vi. 34 (Mt.) 

t xii. 32 
vii. 10 (Mt.) 
x. 19 (Mt., Lc.) 
xii. 29, 32 
xii. 33 (Mt., Lc.) 
xiii. 22 (Mt.) 
x. 4 (Mt.) 

t x. 19 

xii. 19 (Mt., Lc.) 
xiii. 27 (Mt.) 

t xii. 33 

1 The formal quotations in Me. are 19; see Introduction to the O. T. in Greek,\ 


i Sam. xxi. 6 Me. ii. 26 (Mt., Lc.) 

1 Kings xxii. 17 vi. 34 (Mt.) 

2 Kings i. 8 i. 10 (Mt.) 
Esther v. 3, vii. 2 vi. 23 
Job xlii. 2 x. 29 (Mt.) 

*Ps. xxii. i xv. 34 (Mt.) 

xxii. 7 xv. 29 (Mt.) 

xxii. 19 xv. 24 (Mt., Lc.) 

xli. 9 f xiv. 1 8 

xlii. 6 xiv. 34 (Mt.) 

Ixix. 22 xv. 36 (Mt.) 

ex. i xii. 36, xiv. 62 (Mt., Lc.) 

cxviii. 22 f. xii. 10 (Mt., Lc.) 

cxviii. 25! xi. 9 (Mt.) 

Isa. v. i 2 xii. i (Mt., Lc.) 

vi. 9! iv. 12 (Mt., Lc.) 

xiii. 10 xiii. 24 (Mt.) 

xix. 2 xiii. 8 (Mt., Lc.) 

xxix. 13 vii. 6 (Mt.) 

xxxiv. 4 xiii. 25 (Mt.) 

xl. 3 i. 3 (Mt, Lc.) 

Ivi. 7 xi. 1 7 a (Mt., Lc.) 

Ixii. 2 vi. ii (Mt.) 

Ixvi. 24 f ix. 48 

Jer. v. 2 1 t viii. 1 8 

vii. ii xi. i7 b (Mt., Lc.) 

Ezek. xii. 2 f viii. 18 

xvii. 23 iv. 32 (Mt., Lc.) 

xxxiv. 5 vi. 34 (Mt.) 

Dan. ii. 28, 29, 45 xiii. 7 (Mt., Lc.) 

iv. 12, 21 iv. 32 (Mt.) 

vii. 13 xiii. 26, xiv. 62 (Mt., Lc.) 

ix. 27 xiii. 14 (Mt.) 

xi. 31 xiii. 14 (Mt.) 

xii. i xiii. 19 (Mt.) 

* xii. ii xiii. 14 (Mt.) 
Joel iii. 13 f iv. 29 

Mic. vii. 6 xiii. 12 (cf. Mt., Lc.) 

Zech. ii. 10 xiii. 27 (Mt.) 

viii. 6 x. 27 (Mt.) 

ix. 1 1 xiv. 24 (Mt.) 

* xiii. 7 xiv. 27 (Mt.) 
*Mal. iii. i i. 2 (Mt., Lc.) 

iv. 5 ix. 12 (Mt.) 

A comparison of the formal and direct quotations with the 
Cambridge manual edition of the LXX. 1 will shew that while St 

1 A more detailed comparison is given by Mr W. C. Allen in Exp. Times, xii. 
(1900-1) pp. 187 ff., 281 ff. 



Mark is generally in fair agreement with the MS. which on the 
whole presents the LXX. in its relatively oldest form, there are 
some remarkable variations. 

In the following list thick type is used where the text of the 
Cambridge LXX. diverges from the text of St Mark as edited in this 

Me. i. 2 iBov a.7roo-TeXXa> TOV 
ayyeXov /xov Trpo Trpoo toTrov o~ov, 
os KaracTKevao et Trjv ooov o~ou. 

Me. i. 3 <a)v7 ySocuvTOS cV 
TV) epry/xu) ETOt/xao"aT T^V 68ov 

KvptOV, V^taS 7TOttT TttS Tpt- 

/?ovs avTov. 

Me. vii. 6 6 Xaos OVTOS Tots 
/xc Tt/xa, 77 8e KapSta 
Troppa) aTre^ct air e/xov- 
8c cre^ovTat /xe, 

Mai. iii. I iSou 
ayycXov /xov, Kai irif3\l\|r6Tai 68ov 


Isa. xl. 3 <f>u>vrj /3ooWos ev 
Tr/v 6Sov 

7TOttT TO,? Tpl- 

ySovs TOV 00t> T)|ia>v. 

Isa. xxix. 13 fYv^- H- ot o ^-aos 


Tots ^etXO~iv avTwv Tt/xworv tif, 77 
8e KapSta avrwi Troppw * 

ror Trarepa 

Me. vii. io a 
crov Kat TT/V 

Me. vii. io b 
Trarepa -7 /x^rcpa 

Me. ix. 48 6 o-KwA.77^ avrwv ov 
a Kai TO 7JT)p or 

Me. X. 6 apo-ev Kai ^ 


Me. X. 7 f. VK/ TOVTOV KttTtt- 
aV^pWTTO? TOV TTttTeptt ttVTOV 

Kat TT^V fJLrjrepa, Kat eo-ovTat ot 8vo 
ts adpKa fALav. 

Me. X. 19 ^ ^>OVVO*^9, /X^ 

TOV TraTepa o*ov Kat TT 

Exod. xx. 12 (Deut. v. 16) Tt/xa 

TOV TTttTtpa O~OV Kttt T^V tt^Tc ptt. 

Exod. xxi. 1 6 (17) 6 KaKoXoywv avrov rj /xr/Tepa avTov 

Isa. Ixvi. 24 6 . . . o-K(a\r) auVtov 
ov TeXevnjo-et (TeXevra A), Kat TO 

TTVp ttVTWV OV O"^O^1jO*Tai. 

Gen. i. 27 apo-ev Kat tf^Xv eVot- 

f](TV ttVTOVS. 

\Lil/L av$pa>7ros TOV TraTepa 
Kat TTJV fjLrjTpa avTov, ...Kat ccrov- 
Tat ot Svo ets orapKa tttav. 

Exod. xx. 12 17 Tt/xa TOV 

ov K 

Me. xi. 9 cJoravva- 
6 ep^o /xcvos eV 6vo/xaTi Kvptov. 

Me. XI. iy a 6 O*K09 /XOV 0*KOS 

K\r]0tja-rai iraa-iv TOIS 


Deut. xxiv. 14, A OVK a7roo"T- 


Ps. cxvii. (cxviii.) 25, 26 o-- 

o~ov i . . . voy7/xevos 
ev ovd/xaTt Kvptou. 

Isa. Ivi. 7 6...oTKos /xou O*KOS 

Me. xi. 

Jer. vii. 1 1 o-TTTyXatov 



MC. Xli. IO XcOoV OV aT 

fjiacrav ol otKoSo/xovvre?, ovros 
eyci rjOf] 19 KC<j>aXr)V yow a9* trapa 
Kvptov eyeVeTo avrry, Kal 

Me. xii. 26 et7rev... Eya> 6 #eo 
A/?paa/u, Kal #O9 IcraaK /cat $eo 

Me. xii. 29 f. aKovc, 
Kv pto9 6 $eo9 77/xc3i 
O"Tti> Kal ayoLTTijcreLS Kvptov TOV 

$oV CrOV e 0X779 [r79] KapSlttS 

crov Kal e 0X179 1179 1/^179 crou 
Kat e^ 0X17? rfjs Stavotas crov Kat e^ 
0X179 T^S to-^vo? o-ov. 

Me. xii. 31 ayaTTT/o-ct? TOV 
Tr\r)(TLOv aov cos o~airro v. 

Me. xii. 32 OVK lo-rtv aXXos 
irX^i/ avrou 

Me. xii. 36 t7Ti/ Kvpios TO) 
Kvpia) /aov Ka^ov K Se^tdji/ /xou 
00? av $(3 TOV? e^ovs o~ou VTTO- 

Kara> r<3v Trowt o*ou. 

Me. xiii. 14 TO y88tXvy/xa 

Me. xiii. 19 0\fyis ota ov 
yoi ev... 
Me. xiv. 24 TO at/xa...r^s Sia- 

Me. Xiv. 27 TTttTa^O) T01/ TTOt- 

/u,o/a, Kai TO. Trpo /Jara 

Ps. cxvii. (cxviii.) 22 f. TOV 
XiOov ov a.7TooKL/Jiaa"a.v OL oi/co8o- 
, OVTOS fycwjOrj cts 
Trapa Kupi ou eyei 


17/X, OJV. 

Exod. iii. 6 CITTCV Eyw ijJLi 6 
A(3paa/jL Kal 

Kttl 0OS IttKWyS. 

Deut. vi. 4 f. aKove, 
Kvptos 6 0eos yfjitov Kvptos ets 
eo-Tiv Kal ayaTi-T/o-eis Kvpiov TOK 
vov 0*01; e^ oXr^s T^S Stai/oias o~ov 

Kal ^ 6X179 T??9 ^X ? 5 " OV Ka ^ 

0X179 Ti^9 8vvd(Jts crov. 

Lev. xix. 1 8 dyaTnjo-fiS TOV 
irXycriov crov o>9 creavrov. 

DeUt. iv. 35 OVK 0-TtV ^Tt 

(aXXo9 A) TrXyv auVov. 

Ps. Cix. (CX.) I 17TV 6 KVpt09 TO) 

Kvptw ^Ltou Ka^ov CK Sc^taji/ ^tov 
1(09 av ^<3 T0i>9 )(@pov<s crov viro- 
ir<J8tov Twi/ TToScoi crov. 

Dan. xii. n (LXX.) TO /38e. 
Xvy/xa TT79 p77/xo>crco>9. 

Dan. xii. i (Th.) 0Xu/a9 ofa 
ov ycyoi/ev... 

Exod. xxiv. 8 TO al/xa Tr/9 Sta- 

Zach. xiii. 7 7raTaaTe TOVS ?rot- 
ras Kal 6K<nrd<raT TO. 7rpd/?aTa. 

Me. xiv. 34 Trepi Xvrros...^ Ps. xii. (xiii.) 6 7TpiXv7ro9...i7 

Me. xv. 34 6 0eos /AOV 6 ^eo 
/txov, ts Tt eyKaTcXiTre? /AC; 

Ps. xxi. (xxii.) i 6 0eo9 6 fled 
v...tva Tt 

The variations, it will be seen, are not numerous or extensive, 
but they are sometimes well marked and of considerable interest. 
Details have been discussed, as far as space permitted, in the 
footnotes ; but attention may be called here to a few points, 
(i) St Mark manifests an occasional leaning towards the text of 
cod. A (Gen. ii. 24 [?], Exod. xx. 13 ff. (order), xxi. 16, Deut. vi. 4, 
Zach. xiii. 7). (2) In a few remarkable instances he agrees with 
the other Synoptists against the LXX. (Isa. xxix. 13, xl. 3, 



Zach. xiii. 7, Mai. iii. i). (3) While his LXX. quotations usually 
exhibit the same text as St Matthew s and St Luke s, he is here 
and there independent of one or both (Exod. xx. 13 ff., Deut. vi. 
4, Ps. xxi. (xxii.) I, cix. (ex.) i). 

With few exceptions (e.g. i. 2, 3) St Mark s references to the 
Old Testament occur in his report of the words of our Lord or of 
those who conversed with Him. But the commentary will make 
it probable that our Evangelist was intimately acquainted with 
the language of the Greek Bible 1 . To the LXX. he was probably 
indebted for nearly all that he knew of Greek as a written language 2 , 
as well as for the form in which his conceptions of the Messiah 
and the Kingdom of GOD were generally cast. 

1 See also iv. of this Introduction. 

2 Sir J. C. Hawkins (Hor. Syn. pp. 
108, 162 ff.) points out that, to judge by 
the list of words peculiar to St Mark, 
his acquaintance with the LXX. was less 
intimate than either St Matthew s or 
St Luke s. The test, however, is not 

conclusive, merely establishing a proba 
bility that Me. had other resources, such 
as those which a ^p^vevT^ might not 
unnaturally possess, which rendered him 
more independent of the LXX. vocabulary 
than the other Synoptists. 



I. Two sections of Palestine make up the field of St Mark s 
history, Galilee (77 Ta\6i\aia l ), and Judaea (77 lov&aia %&)/? or 
simply 77 *Iov8ala) ; and two cities stand prominently forward as 
the centres of the movement, Capernaum (KcKJxipvaov/ji), and 
Jerusalem (in Me. always le/ooo-oX-i^a). Adjacent regions are 
also mentioned, into some of which the scene occasionally passes 
Idumaea, Peraea (irepav *Iop$dvov), Phoenicia (nepl Tvpov KOI 
2u8cz/a, TO. opta Tvpov Kal StScG^o?), Decapolis (77 
Ae/ea7ro?U9), Gennesaret, the land of the Gerasenes (77 %o>/oa. 
Tepao-rjvwv) ; and other towns and villages Nazareth 
Bethsaida, Dalmanutha (? Magdala or Mageda), Caesarea (Kaio-apla 
r) <&i,\i7nrov), Tyre, Sidon, Jericho, Bethphage, Bethany. The 
river Jordan, the wilderness of Judaea (77 6/377^09), the waste 
or common ground in the neighbourhood of the towns of Galilee 
and Gaulonitis (eprjpoi, TOTTOI, epTj^la), the lake (77 Qakavva rr}9 
FaXetXata9, or 77 6d\aacra\ the Galilean and Peraean hills (TO 
0/309, ra 0/377), a high mountain in the North which is probably 
Hermon, and the Mount of Olives (TO 0/009 TCWZ/ ekcuwv), complete 
the geographical surroundings of the narrative. 

1 The name is spelt thus in cod. B analogy may have had weight, it is 

throughout St Mark except i. 9 and xvi. probable that FaXetXa/a is a genuine 

7, and uniformly in the O. T. (Jos. xx. attempt to reproduce the sound of the 

7, xxi. 32, 3 Kegn. ix. n, 4 Kegn. xv. Hebrew word, and that the diphthong 

vriih K pelt>eiv,fjLeiffeli>,iro\eTTat. But though WH. Notes, p. 155. 
S. M 2 


If we consider the extent of our Lord s itinerations, this list 
will appear singularly meagre. During the period covered by 
Me. i. 14 ix. 50 He seems to have evangelised in person or 
through the Twelve every part of Galilee, and a portion at least 
of the vaguely denned region east of the Jordan which was known 
as the Decapolis, besides undertaking a journey through Phoenicia 
and across the Lebanon. These missionary journeys led Him 
through all the towns and larger villages (Kw^oir6\ei^) of the 
most densely populated part of Palestine ; but though St Mark 
relates the fact (i. 38 ff, vi. 6 ff.), he is silent as to the names of 
the places visited. Nor again, graphic as he is, does he stop to 
describe the effect produced upon fishermen of the little inclosed 
freshwater lake by their first sight of the Mediterranean and 
of the glories of Lebanon and Hermon. The Evangelist keeps 
strictly to his purpose, and allows himself to enter into details only 
when they illustrate the matter which is in hand. He is more 
concerned to set forth the character and method of the Ministry 
than the names of its localities. Nevertheless the indications of 
place are distinct enough to fix the geographical surroundings of 
almost every important incident, if we may assume that St Mark s 
order is roughly chronological. Of the events reported in c. x. I 3 1 
no more can be said than that they took place in Judaea or in 
Peraea (x. i). But in both the greater sections of the history 
(i. 14 ix. 50, x. 32 xvi. 8) localisation can be carried into 

This is obvious in x. 32 xvi. 8; but a little examination 
will shew that it is true also of the earlier section. Capernaum 
or its neighbourhood on the west side of the Lake is the scene of 
i. 1638, ii. i in. 12, iii. 20 iv. 36, v. 21 43, vi 53 vii. 23, 
ix. 33 50, whilst v. i 20, vi. 32 47, vii. 32 viii. 9, 22 26 
belong to the eastern shore, and iv. 37 41, vi. 48 52, viii. 
14 21, to the Lake itself; journeyings through Galilee, Phoenicia, 
Abilene and Ituraea occupy i. 39 45, iii. 13 19, vi. i 13, 
30 31 , vii. 24 31, viii. 27 ix. 32. This accounts for the whole 
section i. 14 ix. 50 with the exception of vi. 14 29, which 
consists of an explanatory episode and belongs, as we learn from 
an independent source, to Machaerus on the east of the Dead Sea. 
In many cases we can locate separate incidents yet more precisely. 
Thus the events of i. 21 34, ii. i 12, ix. 33 50, are expressly 


connected with Capernaum ; others belong to Gerasa, Gennesaret, 
Bethsaida, Nazareth, the neighbourhoods of Tyre and Caesarea 
Philippi. The exact locality however is more frequently described 
than named ; the writer is usually content to place the event in 
its physical surroundings in a house, on the road, by the side of 
the lake, among the hills, or wherever it may have occurred but 
information of this kind is rarely withheld. 

This method of localising the incidents imparts distinctness 
and movement to the history, while it does not burden the 
reader s memory with mere lists of names. At the same time it 
offers guidance in the construction of an intelligible plan of the 
Ministry. We can see quite clearly that the Ministry in Galilee 
found its centre in Capernaum; there it begins and ends (i. 21, 
ix. 33). Other Gospels couple Chorazin with Capernaum (Mt. xi. 
21 ff., Lc. x. 13 ff.); St Mark mentions no other town on the west 
hore of the lake, and thus fixes attention on the head-quarters of 
he movement. Capernaum was the home of Simon and Andrew 
L 29) and Levi (ii. 15); from Capernaum easy access could be had, 
not only to every part of the lake-district, but, by means of the 
rreat roads which were within reach, to every part of Palestine. The 
roads brought people together from east and west, north and south 
iii. 8), and at other times carried the Lord and the Twelve upon 
Jieir errand of preaching the Gospel to the rest of Galilee. So 
ar as we can judge, it belonged to our Lord s design to evangelise 
;he Tetrarchy thoroughly, while He made the lake-side the centre 
>f His work. In St Mark we can see how the wider purpose was 
worked into the narrower. The itinerations occur at intervals 
determined by circumstances; whenever the enthusiasm of the 
crowd rose to a dangerous height, or the hostility of the Scribes at 
Capernaum or of the court-party at Tiberias rendered a temporary 
withdrawal expedient, the Lord used the interval either in evan 
gelistic work (i. 35 if., vi. I ff.), or in intercourse with the Twelve, 
br which leisure and privacy were gained by travel (vii. 24 ff., viii. 
27 ff.). Towards the end of the Ministry in Galilee the latter 
employment predominated, and in this fact it is impossible not 
to see the working out of a Divine plan. The solitudes of 
Lebanon and Hermon afforded an unrivalled scene for the teaching 



of the laws of the Kingdom to the future Apostles and their 
initiation into the mystery of the Passion. 

Besides the journey from Judaea to Galilee (i. 14), the Gospel 
describes (i.) three voyages on the lake, with visits to places in the 
neighbourhood, (ii.) three inland journeys in Galilee, (iii.) three 
longer journeys. The particulars are as follows : i. i. From 
Capernaum to the land of the Gerasenes and back (iv. 35, v. i, 
21). 2. From some point on the west shore, probably north 
of Capernaum, to the neighbourhood of Bethsaida, and back to 
Gennesaret (vi. 32, 53). 3. From some point on the east shore to 
the neighbourhood of Dalmanutha, and from thence to Bethsaida 
(viii. 10, 22). ii. i. Circuit of Galilee; return to Capernaum 
(i. 39, ii. i). 2. Visit to the hill -country ; return to Capernaum 
(iii. 13). 3. Circuit of the villages beginning with Nazareth; 
return to the lake (vi. i, 6, 32). iii. i. From Capernaum to 
Phoenicia, through Sidon, and round to Decapolis and the lake 
(vii. 24, 31). 2. From Bethsaida to the neighbourhood of Caesarea 
Philippi, thence northwards to Hermon ; return through Galilee to 
Capernaum (viii. 27 ix. 33). 3. From Capernaum to Judaea and 
Peraea (x. i). 

For the identification of the various sites see the commentary 
upon the text, and the maps. It is to be understood that the dotted 
lines in the latter give merely the probable direction of the routes. 

2. Into the political conditions of the countries where our 
Lord worked or travelled, St Mark allows his readers only a passing 
glimpse. He is almost obviously indifferent as to precise details of 
this kind. Herod Antipas is introduced as the king (vi. 14, in a 
context where both Mt. and Lc. are careful to write o Terpaap^rj^). 
There is nothing to shew that when Christ crossed the lake to 
Bethsaida or Gerasa He entered another tetrarchy, or that He 
came under the authority of the legatus Syriae when He visited 
Phoenicia, and under that of the Procurator of Judaea when He 
reached Jericho. Yet if St Mark s history is placed in the light 
of these facts, it is seen to be in full accord with them. Tyre 
and Sidon, Caesarea Philippi, and even Bethsaida Julias are 
recognised as places of relative safety, where the Lord can shelter 
for a time from the intrigues of Herod. On the other hand, He is 
represented as being aware that in going up to Jerusalem He is 
encountering greater peril than in Galilee; there He will be 
delivered to Gentile officials (rot? Wvea-iv), and die by a Roman 
punishment. If the writer of this Gospel does not display a 


knowledge of the complex political life which prevailed in 
Palestine at the time, his reticence is not due to ignorance. 

3. On the state of religion in Galilee and Judaea St Mark is 
less reserved. The synagogues in Galilee, the Temple and Precinct 
at Jerusalem, control the ecclesiastical life of the two provinces ; 
in the North the ap^Lcrvvdycoyoi, in the South the ap%tpel% are 
the ecclesiastical authorities. But in both the religious teachers of 
the people are the Scribes ol 7/aoft/LtaTet?, as St Mark uniformly 
calls them and we meet them everywhere, at Capernaum (ii. 6), 
among the villages under Hermon (ix. 14), and at Jerusalem. Of 
the two great religious sects which divide religious opinion, the 
Pharisees are found both in Galilee and Judaea; of the Sadducees 
St Mark makes no mention till he reaches the last scenes at 
Jerusalem. In these the Pharisaic Scribes fall into the back 
ground, and their place is taken by the Sadducean priesthood 
which dominates the capital. There is a delicate mark of truth 
in this sudden but unannounced change, of which indications 
may be found everywhere in the last five chapters of the Gospel. 
On the first morning after His entrance into the Precinct the 
Lord comes into collision with the hierarchy through His action 
in the matter of the temple-market. From that moment they 
take the lead in seeking His death: they head the deputation 
from the Sanhedrin which demands to know His authority ; they 
negotiate with Judas for the betrayal; a servant of the High 
Priest seems to have been foremost in the arrest ; the Lord is 
taken from Gethsemane to the High Priest s Palace, and, though 
other members of the Sanhedrin are present, the condemnation is 
evidently the act of the priesthood, and it is from them that the 
Procurator learns the nature of the charge. Even Pilate could 
detect the motive which inspired them. For traditionalism, 
which concerned the Scribes so deeply, they cared little ; but they 
could not suffer a superior, and if Jesus were the Christ, or were 
generally regarded in that light, their supremacy was at an end. 
Thus Jesus was condemned in the end not for His supposed con 
tempt of the Law, written or oral, but for His acceptance of the 
Messianic character. The result is widely different from what the 



experience of Galilee would have led the reader to expect ; but 
it is fully explained by the change of circumstances which St 
Mark assumes but does not stop to relate. 

Not less interesting is the light which the Evangelist throws 
upon the religious and social condition of the mass of the Jewish 
people. There is here again a marked distinction between the , 
North and the South, though our attention is hardly called to it. 
In Galilee we find ourselves in the midst of a population which on 
the whole is rural; the towns are for the most part KcopoTroXeis, and 
round them are uninhabited spaces, high ground, cornfields (TO, 
o-TTopifjua), open country dotted with villages and farms (aypoi). 
The history moves among the working classes, the fishermen and 
husbandmen who were the backbone of the lake-side people. At 
Tiberias and Machaerus the court of Antipas attracted men of 
another stamp, and on the occasion of the Tetrarch s birthday we 
see the "heads of Galilee" (pi Trp&Toi rrjs TdXeiXaias) mingling 
with high officials and military tribunes (pi peyiGraves, oi %i 
apxpi)- But at Capernaum the only indications of proximity to 
a seat of government are the re\wviov which faces the shore, and 
the "Herodians" with whom the local Pharisees take counsel. 
The most striking feature here is the vast throng (o o%Xo<?, oi 
ox\ot) which surrounds the Prophet of Nazareth all day long and 
day after day. It is replenished from all parts of Syria, but the 
bulk of the crowd must always have come from the lake-side towns 
and villages (cf. vi. 55). This crowd is uniformly friendly and 
indeed enthusiastic, intent in the first instance upon getting its 
sick healed or watching and admiring the miracles, but also 
attracted by a teaching which was strangely unlike that of 
other Rabbis (i. 21, 27). Many elements were mingled in this 
Galilean audience ; a few were themselves Rabbis, and these were 
at least secretly hostile ; the majority were doubtless members of 
synagogues and men of unblemished orthodoxy (cf. Acts x. 14), 
but there was also a large following of persons who had no place 
in the religious life of Judaism (re\wvai KOI a/j,aprw\oi, ii. 15), 
but were not averse to religious instruction such as Jesus offered. 
Our Lord was touched by their enthusiasm ; it revealed a yearning 


for guidance which deserved better shepherding than it received 
at the hands of their official guides (vi. 34). But He was at 
the same time grieved by the immaturity and obtuseness which 
rendered the masses impervious to directly spiritual teaching, and 
indeed unworthy of it (iv. 1 1 ff.). Even the picked companions of 
His journeys in Galilee retained much of the callousness and 
blindness which belonged to their environment (viii. 17, 21). 
Hence the Galilean teaching of Christ was limited to elementary 
lessons of truth, or, if it went further, was clothed in parables 
(iv. 1 1 f). 

Of the Jerusalemites this Gospel tells us little, but there are 
indications that the influences at work among them were widely 
different. The Lord had friends and disciples in Jerusalem and 
the neighbourhood the household of Simon at Bethany (xiv. 3), 
Joseph of Arimathaea, the owner of Gethsemane, and the master 
of the house in the city where the last supper was eaten. But it 
may be doubted whether the Galilean Prophet was popular in. the 
city. The crowds who escorted Him to Jerusalem, and who hung 
on His words in the Court of the Gentiles, were largely made up 
of Galileans and visitors ; the crowd of citizens which thronged up 
to the Praetorium when the news of His arrest spread through 
the city, was chiefly interested in the opportunity of pressing its 
claims upon Pilate (xv. 8), and yielded to the importunity of the 
ap%i,6peis (xv. 1 1 ). The report that Jesus had threatened to 
destroy the Temple easily turned the scale of feeling against 
Him; no release was attempted, no hands were laid on the 
party who had brought about His crucifixion, no sympathy was 
extended to Him on the cross by the passers-by, who mocked His 
sufferings (xv. 29). On the other hand our Lord s attitude at 
Jerusalem shews that He was brought face to face there with 
questions quite distinct from those which met Him in Galilee. He 
was no longer under a government which, though pagan in spirit, 
preserved the forms of Judaism ; the shadow of the Roman 
imperium lay upon Jerusalem, and He was called there to 
vindicate His Messiahship, and to settle the apparently conflicting 
claims of Caesar and GOD. 


4. The Gospel abounds with minute references to the external 
features of life. 

Its vocabulary is rich in words which describe clothing (t/Aarioi/ 

i/xds), food (dpros, oW, dos, Adxavov, IxOvhov, ^v^y, /xc Xi, /Spco/xa, 
KXdayx-a), the house and its parts ^OIKOS, ouaa, avX?;, TrpoavXtov, 
TTvXco v, 0v pa, di/dyatoi/, KardXv/Aa, oWy?;, S<3/m, d<eSpaV), utensils 
and tools (/xoStos, Xu xvos, Xvxvi a, 7riVa, rpvfiXiov, Trorvypiov, aa-Kos, 
rpos, ^cm;s, Kpd/3arros, /cXtV^, Tnjpa, KO</OS, o-^ypcs, /xaxaipa, 
, /xvXos), coins (dpyuptov, x a A*cos, S^vdptov, KoSpdvrrjs, XCTTTOV, 

KoXXu/2os), divisions of time (wpa (rpirr], CKT^), Trpun, Trpooia, di//, di^ta, 
/xecroj/VKTtov, dXe/cTOpcx^awa), religious practices (/3a7TTt<r/xds, Ka#a- 
pioy>ids, Kopfidv, adp/SaTov, 7rpoadj3/3a.TOV, Trapacr/cei;^, TrapdSocrig, 
l/wy>7, crvveSptov, Upov, yao<uXdKtov, lopr*/, Ova-La, dXoKavrco/xa, 

_>\ _. ^ v/xvtv), marriage (ya^ieiv, ya/xeiv, 

yw>7, 7rev0epd, y8t)8Xos aTrocrrao-t ov), service 

;, vTT^penys, So{)Xos, /XICT^CDTOS, ^vptopo?, TratSiGr/cr;), punishment 
(Sepetv, fia.aravL&iv, a7roK^)aXt{tv, (j>vXa.Ktj J SeV/uos, crravpo?), agricul 
ture and other rural pursuits (o-Trdpt/xa, Trpaatd, d/xTreXwv, vTroXT/vtov, 
d>pay/xds, irvpyos, SpeTravov, vepKT/xos, yetopyos), trade (cKOiooj/at, 
dvrdXXay/xa, Xvrpov), military matters (Kevrvptwv, x^-^^PX 05 CTTTCKOV- 
Adrajp, tTTretpa, Xcytwv), boating and fishing (dXeeis, d/x^t^ScxXXetv, 
St/cruov, TrXotov, TrXotdpioi/, irpvpva., 7rpocr/<^)dXaiov, Trpocrop/xt^ecr^at), 
animals (OrjpLa, Ka/xr/Xos, x^P^ > Kvvaptov, TrwXos, Trcretvd, Treptcrrcpd), 
disease (Trvperd?, Xewpa, KOX^OS, /xoytXdXos, (TTrapdcrcreo-^at, SaiftovC- 
eor0ai, /u,ovo<^^aX/x,os), treatment of the dead (evciXeu , ei^a^iao-jad?, 
pvpov, dpw/xara). A considerable number of these words are used 
by no other N. T. writer. 

Besides this free use of words which describe the visible 
surroundings of life, there are many less manifest but not less 
instructive traces of local knowledge; such as the references to 
pauperism which appear only in connexion with Judaea and 
Jerusalem (TTTCO^O?, x. 21, xii. 42 f., xiv. 5, 7; Trpoo-airrjs, x. 46), I 
and a similarly restricted use of \rja-rrjs (xi. 17, xiv. 48) and 
crrao-tacrTT?? (xiv. 7); the tacit assumption of the general em 
ployment of Aramaic, at least in Galilee, which underlies such | 
Aramaisms as ftoawripyes and raXeiOa icovfj, , the careful choice 
of words which seem to imply that in Hellenised places, such as 
the Decapolis and the neighbourhood of Caesarea Philippi, the 
Lord s ministry was limited to the villages and open country, and 
that He did not enter the practically pagan towns. 

St Mark s interests do not lie in the field of contemporary 


history or political geography or in the social condition of Pales 
tine. Every detail of this kind in his Gospel is merely incidental. 
But his passion for exact description, so far as it can be brought 
within the compass of his work, leads him unconsciously to supply 
a variety of information on these subjects, whilst his residence in 
Jerusalem and his personal relation to St Peter assure us that 
the information which he gives is first-hand and accurate. 



Whether the present headline of the Gospel in its fuller form is 
due to St Mark or not, it admirably expresses the idea of the book. 
It is the Gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of GOD. St Mark begins 
(i. 2) by quoting two well-known Messianic passages (Mai. iii. I, 
Isa. xl. 3), and tracing their accomplishment in the mission of the 
Baptist; and his next step is to shew that at His Baptism 
Jesus was declared to be the Beloved Son (i. 11). Thus he 
places in the forefront of the work the presupposition of our 
Lord s Messianic office and Divine Sonship, and all that follows 
is a record of the historical manifestation of the Christ. 

According to St Mark the Lord began His Galilean Ministry in 
the character of the Baptist s successor, repeating St John s message, 
and carrying it a stage further (i. 15). His method, however, was 
new. John had appeared in the wilderness, Jesus shewed Himself 
in the heart of Galilee ; John waited till men came to him, Jesus 
sought them out, and called them to follow Him (i. 17 ff.); John 
was a preacher only, Jesus on His first sabbath in Capernaum 
revealed His power over unclean spirits (i. 27), who at once 
recognised Him as the Holy One of GOD (i. 24), the Messiah 
(i. 34), and the Son of GOD (iii. 1 1 , v. 7). But their premature 
and hostile testimony was refused and silenced, and the Lord 
proceeded to reveal Himself by other means. He began by 
applying to Himself the title Son of man (ii. 10), which, while it 
implied a relation to human weakness and mortality (viii. 31, 
ix. 9, 31, x. 33, 45, xiv. 21, 41), at the same time asserted His 


authority over all matters connected with the spiritual well-being 
of the human race ; and in this capacity he claimed the right to 
forgive sins upon earth (ii. 10), to regulate the observance of the 
Sabbath (iii. 28), and to adjudge future rewards and punishments 
(viii. 38 f.). 

But neither friends nor enemies could find an explanation of 
His extraordinary powers in a name which seemed to carry no 
assertion of a superhuman origin. At Nazareth the wisdom and 
the miracles of the Son of Mary excited both surprise and 
resentment (vi. 2, 3). His own family and friends saw in them 
indications of madness which called for interference and restraint 
(iii. 21). Learned scribes, who had come down from Jerusalem to 
enquire and report, hazarded the conjecture that He was possessed 
by the chief of the unclean spirits (iii. 22). Among the crowd, 
on the other hand, whispers were heard that Jesus was a prophet, 
and one of the same rank as the Prophets of the canon ; possibly 
Elijah himself, the expected forerunner of the Messiah (vi. 15, 
ix. n), or the Baptist restored to life (vi. 14, 16, viii. 28). The 
Twelve shared the general perplexity (iv. 41). There is no indica 
tion that any one in Galilee, while the Ministry was in progress, 
stumbled upon the truth, or that Jesus during this period either 
publicly or privately declared Himself to be the Christ. 

The Twelve were the first to make the discovery, but they did 
not make it till our Lord s work in Galilee was practically at an 
end. He was on His way to Caesarea Philippi, with his back 
turned upon Capernaum and the Lake, when He raised the ques 
tion of His own personality, and received from St Peter the 
immediate answer "Thou art the Christ" (viii. 29). For the 
Apostles the moment was decisive. Henceforth the Messiahship 
of Jesus was a part of their faith, and the ruling idea of their 
lives; they knew themselves to be Christ s (ix. 41). The Lord 
now began to speak to them freely of His future glory (viii. 38) ; 
to Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, whom he seems to have 
constituted His three witnesses (v. 37, ix. 2, xiv. 33), He granted 
a remarkable anticipation of it, which at once confirmed and 
interpreted St Peter s confession. The Transfiguration proved 


that Jesus was not a mere Prophet, not even Elijah, but greater 
than Elijah and Moses himself; it repeated the Divine assurance 
vouchsafed to the Baptist, that the Son of Mary was also the 
beloved or unique Son of GOD (ix. 7); it revealed Him for a 
moment clad in the glory of the Father, and thus rebuked the 
expectations which had begun to rise in minds that savoured not 
the things of GOD, while it encouraged hopes of a more than 
earthly magnificence. Raiment such as the Messiah wore at His 
Transfiguration no fuller on earth could whiten (ix. 3) ; all was 
celestial and superhuman in this vision of the glorified Christ. 

Another revelation began simultaneously with that of the 
Lord s Messianic dignity. From the moment that St Peter con 
fessed Him to be the Christ, Jesus set Himself to foretell His 
coming Passion (viii. 34) ; and the prediction was repeated more 
than once with growing clearness during the months which 
followed the Transfiguration (ix. 31, x. 33). But the doctrine of 
the Cross, while it perplexed and disquieted the Twelve, awoke no 
response in their hearts, and did not even penetrate their under 
standings (ix. 32, x. 32, 35 ff.). False ambitions were at work 
in them, shutting out the true conception of the Kingdom of 
GOD; and the Lord was occupied at this period in dispelling 
these errors, and teaching the primary laws of self-sacrifice and 
service (ix. 33 if., x. 2131, 3545)- 

When at last the Lord approached Jerusalem to offer His 
own Sacrifice, the occasion for the reserve which He had prac 
tised in Galilee had passed away. His Messiahship was no 
longer a secret to be kept by the Twelve ; it was openly recog 
nised and acknowledged. At Jericho for the first time in this 
Gospel we hear the cry Son of David (x. 47). On the Mount of 
Olives the crowd acclaimed the coming Kingdom of our father 
David (xi. 10). In the parable of the vineyard the Lord openly 
represented Himself as the Beloved Son and the Heir (xii. 6, 7). 
His question on Ps. ex. I, though it dealt only with the general 
subject of the Messianic dignity, was doubtless understood to 
refer to Himself. When Caiaphas asked Art Thou the Christ? 
the Lord, according to St Mark, replied without hesitation / am, 


adding words from the Book of Daniel which placed His early 
claim to be the Son of Man in connexion with the vision of a 
Messianic Kingdom (xiv. 62). It was as Messiah that He was 
condemned to the Cross, for the King of the Jews is but the Christ/ 
expressed in terms intelligible to a Roman judge. The banter 
with which He was assailed on the Cross proves that His claim 
to be Messiah was uppermost in the thoughts of the people 
of Jerusalem, from the hierarchy downwards : let the Christ, 
the King of Israel, come down now from the cross ; He calleth 
Elijah... let us see whether Elijah cometh to take Him down 
(xv. 3236). 

The abrupt end of St Mark s work prevents us from ascer 
taining his conception of the Risen Christ. We do not know 
whether the original work was ever brought to a completion. 
But if it was, a comparison of Me. xvi. 7 with Mt. xxviii. 7 
suggests that St Mark, like St Matthew, proceeded to give an 
account of the meeting in Galilee 1 . In such a narrative, if it 
followed the general lines of Mt. xxviii. 16 20, our Evangelist s 
view of the Person and work of Jesus Christ the Son of GOD 
would have found its natural issue. The Lord had begun His 
ministry in Galilee by claiming authority over the spiritual 
forces which are at work in man s world (Me. ii. 10, 27); this 
claim was renewed in His last utterances, and extended to 
things in heaven (Mt. xxviii. 18). He had foretold the catholic 
mission of His Gospel (Me. xiii. 10, xiv. 9); before He left the 
world He provided for its worldwide propagation (Mt. xxviii. 19). 
He had been revealed as the Beloved Son (Me. i. n, ix. 7, 
xii. 6), and had identified His work with the operation of the 
Divine Spirit (Me. iii. 29, 30); He now completed the revela 
tion of His oneness with the Father and the Spirit by the 
command that all His disciples should be baptized into the Name 
of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost. He had 
taken the Twelve to be with Him in the association of a 
common life (Me. iii. 14), and now He pledged Himself to be 

1 Cf. Pseudo-Peter, ev. 12, and see Mr F. C. Burkitt s Two Lectures on the Gospels, 
p. 28 ff. gee also Me. xiv. 28. 

with them and with His whole Church until the consummation 

of the age. 

St Mark does not write with a dogmatic purpose. But the 
Person whose movements are depicted in his vivid narrative is 
seen to be at once man and more than man. In every act 
and word the Christ of the second Gospel is revealed as the 
supreme Son of man and the only Son of GOD. No Gospel 
brings into clearer light the perfect humanity of the Lord. He 
can be touched (i. 41) and grieved and angered (iii. 5) ; He makes 
as though He does not hear (v. 36) or does not see (vi. 48), He is 
moved with indignation (x. 14), He permits Himself to use irony 
(xiv. 41); He sleeps from fatigue (iv. 38); He possesses a human 
spirit (ii. 8), soul (xiv. 34), and body (xv. 43), with all their 
capacities and their sinless limitations. He turns to see who has 
touched Him (v. 30); He asks questions, apparently for the 
purpose of gaining information (viii. 5). He submits Himself 
absolutely to the Father s will (xiv. 36) ; He disclaims the right 
to make the final award apart from the Father s predestination 
(x. 40); He professes Himself ignorant, as the Son, of the 
Father s appointed time (xiii. 32). On the other hand He claims 
an authority in the sphere of man s relations to GOD which 
is coextensive with the present order (ii. 10, 28); He knows 
precisely what is passing in men s minds and hearts, and the 
circumstances of their lives (ii. 5, 8, viii. 17, ix. 3 f, xii. ijf, 44); 
He foresees and foretells the future, whether His own (viii. 31, 
38) or that of individual men (x. 39, xiv. 27) and communities 
(xiii. i if.); in the most trying situations He manifests abso 
lute wisdom and self-adaptation; even in His death He extorts 
from a Eoman centurion the acknowledgement that He was a 
supernatural person (xv. 39). The centurion s words express the 
conviction with which the student of St Mark rises from his 
examination of the Gospel ; truly this man was Son of GOD. But 
for those who have before them the whole record of that supreme 
human life they bear a meaning of which the Roman could not 
have dreamt ; we realise that the Sonship of Jesus was unique 
and essential. It was not a servant who was sent in the last 


resort to receive the fruits of the Divine Vineyard, but the only 
Son, Who is the Heir of GOD (xii. 2 7). 

Limited as St Mark s work is to recollections of the Lord s 
Ministry and Passion, it is full of glimpses into His future relations 
to the world. / came not to call the righteous but sinners (ii. 17); 
the Son of man... came... to give His life a ransom for many (x. 
45); My blood of the covenant... is shed for many (xiv. 24); every 
one shall be salted with fire (ix. 49) ; the Bridegroom shall be taken 
away (ii. 20); the Son of man... shall come in the glory of His 
Father (viii. 38) ; the Gospel must first be preached to all the 
nations (xiii. 10); if any man willeth to come after me let him 
deny himself (viii. 34) ; have salt in yourselves, and be at peace 
one with another (ix. 50); have faith in GOD... pray... believe... 
forgive (xi. 23 ff.) ; what I say unto you I say unto all, Watch 
(xiii. 37). These and similar sayings contain an almost complete 
outline of Christian soteriology and eschatology, and assert the 
principles of the new life which the Lord taught and exemplified 
and which His Spirit was to produce in the life of the future 



I. The following Uncial MSS. contain the Greek text of 
St Mark in part or in whole. 

N. Cod. Sinaiticus (iv.). Ed. Tischendorf, 1862. Ends at 
xvi. 8 (see xi.). 

A. Cod. Alexaiidrinus (v.). Ed. E. M. Thompson, 1879. 

B. Cod. Vaticanus, 1209 (iv.). Ed. Cozza-Luzi, 1889. Ends 

at xvi. 8 (see xi.). 

C. Cod. Ephraemi (v.). Ed. Tischendorf, 1843. Contains 

Me. i. 17 vi. 31, viii. 5 xii. 29, xiii. 19 xvi. 20. 

D. Cod. Bezae (vi.). Ed. F. H. A. Scrivener, 1864 ; reproduced 

in heliogravure by the Camb. Univ. Press 1 , 1899. 
Contains Me., except xvi. 15 20, which is in a later 

E. Cod. Basiliensis (viii.). 

F. Cod. Boreelianus (ix.). Contains Me. i. i 41, ii. 8 23, 

iii. 5 xi. 6, xi. 27 xiv. 54, xv. 6 39, xvi. 19 20. 

G. Cod. Seidelianus I. (ix. or x.). Contains Me. i. 13 xiv. 18, 

xiv. 25 xvi. 20. 
H. Cod. Seidelianus II. (ix. or x.). Contains Me. i. 131, 

ii. 4 xv. 43, xvi. 14 20. 
I. Fragm. Petropolitanum (v.). Ed. Tischendorf, mon. sacr. 

ined., nov. coll. i., 1855. Contains Me. ix. 14 22, xiv. 


K. Cod. Cyprius (ix.). 
L. Cod. Regius (viii.). Ed. Tischendorf, mon. sacr. ined., 

1846. Contains Me. i. i x. 15, x. 30 xv. i, xv. 20 

xvi. 20 ; the shorter ending precedes xvi. 9 (see xi.). 
M. Cod. Campianus (ix.). 

1 A useful collation of D with Gebhardt s text is printed in Nestle s N.T. Gr. 
supplementum (Lips., 1896). 


N. Cod. Purpureus (vi.). Ed. Tischendorf, mon. sacr. ined., 
1846 ; an edition including the new St Petersburg frag 
ments has been published by the Rev. H. S. Cronin in 
Texts and Studies, v. 4 (Cambridge, 1899). Contains 
v. 20 vii. 4, vii. 20 viii. 32, ix. i x. 43, xi. 7 xii. 19, 
xiv. 25 xv. 23, xv. 33 42. 

P. Cod. Guelpherbytanus (VL). Ed. Tischendorf, mon. sacr. 

ined., nov. coll. vi., 1869. Contains i. 2 n, iii. 5 17, 

xiv. 1324, 4861, xv. 12 37. 
S. Cod. Vaticanus 354 (x.). 

T 1 . Cod. Borgianus (vii.). Contains Me. i. 3 8, xii. 35 37. 
TJ. Cod. Nanianus (ix. or x.). 
Y. Cod. Moscuensis (ix.). 
W b . Fragm. Neapolitanum (vm. or ix.). Contains Me. xiii. 

21 xiv. 67. 

W c . Fragm. Sangallense (ix.). Contains Me. ii. 8 16. 
W d . Fragm. Cantabrigiense (ix.). Contains Me. vii. 3 4, 6 8, 

30 viii. 1 6, ix. 2, 7 9. Ed. J. R. Harris (in an 

Appendix to his Diatessaron of Tatian, 1890). 
W f . Fragm. Oxoniense aed. Chr. (ix.). Contains Me. v. 16 21, 

2228, 2935, 3540. 
W g . Fragm. Londiniense (ix.). Contains Me. i. i 42, ii. 21 

v. i, v. 29 vi. 22, x. 50 xi. 13. 
W h . Fragm. Oxoniense Bodl. (ix.). Contains Me. iii. 15 32, 

v. 1631. 

W 1 . Fragm. Parisiense I. (vii.). Contains Me. xiii. 34 xiv. 

W m . Fragm. Parisiense II. (vii. or viii.). Contains Me. i. 

W. Fragm. Mediolanense (ix.). Contains Me. i. 12 24, ii. 
26 iii. 10. 

X. Cod. Monacensis (x.). Contains Me. vi. 47 xvi. 20 ; many 
verses in xiv. xvi. are defective. 

P. Cod. Oxoniensis (ix. or x.). Contains Me. i. i iii 34, 
vi. 21 xvi. 20. 

A. Cod. Sangallensis (ix. or x.). Ed. Rettig, 1836. On the 
text of this MS. in Me. see WH., Intr. 209, 225, 229, 
37> 35 2 ; Nestle, Textual Criticism of the N.T., p. 72. 

b . Fragm. Petropolitanum I. (vii.). Contains Me. iv. 24 35, 
v. 1423. 

*. Fragm. Porfirianum (vi.). Contains Me. i. 34 ii 12, with 
some lacunae. 

II. Cod. Petropolitanus (ix.). Contains Me., except xvi. 18 
20, which is in a later hand. 

S. M. 2 u 


3. Cod. Rossanensis (vi.). Ed. Gebhardt and Harnack, 1883. 

Contains Me., except xvi. 14 20. 
$. Cod. Beratinus (vi.). Ed. Batiffol, 1886. Contains Me. i 

i xiv. 62. 
*. Cod. Athous Laurae (vm. or ix.). Contains Me. ix. 5 

xvi. 20 ; the shorter ending precedes xvi. p 1 . 
n. Cod. Athous Dionysii (vm. or ix.). 
3. Cod. Athous Andreae (ix. or x.). Contains Me. i. i v. 40, 

vi. 1 8 viii. 35, ix. 19 xvi. 20. 

*| 10 . Fragm. Sinaiticum (v.). Ed. J. R. Harris, Biblical Frag 
ments, 1890. Contains Me. i. n 22, ii. 21 iii. 3, iii. 
27 iv. 4, v. 9 20. 

*l u . Fragm. Sinaiticum (vi.). Ed. J. R. Harris, op. cit. Con 
tains Me. xii. 32 37. 

I 12 . Fragm. Sinaiticum (vn.). Ed. J. R. Harris, op. cit., and in 
Mrs Lewis s Syriac MSS., p. 103. Contains Me. xiv. 29 
45, xv. 27 xvi. 10 ; the shorter ending precedes xvi. 9. 
p. Fragm. Parisiense (VIIL). Ed. Amelineau, ap. Notices et 
Extraits, xxxiv. ii. pp. 370, 402 ff. Contains Me. xvi. 
6 18; the shorter ending precedes xvi. g z . 

T, Fragm. Oxyrhynchitanum (v. or vi.). Ed. Grenfell and 
Hunt, Oxyrhynchus papyri^ i., 1898. Contains Me. x. 
50 f., xi. ii f. 

For the Freer MS. of the Four Gospels see p. 404. 
2. The cursive Greek MSS. which contain this Gospel are far 
too numerous to be recited here. According to Gregory (Prole 
gomena (1884 94), pp. 6 1 6, 717, 1310, the known cursive MSS. 
of the Gospels are 1287, besides 953 lectionaries ; Mr Miller 
(Scrivener s Introduction (1894), i. p. 283, 396* f.) enumerates 
1326 Gospels and 980 lectionaries. The following list is limited 
to those which are frequently cited in the apparatus. 

i. Basle, Univ. Libr. (x.). Ed. K. Lake in Texts and Studies, 

vii. 3, 1902. 

3 1 3. Paris, Nat. Libr. (XHI.); wants Me. i. 20 45. 
28. Paris, Nat. Libr. (XL). 
33. Paris, Nat. Libr. (ix. or x.); wants Me. ix. 31 xi. ii, 

xiii. ii xiv. 59. 
59. Cambridge, Gonville and Caius Coll. (XIL); cf. J. R. Harris, 
Origin of the Leicester Codex. 

1 On the text of this Codex in Me. symbol T 1 (Textual Criticism of the N. 

see J. Th. St., i. p. 290 ff., and Studia T., pp. 70, 74). 

Biblica, v. 2, pp. 97104 ; the latter 3 For these MSS. see Dr T. K. Abbott, 

gives also a complete transcript of the Collation of four important MSS., 1877; 

Marcan fragment (pp. 105122). cf. J. E. Harris, On the origin of the 

* For this MS. Nestle proposes the Ferrar Group, 1893. 


66. Cambridge, Trin. Coll. (x. or xni.). 

3 6g. Leicester, Libr. of Town Council (xv.); cf. J. R. Harris, 
op. cit. 

109. London, Brit. Mus. (xiv.). 

118. Oxford, Bodl. Libr. (XIIL). 
3 1 24. Vienna, Imp. Libr. (xn.). 

131. Rome, Vat. Libr. (xiv. or xv.). 

157. Rome, Vat. Libr. (xn.). 

209. Venice, S. Mark s Libr. (xiv. and xv.). 

238. Moscow, Libr. of the Holy Synod (XL). 

242. Moscow, Libr. of the Holy Synod (xn.). 

282. Paris, Nat. Libr. (xn.). 

299. Paris, Nat. Libr. (x. or XL). 
3 3 46. Milan, Ambr. Libr. (x. or XL). 

435. Leyden, Univ. Libr. (x.). 

482 (=p Klt , 570 Miller). London, Brit. Mus. (XIIL). 

556 (= 543 Greg.). Burdett-Coutts collection (XIL). See Scrivener, 
Adversaria crit. sacr., p. r ff. 

565 (= 2** Tisch., = 81 WH., = 473 Miller). St Petersburg, Imp. 
Libr. (ix. or x.). Edited by Belsheim, 1885 ; corrections 
of his text are supplied in an appendix to Mr Cronin s 
edition of cod. N (Texts and Studies, v. 4, p. 106 ff.). 

569 (7 1 * Tisch., =475 Scriv.), St Petersburg, Imp. Libr. (XL). 

604 (=700 Greg.), London, Brit. Mus. (XL). Collation published 
by H. C. Hoskier, 1890. 

736 (=718 Greg.), Cambridge, in the possession of the editor. 
1071. Athos, Laur. 104 A (XIL). See the Rev. K. Lake s descrip 
tion and collation in Studio, Biblica, v. 2, p. I32ff. 

3. The ancient versions of St Mark used in this edition are 
the Latin, Syriac, Armenian, Egyptian, Gothic, and Ethiopic. 

I. Latin (latt). 

(a) Old Latin (lat*). 

The following MSS. are cited as offering a more or less purely pre- 
Hieronymian text. 

a. Cod. Vercellensis (iv.). Ed. Bianchini, evang. quadr., 1749; 

Belsheim, 1894. Wants Me. i. 22 34, iv. 17 25, xv. 
15 xvi. 20 ; xvi. 7 20 is supplied by a later hand. 

b. Cod. Veronensis (v.). Ed. Bianchini, op. cit. Wants Me. 

xiii. 9 19, xiii. 24 xvi. 20. 


2. Cod. Rossanensis (vi.). Ed. Gebhardt and Harnack, 1883. 

Contains Me., except xvi. 14 20. 
<f>. Cod. Beratimis (vi.). Ed. Batiffol, 1886. Contains Me. i. 

i xiv. 62. 
>. Cod. Athous Laurae (vin. or ix.). Contains Me. ix. 5 

xvi. 20 ; the shorter ending precedes xvi. g\ 
fl. Cod. Athous Dionysii (vm. or ix.). 

3. Cod. Athous Andreae (ix. or x.). Contains Me. i. i v. 40, 

vi. 1 8 viii. 35, ix. 19 xvi. 20. 

T 10 . Fragm. Sinai ticum (v.). Ed. J. R. Harris, Biblical Frag 
ments, 1890. Contains Me. i. u 22, ii. 21 iii. 3, iii. 
27 iv. 4, v. 9 20. 

*l u . Fragm. Sinaiticum (vi.). Ed. J. R. Harris, op. cit. Con 
tains Me. xii. 32 37. 

I 12 . Fragm. Sinaiticum (vn.). Ed. J. R. Harris, op. cit., and in 
Mrs Lewis s Syriac MSS., p. 103. Contains Me. xiv. 29 
45, xv. 27 xvi. 10 ; the shorter ending precedes xvi. 9. 
p. Fragm. Parisiense (vin.). Ed. Amelineau, ap. Notices et 
JSxtraits, xxxiv. ii. pp. 370, 402 ff. Contains Me. xvi. 
6 18; the shorter ending precedes xvi. 9 2 . 

1 Fragm. Oxyrhynchitanum (v. or vi.). Ed. Grenfell and 
Hunt, Oxyrhynchus papyri^ i., 1898. Contains Me. x. 
50 f., xi. ii f. 

For the Freer MS. of the Four Gospels see p. 404. 
2. The cursive Greek MSS. which contain this Gospel are far 
too numerous to be recited here. According to Gregory (Prole 
gomena (1884 94), pp. 6 1 6, 717, 1310, the known cursive MSS. 
of the Gospels are 1287, besides 953 lectionaries ; Mr Miller 
(Scrivener s Introduction (1894), i. p. 283, 396* f.) enumerates 
1326 Gospels and 980 lectionaries. The following list is limited 
to those which are frequently cited in the apparatus. 

i. Basle, Univ. Libr. (x.). Ed. K. Lake in Texts and Studies, 

vn. 3, 1902. 

3 13. Paris, Nat. Libr. (xiii.); wants Me. i. 20 45. 
28. Paris, Nat. Libr. (XL). 

33. Paris, Nat. Libr. (ix. or x.); wants Me. ix. 31 xi. ii, 
xiii. ii xiv. 59. 

59. Cambridge, Gonville and Caius Coll. (XIL); cf. J. R. Harris, 
Origin of the Leicester Codex. 

1 On the text of this Codex in Me. symbol T l (Textual Criticism of the N. 

e J. Th. St., i. p. 290 ff., and Studia T., pp. 70, 74). 

iblica, v. 2, pp. 97 104 ; the latter 3 For these MSS. see Dr T. K. Abbe 

ves also a complete transcript of the Collation of four important MSS., 18; 

arcan fragment (pp. 105 122). cf. J. K. Harris, On the origin of ; 

8 For this MS. Nestle proposes the Ferrar Group, 1893. 


(j8) Vulgate Syriac or Peshitta (syr 1 * 811 ). Ed. Leusden and 
Schaaf, 1717 ; P. E. Pusey and G. H. Gwilliam, 1901. 

(y) Harclean (syr hcl ). Ed. White, 1778. 

(8) Palestinian (syr Mer ). Ed. Lagarde, 1892; Mrs Lewis and 
Mrs Gibson, 1899. Contains Me. i. i n, 35 44, ii. 
i 12, 1417, 23 iii. 5, v. 2434, vi. 15, 14 30, 
vii. 2437, vii i- 2731, 34 39, ix. 1630, 3240, x. 
32 45, xi. 22 25, xii. 28 44, xv. 16 32, 43 xvi. 20. 

III. Armenian (arm). 

The only critical edition of the Armenian text is that of Zohrab 
(Venice, 1805), whose margin gives variants, without however 
naming the codices from which they are taken. Uscan s edition 
(Amsterdam, 1666) is valueless to the critic, as having been freely 
corrected by the Latin Vulgate. The most recent study of the 
Armenian version is the article by Mr F. C. Conybeare in Hastings 
Diet, of the Bible (1898). Some interesting facts about Uscan s 
edition are given by Simon (Hist. Grit, des Versions, 1690, pp. 
196 ff.) 1 . 

IV. Egyptian (aegg). 

(a) Memphitic or Bohairic (me). Ed. D. Wilkins, 1717. Anew 
edition by Mr G. Horner with a translation and copious 
apparatus criticus has been issued by the Clarendon Press 

(/3) Thebaic or Sahidic (the). A list of the MSS. is printed in 
G. Zoega s Catalogus codd. Copticorum (Romae, 1810). 
The known fragments of St Mark (Gregory, iii. p. 864) 
are i. 36 38, i. 41 44, ii. 2 4, ii. 7 9, ii. 12 ix. 16, 

1 This account of the Armenian ver- cursives known as the Ferrar group ; see 
sionhas been supplied by Dr J. Armitage e.g. (i) viii. 4 ; (2) iii. 18, iv. 24, viii. 14, 
Robinson. He adds : " According to xi. o. The relation of the Ferrar group 
the Armenian historians this version itself to the Syriac is a vexed question, 
was translated from Syriac and after- Striking correspondences are also to be 
wards subjected to a careful revision by noted with 1-28-209, with 2 1 *, and 
the aid of Greek MSS. Internal evi- with 604 ; many too with D and with k ; 
dence affords striking confirmation of some, both in this Gospel and in the 
this view (see Euthaliana, Texts and others, with the first hand of X. Note- 
Studies in. ii. pp. 72 ff.). Two con- worthy is xiv. 25 ofl /^ irpo<r6u> ireiv D 
spicuous elements of the version are (2^) a f arm : it is curious that for a 
(i) the Old Syriac, as now represented Semitic idiom like this no Syriac attes- 
for us in St Mark by the Sinai palimpsest, tation is forthcoming." 
and (2) the text represented by the Greek 


ix. 19 xiv. 26, xiv. 34 xv. 41, xvi. 20 "about three 
quarters of [the] Gospel " (Scrivener-Miller, ii. p. 131). 

A full account of these versions is given by Mr Forbes Robinson 
in Hastings Dictionary (i. 668 ff.). 

V. Gothic (go). 

Ed. Gabelentz and Lobe, 1836 ; Massmann, Ulfilas, 1857 ; Stamm- 
Heyne, Ulfilas, 1878 ; Skeat, Gospel of St Mark in Gothic, 
1882. The extant fragments of Mark contain i. i vi. 30, 
vi. 53 xii. 38, xiii. 16 29, xiv. 4 16, xiv. 41 xvi. 12. 

VI. Ethiopic (aeth). 

Ed. T. P. Platt, 1830 (but cf. Gregory, prolegg., p. 899!). See 
Ethiopic Version, in Hastings, i. 791 . 



In some of our authorities the Gospel according to St Mark 
ends with the words KOI ov&evl ovSev elirav, efyoftovvro yap 
(xvi. 8). Other MSS. and Versions add the twelve verses which 
follow in the Received Text, whilst others again, usually as an 
alternative, present a short ending which consists of only two 
sentences, and is wholly independent of the printed supplement. 

I . Eusebius of Caesarea in his book of Questions and Solutions 

concerning the Passion and Resurrection of the Saviour* represents 

an apologist 3 as seeking to remove a supposed inconsistency in the 

Gospels by throwing doubt upon the genuineness of Me. xvi. 9 ff. 

Quaest. ad Marin. ap. Mai nov. patr. bibl. iv. p. 255 f. 6 /xej/ yap 

TTJV TOVTO <f>dcTKOVCra.V TTfplK07Ty]V tt^CTtOf C17T06 dV /A?) fV OLTTaO-LV aVTIJV 

<f>fpf<r6a.L TCHS aVriypa<ois rov Kara MapKOv fvayyfXtov TO, yovv a/cpt/?^ 
TU>V aWiypa<u)v TO Te/Vos Trepiypac^ei...^ rots Aoyois... e<o/3otWo yap. 
fV TOvVa) yap (T^cSov Iv a7racrt rots a.VTLypa.cj)ot<s TOV Kara MapKOv 
eva.yyeA.tov TrepiycypaTrrat TO rcXos, Ta Bf ^779 o~7ravi cos tv TLCTLV aAA OVK 
(v> 7ra.(TL <^>po/xva TTcptTTa av Lrj. For a full discussion of this passage 
see WH., Notes, p. 30 f. The textual statement for which Euse 
bius appears to make himself responsible is reproduced by Jerome 
(ad Hedib. 3 "Marci raris fertur evangeliis, om 
nibus Graeciae libris paene hoc capitulum non habentibus "), end 
by Victor of Antioch (in Me. xvi. i eVeiS?} 8e ev Tto-t r<Sv dvTtypa^xuv 
7rpoo*/ctTat. . . aVao-Tas Se KT\. ...pov(j,tv ws &WO.TOV r)V ort 
Vfv6@fVTa.L TO Trapo, Map/ca) TfXfvralov fv TUTL </>po/xcvov. Victor s 
commentary ends accordingly with xvi. 8, for the note on xvi. 9 
and the attempt to reestablish the authority of w. 9 20 which 
follow in Cramer are clearly due to other sources (WH., Notes, p. 35). 

1 On the subject of this chapter see p. 47) suspected that Eusebius met 
now Zahn, Einleitung, ii. p. 227 ff. "with the suggestion in some older 
(Leipzig, 1899) ; a useful summary of writer (in Origen probably)." Dr Hort 
the literature is given by Salmond in (Notes, p. 32) agrees with him, and 
Hastings, D. B. iii. p. 253. points out that in this case " the testi- 

2 On this work see Bp Lightfoot s mony as to MSS. gains in importance 
art. Eusebius in D. C. B. (ii. p. 338 f.). by being carried back to a much earlier 

3 Dean Burgon (Last twelve verses, date and a much higher authority." 


The two great codices which have come down to us from the 
fourth century corroborate this evidence. Both B and K bring 
the Gospel to an end at tyoffovvro yap, as "the accurate copies" 
cited by the apologist in Eusebius were wont to do. In both the 
words are followed by the subscription ; but in B the scribe has 
left a column blank after KATA MAPKON, which has been taken to 
mean that he was acquainted with a text of St Mark which 
did not end at v. 8, although his own copy failed him at that 

The Gospel ends thus in the two MSS. : 

Cod. B. Cod. X. 

CTACIC KAI oyAeisii oy CTACIC KAI oy > 

AGN einoN ec(>oBoYN Aesii oyAeN ei > 

TO r^P* nON (t>oBoyN 

TO r^p : : 

> KATA > 

> AlON > 

Witness of a similar kind is borne by the cursive MS. 22, 
which places re Xo? after both v. 8 and v. 20, and after the first 
reXo? has the note ev TIGI TGOV dvnypdcfxov eo><? &)8e irK^povrai 6 
evayye\ia-rrt^, eV TroXXofc Be KOI ravra <f>eperat. In like manner I 

* * r i 

"some of the more ancient Armenian MSS. have evayye\iov Kara 
Mdp/cov after both v. 8 and v. 20" (WH., Notes, I.e.) , a few 
Ethiopic MSS. appear to omit everything after v. 8 (Sanday, 
Appendices ad N. T., p. 195). To this must now be added the I 
testimony of the Sinaitic Syriac, which ends the Gospel at 
e</>o/3oOi/To ydp, followed immediately by the subscription and 
the opening of St Luke. Other documentary evidence of a 
less direct character will come into view as we proceed. 

2. Of the two endings found in MSS. and versions which 
do not stop short at v. 8, it will be convenient to discuss the 
shorter first. It occurs in four uncial MSS. whose testimony 
must be given in full. 

Cod. L. Cod. T 2 . 



<}>epeTe TTOY 


nepi TON 

KAI A)(pl AYCecOC 


TAYTA (})e pO 

ANACTAC Ae npco i 

KTA. ... CHMeiOON. 

K T A 

nepi TON neTpoN 

reiAAN M6TA Ae] 1 

A)(pi AYceooc elA 
necTeiAeN Ai AY 



e(})ANH npCOTON 

eKBeBAHKei enTA 

[TOIC] /we 
(cetera desiderantur) 

1 I owe this restoration (jra.vra 5e... 
/Ltera 5e) to Mr Burkitt, who points out 
that, since I 12 has 25 lines to the 
column, 5 lines are lost before raura /cai 

a/r6s. He adds, however, that as the 
note tffriv KT\. is "in a smaller charac 
ter " (Syriac MSS., p. 104), faperal TTOU 
Kal raOra may have stood before iravra. 


Cod. p. 

TOIC nepi TON 

pel A AN* 


AYCCOOC elene 
CTeiAeN Ai AY 



Cod. . 

HANTA Ae TA nApnrreAMeNA TOIC rrepi TON 
neTpoN CYNTOMCOC. eSHrrei^N : MeTA 












ANACTAC Ae...nioo[ciN] 
(cetera desiderantur) 

It is obvious that the archetype of L H 12 p ended at <f)o(3ovvTo 
yap, and that the scribes on their own responsibility have added 
two endings with which they had met in other MSS., preferring 
apparently the shorter one, since it is in each case placed first. 
But each codex has its own way of dealing with the supplementary 
matter. In I 12 the subscription i>a<yye\iov Kara Map/cov has 
been retained after v. 8, where it stood in the archetype ; in L, 


and possibly also in I 12 , each ending is preceded by a brief note 
of origin; in p there are no such notes, but the scribe, after 
writing the shorter ending, returns to v. 8 and annexes the 
longer ending to it. Cod. M/*, which stands alone in placing 
the shorter ending immediately after ecfrofiovvro yap, without 
either break or note 1 , seems to have descended from an archetype 
which had the shorter ending only, though the scribe of "^ 
proceeds to give the longer with the usual prefatory note. Since 
the formula ecmv Be /cat ravra (^epo^eva yw-era TO e<. yap is 
common to L ^ "V 2 , we must suppose that these MSS., notwith 
standing other features which attest independence, drew at this 
point from the same relatively early archetype. 

Besides these uncial authorities the shorter ending finds a place 
in the margin of the cursive MS. 274 and of the Harclean Syriac, 
in the margin of two important MSS. of the Bohairic or Memphitic 
version 2 , and in several MSS. of the Ethiopic, where it stands in the 
text between v. 8 and v. 9 without note or break 3 . One authority 
which is still extant gives the shorter ending only the O.L. MS. 
&, in which Me. ends: "omnia autem quaecumque prae|cepta erant 
et qui cum puero (sic) erant | breviter exposuerunt posthaec | et 
ipse hi 8 adparuit et ab oriente- | usque usque in orientem 
misit | per illos sanctam et incorruptam [praedicationem 4 ] | 
salutis aeternae amen." 

As the shorter ending has not been printed with the text, it may 
be convenient to give it here with an apparatus. 

Trdvra Se TO, Trap^yyeX/xeva rots Trept rov Uerpov crvvTO/iws 

Se ravra KOI avros 6 Irytrovs e^any avrots, /cat ctTro dvaro\7J<s KCU 
Svcretos e^aTrco-TeiAev oY avrwv TO icpbv /cat a<j>0aprov Kijpvyfjia rfjs 
cucoviou crayr7pias. 

7rai/Ta. . ./xera Sc] hiat ^ | om Kat avros me codd(mg) aeth codd I o Irjo-ovs 
Lp] om o * 1 o /cvptos I. &eth M \ rfavr) avTots (p) me codd(mg aeth codd ] 

1 Gregory, prolegg., p. 445: "nihil chapter expelled in the Greek " (Oxford 
adnotationis ante -rravra dt noster inter- edition, p. 480). 

>onit, quod antiquiorem sibi vindicare 3 So WH. 2 , Notes, pp. 38, 44 ; see 

ontem videretur, nisi fortasse vocabula however Sanday, App., p. 105. 

vrj, fj^xp^ &MV seriorem textus con- 4 " Ha " which stands here in the 

ormationem testarentur." margin refers, as Dr Sanday points out, 

2 "In A, at the end of v. 8, in the to praedicationis (i.e. praedicationem) 
>reak, as if referring to the last twelve which the corrector has written at the 

verses, is a gloss [in Arabic] this is the foot of the page. 


om LI 274 mg syr hcl(mK) om cumus * k | K<H 2 k (me 00 * 4 (m *>) 
om rell | airo] air p | airo avaroX^ (avaroW 274"* cf. me codd(mg) )J 
+ TOV TAiov me codd(mg) aeth codd | om KCU 3 T k | axpi] /xe X pt ^ | oV 
. P | 

For cod. L see the facsimile in Burgon, as twelve verses, p. 112, 
and Tischendorf, mon. sacr. ined., 1846; for cod. ^, Gregory, Prolegg. 
ii. p. 445, Lake, Texts from Mt Athos, p. 122; for cod. "I 12 , Mrs 
Lewis, (7ato. of Syriac MSS. on Mt Sinai, p. 103 f.; for cod. p, 
Amelineau, Notices et extraits xxxiv. ii. p. 402 ff.; for cod. 274, 
Tischendorf, N. T. Gr* i. p. 404; for syr** 1 , White s edition, i. 
p. 258; for me, Sanday, Appendices ad W. T. t p. 187, and Coptic 
Version of the N. T., Oxf., 1898, i. p. 480 ff.; for aeth, Sanday, op. 
cit., p. 195 ; k is printed in full in 0. L. Bibl. Texts, ii. p. 23. 

As to the origin of this ending there can be little doubt. It 
has been written by some one whose copy of the Gospel ended at 
<j>o/3ovvTo yap, and who desired to soften the harshness of so 
abrupt a conclusion, and at the same time to remove the impres 
sion which it leaves of a failure on the part of Mary of Magdala 
and her friends to deliver the message with which they had been 
charged. Terrified as they were, he adds, they recovered them 
selves sufficiently to report to Peter the substance of the Angel s 
words. After this the Lord Himself appeared to the Apostles 
and gave them their orders to carry the Gospel from East to 
West ; and these orders, with His assistance, were loyally fulfilled. 

The style of this little paragraph, as Dr Hort 1 observes, bears 
some resemblance to that of St Luke s prologue, but it is certainly 
as little as possible in harmony with the manner of St Mark. 
Perhaps it may without rashness be attributed to a Roman hand 2 ; 
a Western origin is suggested by the pointed references to the 
westward course of the Apostolic preaching. 

One or two verbal similarities may suggest Clement, cf. i Cor. 
6 Kijpvg yi/o^,vos ei/ re ry dvaroX-fj KOL iv rrj 8u<rei, and with iepbv KOL 
a<j>OapTov cf. ib. 33 U/rats Kat ajuoo /xois. On the other hand some of 
the more striking words are characteristic of Ps.-Clement 2 Cor. 
(e.g. crvvTO/xws, e^aTTOOTeAAeu/, a< 

1 WH., Intr., p. 298 f. conjectures that it is taken from the 

Nestle (in Hastings, D. B., iii. p. 13) KT/pvy/xa IX^rpou, which, as he contends, 

suggests Egypt as its birth-place, and was written as an appendix to Me. 

Dobschiitz (Texte u. Unters. xi. i. p. 73 f.) 


The place it occupies in k and its occurrence in other versions, 
and in the four uncials where it is given with considerable variations 
of text and setting, point to an early date, and there is nothing 
either in the vocabulary or the manner to forbid this view. On 
the other hand it must always have had a very limited acceptance, 
for no trace of it has been found in any Greek or Latin Christian 
writing. It was overshadowed almost from the first by the 
superior merits of the longer ending. 

3. The longer ending follows v. 8 without break in every 
known Greek MS. except the two which end at e<f>ojSovvTo yap 
(X B) and the four which append both endings as partially attested 
alternatives (L "^ T 2 p). It is found or at one time occupied a 
place without alternative in the uncial MSS. AC(D)EFGHKM(N 1 ) 
SUVXrA(II2)nD, in all cursive MSS., in the Old Latin MSS. c ff 
g 1 n o q, in the Curetonian form of the Old Syriac, in the Mem- 
phitic and Gothic. Moreover, it appears as the recognised ending 
of St Mark in the earliest Christian writings which bear definite 
traces of the influence of the second Gospel. There are indica 
tions of its use in Hernias, and Justin appears to refer to v. 20, 
whilst v. 19 is expressly quoted by Irenaeus as the work of St Mark. 

For Hermas see Dr C. Taylor s Hermas and the Four Gospels, 
p. 57 ff. Justin either has our fragment in view or stumbles unac 
countably upon its phraseology when he writes (ap. i. 45): ot 0,71-0- 
oroAoi avrov ceX#oWes Travraxov e/c^pv^av. Other "early evidence for 
the twelve verses" may be seen in a paper contributed by Dr Taylor 
to the Expositor for 1893 (iv. viii., p. 71 ff.). These writers, however, 
may have known the fragment in another connexion ; in Irenaeus 
it is quoted as a true part of this Gospel : iii. 10. 6 "in fine autem 
evangelii ait Marcus Et quidem dominus lesus," &c. 

Thus on the whole it seems safe to conclude that at Rome and 
at Lyons in the second half of the second century the Gospel 
ended as it does now. If the last twelve verses did not form part 
of the autogra^K, there is nothing to shew when they were 
attached to the Gospel. But they must have been very generally 
accepted as^the work of St Mark soon after the middle of the 
second century, if not indeed at an earlier time. It is significant 

1 See Cronin, Codex purpureus Petropolitanus, p. xxviii. 


that a writer of such wide knowledge as Irenaeus entertained no 
doubt as to their genuineness. 

4. The present ending of the Gospel stands in evident con 
trast with the formal and somewhat turgid manner of the shorter 
ending. Although it contains an abundance of words and phrases 
which differentiate it from the rest of the book, yet like St Mark s 
genuine work, it might have been written by a bilingual Jew of 
the first generation who had been nourished upon the vocabulary 
of the LXX., and accustomed to translate Aramaic into Greek. 
But the two fragments are distinguished by a more serious and 
indeed fundamental difference. While the shorter ending was 
evidently composed with the view of completing St Mark s work, 
the last twelve verses of the common text are as clearly part of 
an independent composition. They form an epitome of the appear 
ances of the Risen Christ from the moment of the Resurrection 
to the Ascension, followed by a brief summary of the subsequent 
work of the Apostles. Instead of taking up the thread dropt at 
the end of xvi. 8, the longer ending begins with a statement 
which, if not inconsistent with xvi. I 8, presupposes a situation 
to which the earlier verses of the chapter offer no clue. It is 
clear that the subject of avaara^...e<l>avr] has been indicated in 
the sentence which immediately preceded ; but v. 8 is occupied 
with another subject. The writer of v. 9 introduces Mary of 
Magdala as if she were a person who had not been named before, 
or not referred to recently; but St Mark has already mentioned 
her thrice in the previous sixteen verses. Moreover, both the 
structure and the general purpose of this ending are remarkably 
distinct from those which distinguish the genuine work of Mark. 
Instead of a succession of short paragraphs linked by /cat, and an 
occasional Se, we have before us in xvi. 9 20 a carefully con 
structed passage, in which pera Se ravra, vcrrepov Be, 6 pev ovv, 
eKeivos Se, mark the successive points of juncture. The purpose is 
didactic and not simply or in the first instance historical; the 
tone is Johannine rather than Marcan. The author wishes to 
exhibit the slow recovery of the Apostles from their unbelief, and 
the triumphant power of faith (f)Tri<TTr]crav...ove 


To face p. cxi 


rrjv airio-riav avra)v...6 Tno-reva-a^ (TO)Orj<Trai,...eKetvo( f 
8e efeX#oi>T9 eicrfpvi;av jravra^ov). He carries the Risen Lord 
beyond the sphere of history to His place at the Right Hand 
of GOD, and recognises His cooperation in the work of the Church 
during the age which followed the Ascension. The historian has 
given place to the theologian, the interpreter of St Peter to the 
scholar of St John. 

5. A recent discovery assigns a name to the author of this 
fragment. In November 1891 Mr F. C. Conybeare found in the 
Patriarchal Library of Edschmiatzin an Armenian MS. of the 
Gospels written A.D. 989, in which the last twelve verses of St 
Mark are introduced by a rubric written in the first hand, Of the 
presbyter Ariston 1 . Mr Conybeare with much probability suggests 
that the person intended is the Aristion who is mentioned by 
Papias as one of the disciples of the Lord. 

Papias (Eus. H. E. iii. 39) is quoted as saying : el Sc TTOV KOL Traprj- 
KO\ov6r)Ku>s TIS rots Trpecr/JvTepois cX$ot, TOVS TU>I> Trpco-fivrfptav oW/cpn/ov 
Xdyovs. ..a re AptoTtW /cat 6 7rpeo-/3vrepo<; IwdVv^s ot TOV /cvptov /xa^ryrat 
Xeyovo~tv. Eusebius adds : /cat aXXas Se rrj tSta ypa^tfj TrapaSi Saxrtv 
Apto-TiWos TOV Trpoa-Ofv SeS^Xw/xevov TCUV TOV Kvpiov Xoycov 
Papias frequently cited him by name in his AoyiW xvpiaKwv e 
<rets (Eus. I.e. : Apio-TtWos Se /cat TOV 7rpo-/3vTepov Icoawov 
eavrov <f>r)<ri yevfa-Oai oro/xao-Tt yovV TroXXcxKts avriov fjivrjfjiovtvcras ev Tot? 
avTOv o*vyypa/x/xao-t riOrjcriv avrwv TrapaSoVets). 

Through Mr Conybeare s kindness a photograph is given of the 
leaf which bears the name of Ariston. He has sent me the 
following note in explanation of the facsimile. 

" In this codex verse 8 of ch. xvi. ends at the beginning of a line, 
in the second column of a page. The line is partly filled up with 
the vermilioned flourishes which indicate that the Gospel proper of 
Mark is ended. Verse 9 however is begun on the next line, and 
the whole 12 verses are completed in the same large uncials as the 
rest of the Gospels. As it were by an afterthought the scribe adds 
the title Ariston Eritzou just above the flourishes mentioned, and 
within the columnar space. It is written in vermilioned smaller 
uncials identical in character with those which at the foot of each 
column denote the Ammonian canons, and also with those which 
the scribe uses to complete a word at the end of a line, thereby 
preserving the symmetry of the lines and avoiding the necessity of 
placing the last one or two letters of a word by themselves at the 

1 Expositor, iv. viii. p. 241 ff. 


beginning of a fresh line. The title therefore was added by the 
first hand; or, if not by him, at least by the SioptfcoTvfc. In any 
case it is contemporary and must have stood in the older copy 
transcribed, from which also were perhaps transferred the fifth 
century full-page illuminations included in the existing codex. At 
first it was intended to omit the title, but on second thoughts it 
was added. If the scribe had from the first meant to keep it, he 
would have left room for it, instead of cramping it in above the 
terminal flourishes. That he regarded Mark proper as ending with 
verse 8, is further shewn by the large circular boss consisting of 
concentric circles of .colour added against the end of verse 8 
between the columns. The paler tints in the photograph corre 
spond to vermilion in the codex ; and the vermilioned lettering of 
the title was so faint in the positive sent to Mr Conybeare from 
Edschmiatzin in 1895, that he has strengthened it with ink for 
the preparation of the present facsimile. The parchment of the 
codex is so thin and fine that the writing on the back of the page 
here and there shews through in the photograph." 

Though neither Eusebius nor Papias as quoted by Eusebius 
says that Aristion committed his Sirjyrfa-eis to writing, nothing is 
more likely than that they were collected and published by those 
who heard them. To such a collection, made under the influence of 
the school of St John, this summary of post-Resurrection history I 
may well have belonged, and in the exemplar which was the j 
archetype of the codices known to Irenaeus it had been judged 
worthy to complete the unfinished work of the Evangelist. While 
the shorter ending passed over to Carthage and established itself in 
some circles at Alexandria, Rome and Gaul were quick to perceive 
the higher claims of this genuine relic of the first generation, and 
it took its place unchallenged in the fourfold Gospel of the West. 

6. The documentary testimony for the longer ending is, as 
we have seen, overwhelming. Nevertheless, there are points at 
which the chain of evidence is not merely weak but broken. 
Besides the fact that in the fourth century, if not in the third, 
the accurate copies of the Gospel were known to end with) 
xvi. 8, and that in the two great fourth century Bibles which 
have come down to us the Gospel actually ends at this point, 
those who maintain the genuineness of the last twelve verses 
have to account for the early circulation of an alternative ending, 
and for the ominous silence of the Ante-Nicene fathers between * 


Irenaeus and Eusebius 1 in reference to a passage which was of 
so much importance both on historical and theological grounds. 
When we add to these defects in the external evidence the internal 
characteristics which distinguish these verses from the rest of the 
Gospel, it is impossible to resist the conclusion that they belong 
to another work, whether that of Aristion or of some unknown 
writer of the first century 2 . 

1 See Zahn, Einleitung, ii. p. 227. piling his recollections of St Peter s 

2 Dr Salmon (Introduction to the teaching. But is there anything in the 
N.T., p. 151) writes in reference to the Gospel, whether in its opening verses 
last twelve verses of this Gospel, "We or elsewhere, which resembles the 
must ascribe their authorship to one rhythmical structure and didactic tone 
who lived in the very first age of the of the present ending ? Unless we en- 
Church. And why not to St Mark ? " tirely misjudge the writer of the second 
St Mark, undoubtedly, has more than Gospel, the last twelve verses are the 
one manner ; he writes with greater work of another mind, trained in another 
freedom when he is stating facts on his school. 

own knowledge than when he is com- 

S. M. 



We have already seen that this Gospel received little or no 
attention from the great commentators of the first five centuries. 
The commentary ascribed to Origen in a Paris MS. (Omont, 
Manuscrits grecs de la bibl. nat, p. 180) is identical with the work 
of Victor (Harnack, Oesch. d. altchr. Lit, p. 389; cf. Huet, 
Origeniana, iii., app. iv. ; see also Westcott, Origen, in D. C. B. 
iv., p. 112). In Anecdota Maredsolana (ill. ii. p. 319 sqq., 
1897), Dom Morin has printed some interesting homilies on 
St Mark which he attributes to Jerome 1 , but the treatment is 
allegorical and practical rather than exegetical in the strict sense. 
A few fragments which are found among the exegetical works 
of Theodore of Mopsuestia are probably taken from his other 
writings (Fritzsche, fragm. Th. Mops., p. 84). Chrysostom is 
said by Suidas to have written on St Mark, but the statement 
needs confirmation 2 . 

The earliest extant commentary on the second Gospel is that 
which bears the name of "VICTOR, presbyter of Antioch." 

In the Oxford MS. used by J. Cramer (Catenae in Evangelia, 
1840) the argument is said to be e* 7-775 ets O.VTOV (TOV Map/cov) 
ep^vcia? TOV Iv dyiois Kvpt AAov AAeavSpet as. Other MSS. have 
the same attribution, but the majority ascribe the work to Victor 
(Simon, hist. crit. du N. T., p. 427). For an account of the MSS. 
and editions of this commentary see Burgon, Twelve last verses I 
of St Mark, p. 272 ff. It was first published by Possinus in the 
Catena Graecorum Patrum in ev. sec. Marcum (Rome, 1673); see 
Burgon, p. 270. 

1 Two commentaries upon St Mark of Gregory the Great will be found in 

are printed in the appendix to Jerome P.L. Ixxix. coll. 1052, 1178. 

(Migne,P.L. xxx. coll. 56osqq., 59osqq.). 2 gee Bardenhewer, Patrologie, p. 313. 
Collections on St Mark from the works 


VICTOR OF ANTIOCH is otherwise unknown, but his personality 
is of little importance, since he professes to limit himself to the 
task of a compiler (crvvelSov ra Kara pepos /cal criropa^v et? 
avro eiprjiJLeva Trapa TOOV $i$acrKa\cov r^9 e/c^X^er/a? crvvarycvyelv, 
/cal a-vvrofjiov kp^Tjveiav o-vvrd^ai). Burgon (pp. cit., p. 2/5 ) 
has shewn that while Chrysostom s homilies on St Matthew 
supply the backbone of the work, Origen is freely used, and 
there are at least occasional references to St Basil, Apollinaris, 
Theodore of Mopsuestia, Titus of Bostra, and Cyril of Alexandria. 
A suggestion of Schanz 1 that the bulk of the commentary belongs 
to the school of Antioch is not supported by a solitary reference to 
Nestorius, which points the other way. Rather it seems to be 
the work of an industrious compiler who is willing to use all 
the materials at his disposal. Yet as Burgon points out 2 , Victor 
is not a catenist in the ordinary sense, for he speaks occasionally 
in his own person, and rarely quotes his authorities by name. 
The popularity of his work in the Eastern Church is shewn by 
the multiplication of copies ; it survives in more than fifty codices 
of the Gospels 3 . As to the time of its composition Dr Hort 
writes 4 : "it probably belongs to Cent. v. or VI., but there is 
no clear evidence to fix the date ; Dean Burgon, less cautiously : 
"[the] date... may be assigned to the first half of the fifth century 
suppose A.D. 425 450." A conjecture which placed it a century 
later would perhaps be nearer to the truth. 

Next in point of age to Victor of Antioch comes our country 
man BAEDA [j- 735]. Bede s commentaries on St Mark and 
St Luke were written at the desire of Acca, Bishop of Hexham. 
A passage from a letter to Acca prefixed to the commentary 
on St Mark describes Bede s method : " quae in patrum venera- 
bilium exemplis invenimus hinc inde collecta ponere curabimus, 
sed et nonnulla propria ad imitationern sensus eorum ubi opor- 
tunum videbitur interponemus." He complains in the preface 
to Luke of the difficulties which in a monastic cell beset such 

1 Commentar, p. 53. The passage KTJO-O, (Cramer, p. 272). 
quoted runs : et aXXos fr aXXy larl /card z Op. cit., p. 277. 

rovs \6yovs TOU NeffToplov 5ei elwew "Ej> 3 Ib. pp. 60, 278!!. 

ffoi tanv 6 iuos /J.QV 6 ayair rjTbs ev y eu56- 4 Notes, p. 34. 


work " ipse mihi dictator simul notarius et librarius " but tells 

us that he has nevertheless contrived to collect materials from 
all the great Latin fathers, Ambrose, Augustine, Gregory and 
Jerome. To the commentary of Jerome on St Matthew most 
of his exposition of Mark appears to be due; but the work 
is by no means devoid of independent merit, and perhaps its 
best features are those which it owes to the insight and devotion 
of Bede himself. Printed in Migne, P. L. xcii. 

Under the name of WALAFRID STRABO (t7$o)we have (i) the 
Olossa ordinaria, and (2) a few notes on St Mark (Migne, P. L. 
cxiii., cxiv.). 

THEOPHYLACT, Archbishop of Achridia (Ochrida) in Bulgaria 
(fl. c. A.D. 1077), has expounded St Mark with considerable fulness 
in his ^pfAqveLa el? ra Teacrapa vayy6\ia (Simon, iv., p. 390 if.). 
Simon s judgement ("les commentaires de Theophylacte...sont 
plutot des abrege s de S. Chrysostome que de ve"ritables commen 
taires ") is manifestly less applicable to this Gospel than to the 
others, if Chrysostom left no genuine work on St Mark ; certainly 
Theophylact s commentary on St Mark is of considerable im 
portance for the exposition of the Gospel, and in the dearth of 
older expositions invaluable. Printed in Migne, P. G. cxxiii. 

EUTHYMIUS ZIGABENUS, a monk of Constantinople (fl. c. 
A.D. 1115), is also a follower of Chrysostom (prooem. in Mt. . 
jAcbucrra fiev airo TT}? efyyijcrea)? rov ev aylois Trarpb? y/jLUiv 
*\wdvvov rov xpvcroGTO/Jiov, en Be KOI CLTTO SicKfropcov a\\wv 
Trarepoov crvveio-eveyfcovTos TWO). But unlike Theophylact he I 
regards St Mark as scarcely deserving of a separate commentary, 
since the second Gospel is in close agreement with the first, 
excepting where the first is fuller (a-v^wvel \lav rut MarOalq) I 
7r\rjv orav eiceZvos eVrt irXarvrepo^). His notes on Mark are I 
therefore generally mere cross-references to those on Matthew ; I 
here and there, however, where Mark differs from Matthew or 
relates something which is peculiar to himself, useful comments 
will be found. Printed in Migne, P. G. cxxix. 

BRUNO ASTENSIS (f 1125) contributes a brief exposition, of 
which the author writes : " non multum quidem nos laborare 


necesse erit quoniam valde pauca ibi dicuntur quae in Matthaeo 
exposita non sint." Printed in Migne, P. L. clxv. 

RUPERTUS TUITIENSIS (Rupert of Deutz, f 1135): in vol. iv. 
Evangelistarum commentariorum liber unus (Migne, P. L. clxvii.). 

(?) THOMAS AQUINAS (f 1274): catena aurea in iv. Evangelistas. 

ALBERTUS MAGNUS (f 1289) : commentarius in Mar cum. 

DIONYSIUS CARTHUSIANUS (f 1417): in iv. Evangelia. 

FABER STAPULENSIS (f 1527): commentarii initiatorii in iv. 

DESIDERIUS ERASMUS (f 1536): paraphrasis in N.T. 

Jo. MALDONATUS (f 1583): commentarii in iv. Evangelistas. 

CORNELIUS A LAPIDE (f 1637): commentaria in iv. Evangelia. 

Among later writers on the four Gospels good work of varying 
merit and usefulness may be found in the commentaries of Bengel, 
Eisner, Grotius, Kuinoel, Kypke, and Wetstein. The last century 
produced many expositions of St Mark, and others have appeared 
since 1900. It must suffice to specify the following: 

FRITZSCHE, K. F. A.: Evangelium Hard, Lips., 1830. 

MEYER, H. A. W. : in the Krit.-exegetischer Kommentar, first 
ed., 1832; ninth ed. (Meyer- Weiss), 1901. 

ALFORD, H.: in the Four Gospels, London, 1849. 

ALEXANDER, J. A.: Gospel ace. to St Mark, Princeton, 1858. 

LANGE, J. P. : in the Theol.-homiletisches Bibelwerk, first ed., 
1858; fourth ed., 1884. 

KLOSTERMANN, A. : das Markusevangelium, Gottingen, 1 867. 

WEISS, B. : das Markusevangelium, Berlin, 1872; die vier 
Evangelien, Leipzig, 1900. 

MORISON, JAS. : Commentary on the Gospel ace. to St Mark y 
London, 1873. 

COOK, F. G. : in the Speaker s Commentary on the N.T., vol. I., 
London, 1878. 

RIDDLE, M. R. : in SchafFs Popular Commentary on the N.T., 
Edinburgh, 1878-82. 

PLUMPTRE, E. H. (in the N.T. Commentary for English 
readers), London, 1879. 


SCHANZ, P.: Commentar uber das Evangelium d. h. Marcus, 
Freiburg-im-Breisgau , 1 8 8 1 . 

MACLEAR, G. F. (in the Cambridge Greek Testament), Cambridge, 
first ed., 1883; last reprint, 1899. 

CHAD WICK, G. A.: the Gospel ace. to St Mark (in the Expo 
sitor s Bible), London, 1887. 

LUCKOCK, H. M. : Footprints of the Son of Man as traced by 
St Mark, London, 1889. 

HOLTZMANN, H. J. : in the Hand-commentary Freiburg-im- 
Breisgau, 1892; third edition, 1901. 

KNABENBAUER, J.: Commentarius in Evangelium sec. Marcum 
(in the Cursus scripturae sacrae), Paris, 1 894. 

GOULD, E. P. : a critical and exegetical commentary on the 
Gospel ace. to St Mark (in the International Critical Commentar} 7 ), 
Edinburgh, 1896. 

BRUCE, A. B.: St Mark (in the Expositor s Greek Testament), 
London, 1897. 

MENZIES, A. : the Earliest Gospel : a historical study of the 
Gospel ace. to Mark, London, 1901. 

WELLHAUSEN, J.: Das Evangelium Marci. Berlin, 1903. 

GRESSMANN, H., and KLOSTERMANN, E.: Die Evangelien. i. 
Markus. Tubingen, 1907. 

WOHLENBERG, G. : Das Evangelium des Markus (in Th. Zahn s 
Kommentar zum N.T.). Leipzig, 1910. 

The following are a few of the least obvious abbreviations 
employed in the footnotes: 

BDB. Brown Driver and Briggs, Hebrew and English Lexicon of the O.T. (Oxford, 
1892- ). 

Blass, Gr. F. Blass, Grammar of N.T. Greek. Translated by H. St J. Thackeray 
(London, 1898). 

Burton. E. de W. Burton, Syntax of the Moods and Tenses in N.T. Greek (Edin 
burgh, 1894). 

Dalman, Gr. G. Dalman, Grammatik d. Judisch-Paldstinischen Aramdisch (Leip 
zig, 1894). 

Dalman, Worte. G. Dalman, Die Worte Jesu bd. i (Leipzig, 1898): the English 
translation (The Words of Jesus, i, Edinburgh, 1902) appeared too late to be 
quoted in this edition. 

D.C.A. Smith and Cheetham, Dictionary of Christian Antiquities. 

D.C.B. Smith and Wace, Dictionary of Christian Biography and Doctrines. 

Deissmann. G. A. Deissmann, Bible Studies. Translated by A. Grieve (Edin 
burgh, 1901). 

Delitzsch. N.T. in Hebrew (Leipzig, 1892). 

Euth. Euthymius Zigabenus. 

Exp. The Expositor. 

Exp. T. The Expository Times. 

Field, Notes. F. Field, Notes on the translation of the N.T. = Otium Norvicense iii., 
edited by A. M. Knight (Cambridge, 1899). 

Hastings, D. B. J. Hastings, Dictionary of the Bible (Edinburgh, 1898 1902). 

J. B. L. The Journal of Biblical Literature. 

J. Th. St. The Journal of Theological Studies. 

Nestle, T. C. E. Nestle, Textual Criticism of the N. T. Translated by W. Edie and 
A. Menzies (London, 1901). 

SH. Sanday and Headlam, Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans (Edinburgh, 


Thpht. Theophylact. 
Vg. The Latin Vulgate. 

Victor. Victor of Antioch (in Cramer s Catena). 
WH. Westcott and Hort, N.T. in Greek (Cambridge, 1881); WH. 2 , second edition 


WM. Winer-Moulton, Grammar of N.T. Greek, 8th Engl. ed. (Edinburgh, 1877). 
WSchm. Winer- Schmiedel, Grammatik d. NTlichen Sprachidioms (Gottingen, 

1894- ). 
Zahn, Einl. Th. Zahn, Einleitung in das N.T. (Leipzig, 18979). 

In substance and style and treatment the Gospel of St Mark is essentially 
a transcript from life. The course and issue of facts are imaged in it with 
the clearest outline. If all other arguments against the mythic origin of the 
Evangelic narratives were wanting, this vivid and simple record, stamped 
with the most distinct impress of independence and originality, totally 
unconnected with the symbolism of the Old Dispensation, totally independent 
of the deeper reasonings of the New, would be sufficient to refute a theory 
subversive of all faith in history. The details which were originally 
addressed to the vigorous intelligence of Roman hearers are still pregnant 
with instruction for us. The teaching which l met their wants in the first 
age finds a corresponding field for its action now.... The picture of the 
sovereign power of Christ battling with evil among men swayed to and fro 
by tumultuous passions is still needful, though we may turn to St Matthew 
and St John for the ancient types or deeper mysteries of Christianity or 
find in St Luke its inmost connexion with the unchanging heart of man. 
Bishop Westcott. 


APXH TOV evayye\LOV Irjcrov XpicrTov \viov 6eov]. I 

Kara MapKov KBF] pr evayye\iov ADEHKLMUrAII2< minP 1 TO K. M. (ayiov) 
evayye\iov min 8 * 11 

I. i apxT] TOV ev.] evayye\tov syr Wer | vtov deov K a BDL] viov TOV deov AEFHKMSU 
VrAII2<l> minP 1 latt S yrrP eshhcl < m 8) arm me go aeth Ir 2 Or? 1 Amb Hier 1 Aug (om K* 28 
[lyo-. tantum 28*] 255 syr hier Ir 1 Or 4 Bas Hier 2 ) 


y TOV fvayyf\iov I. X.] Pos- 

sibly an early heading which arose 
from the fusion of an original title 
eyAITeAiON Hf XY with the note &px^ 
that marked the beginning of a new 
book (Nestle, Exp., Dec. 1894 ; Inlr. 
pp. 163, 261 ; see on the other hand 
Zahn, Einl. ii. p. 220 ff., 235). Yet 
the sentence is intelligible if regard 
ed as a title prefixed to the book 
by the writer or editor ; for a similar 
opening comp. Hosea i. i (LXX.), dpx^l 
\6yov Kvpiou eV Qa-fjc ; see also Prov. 
i i, Eccl. i. i, Cant. i. i, &c. Or it 
may have been intended to refer to 
the immediate sequel. Irenaeus con 
nects it with v. 2 : enro TOV Trpo<j)r)TtKov 

y Apxr)...a>s yeypcnrTai, KT\. , and SO 
Origen (in Jo. t. vi. 24). Others with 
more probability find the dpxrj in the 
events described in v. 4 iff., e.g. Basil 
C. Eun. ii. 1 5, o 8e MapKos dpX*i v Tov f v~ 
ayyeAiou TO iwavvov ircTroirjKC Krjpvyp.a I 
Victor, *Io)dvvr)V ovv TeXfvTaiov TWV Trpo- 
(prjTcov dpxfiv Lvai TOV vayyf\iov (firjaiv. 

The starting-point varies with the 
position of the writer ; Mt. sees it in 
the ancestry and birth of the Messiah, 

S. M. 2 

Lc., in the birth of the Baptist ; Jo. (but 
see Jo. xv. 26) looks back to the dpx~n 
in which the Word was with GOD ; St 
Paul, using the word * Gospel in a 
wider sense, sees a fresh beginning in 
the foundation of each of the churches 
(Phil. iv. 15). That Me. begins his 
Gospel with the ministration of the 
Baptist is one indication amongst 
many that he preserves the earliest 
form of the evangelical tradition, in 
which the record of the Birth and 
Childhood did not find a place. 

Evay-ye Xtoi/ (in class. Greek usually 
pi., t va.yyfA.ta} from Homer downwards 
is the reward accorded to a bearer of 
good tidings, but in later writers 
(e.g. Lucian, Plutarch) the good news 
itself. The LXX. use it only in 2 Regn. 
iv. 10, and in the class, sense, for in 
2 Regn. xviii. 22, 25 we should pro 
bably read tvayyeXta (cf. V. 2o). In 
the N.T. the later sense alone occurs, 
but with some latitude of application ; 
see v. i$n. Ev. I. X. is the good 
tidings concerning J. C. (gen. of the 
obj.), as revealed in His life, death, and 
resurrection. The phrase is unique in 
the Gospels, which elsewhere have TO 
fv. TOV 0ov (i. 14), TO ev. 



P 2 


<yeypa7TTai ev TW Hcraia TO* 




2 Kaew KBKLAII* i 33 209 604 2*" alP" uc Or al] ws ADEFHMPSUVrn 2 ST 
Ir Or 1 al | ev TW H<rcua ru irpo<pr)T-r} KB(D)LA (r 22 al) 33 604 1071 al nonn latt 

S y rr peshhcl(mg)hier arm codd me J r l Qr 4 al] ev TOIS 

gyrhciftxt) arm zoh aeth Ir 2Iat | om i5ov...T7]v od. ffov Bas Epiph Victorin | 

KALPrAIIS<i> min fereomn vg 611 syr hcl arm go aeth Or 4 (om BD 28 latt Ir int ) 

K alP uc me 

or simply TO ev. (i. 15). If the heading 

was added early in the second century 

we might understand by ev. here a 

record of the Lord s life and words: 

for the earliest exx. of this use of 

the word see Ign. Philad. 5, 8, Did. 

App. 8, n, 15, Justin ap. i. 66; and 

cf. Zahn, Gesch. des N. T. Kanons, i 

p. 162. 

vlov 6eov\ The evidence for the 
omission of these words is weighty, but 
meagre. WH. (Notes, p. 23) relegate 
them to the margin as a secondary 
reading, but hold that " neither read 
ing can be safely rejected." Possibly 
the heading existed almost from the 
first in two forms, with and without 
vl 6. The phrase vibs 6eov or o vi. T. 
6. occurs in Me. iii. n, v. 7, xv. 39; 
cf. i. n, ix. 7, xii. 6, xiii. 32, xiv. 61. 

OF JOHN THE BAPTIST (Mt. iii. i 12, 
Lc. iii. i6, 1517 ; cf. Jo. i. 631). 

2. Kadws yf ypaTrrat] A LXX. for 
mula = 1-1 n33 (4 Regn. xiv. 6, xxiii. 14, 
2 Paral. xxiii. 18, xxv. 4, xxxiii. 32, 
xxxv. 12, Tob. i. 6). Me. employs it 
again in ix. 13, xiv. 21, and it occurs 
in Lc. ev act , and frequently in St 
Paul; Jo. (vi. 31, xii. 14) seems to 

prefer KaOms eo-Tiv yeypa^evov. The 

perf. gives the sense of perpetuity ; 
the litera scripta abides. See WM., 
P- 339- 

The apodosis to /m&os- *rX. is want 
ing, unless we find it in v. 4. For a 
similar omission see the opening clause 
of i Tim. (L 3, 4). For other possible 
constructions cf. Nestle, Intr. p. 261. 

ev rep Htrat a TO> irpo(f)T/TT)] The quo 
tations are from Mai. iii. i, Is. xl. 3. 

In the parallels Mt. iii. 3, Lc. iii. I 6 
(cf. Jo. i. 23) Malachi is not quoted, but 
his words are used by the two Synoptists 
in another connexion (Mt. xi. 10, Lc. 
vii. 27). Origen (in Jo. t. vi. 24) 
remarks that Me. is here dvo irpo- 
(prjreias ev $ia(p6pois elprjfievas TOTTOIS 
VTTO dvo 7rpo(pT]Ta)v els ev crvvaywv. That 
he quotes the two under one name 
did not escape the notice of Porphyry 
(Hier. tr. in Me.); Jerome (on Mt.) 
answers : " nomen Isaiae putamus ad- 
ditum scriptorum vitio...aut certe 
de diversis testimoniis scripturarum 
unum corpus effectum." The latter 
solution is not improbable. Me. (or 
his source) may have depended upon 
a collection of excerpts in which Mai. 
iii. i stood immediately before Is. xL 
3, possibly on a leaf headed HCAIAC. 
A similar confusion occurs in Iren. 
iii. 20. 4, where quotations from Micah 
(vii. 19) and Amos i. 2 are preceded 
by the formula Amos propheta ait. 
On the use of such collections see 
Hatch, Essays, p. 203 ff. ; SH., Romans, 
pp. 264, 282. The reading is hotly 
contested in Burgon-Milier, Causes 
of Corruption, p. 1 1 1 f. 

lbov...Tr)v odov oWJ LXX. ISov ega- 
Troo-reXXoj TOV ayye\6v pov, KOI e7Tt/3Xe- 
v//-eTat ooov Trpo Trpoo-wirov /zov. Both 
Mt. (xi. 10) and Lc. (vii. 27) read with 
Me. KaTao-Kevdaei and a~ov, and trans 
pose Trpo TTpotrcoTrou o~ov, but both 
add e/iTrpoo^ev o~ov after odov trov. 
The LXX. e-mftXtyeTai presupposes the 
vocalisation rns, whereas KaTao-xevd 
represents H3S (Resch, Paralleltexte 
zu Lucas, p. 1 14) ; Symm. (dnoa-Kevdcre i) 
and Theod. (eToipdo-ci) agree with the 

I. 4] 



09 KaTa<TK6v<rei TY\V oo crov . <ptovr) /Sowj/ros 3 
i/ Trj eprj/ua) Grcu/xacraTe TY\V dSoiA Kvpiov, evdeias "H 
TO.S Tpi/3ovs avTOv. 4 e f yeveTO Icodvris 6 /3a7T- 4 
ev Trj eprifJLM Kripv&a tov fiaTTTKr/ULa 

i TIJV odov ffov] + efjiTrpoffOev croi/ ArAlPS al min? 1 f ff g vg 6 * 1 syr hcl arm go me Or 
3 CLVTOV] TOV 6eov vfiwv D 34 m s a b c f ff t (del nostri) syr hcl ( m s) go Ir intvidbi9 (ante deum 
nostrum) 4 eyevero] pr /cat K* | Iwav-rjs B] Iwavv-ns codd fereomn | o ^OTTT. NBLT d A 

33 me] om o A(D)PriIS4> al syr^ sh arm | ev T-TJ e/>. pairT. D 28 604 latt (exc f) 
| Kripvwwv] pr /cat KADLA2<i> al latt syrr arm me (om /cat B 33 73 102) 

= o /SaTmoTTjy, as in vi. 14, 24 (cf. 25); 
on this use of the participle see Light- 
foot on Gal. i. 23. If with all the 
uncials except B and with the versions 
we read <a\ /c^pvo-o-toi/, the descriptive 
clause will run on to the end of the 
verse ( John the Baptizer . . . and 
preacher, &c.). 

(v TTJ fprj/uo)] Mt. connects this 
with KTjpvcrcraiV and adds TTJS louSatas. 

According to Lc. (i. 80, iii. 3) the 
Baptist was eV rat? fp^ots till his call 
came, and then went to the Jordan ; 
Mt. and Me., writing in view of Isa. xl. 
3, draw no distinction between the 
fprjpos and the Jordan valley. The 
wilderness of Judah or Judaea (" IIP 

"l^ "^) LXX. (A), TT\V eprjfiov lovda, 

Jud. i. 1 6) has been described as 
a region " piled up from the beach of 
the Dead Sea to the very edge of the 
central plateau" (G. A. Smith, Hist. 
Geogr. p. 263), and, from an opposite 
point of view, as "the barren steeps in 
which the mountains break down to 
the Dead Sea" (Moore, Judges, p. 32) ; 
Engedi seems to have been the most 
southerly town of this district (Moore, 
I.e., referring to Josh. xv. 61 f.). It 
was in the wilderness of Engedi that 
David had sought a retreat (i Sam. 
xxiv. i), and the same neighbourhood 
would naturally have offered itself to 
John, whose childhood had been spent 
in the hill country of Judaea (Lc. i. 

Krjpvo O atv /3a7rrio /za...a/iapTta>i/] The 

vox clamantis (Isa. I.e., cf. Jo. i. 23) 
I 2 

Gospels. For a-ov the Heb. supplies 
no justification : it is perhaps due to 
the compiler of the excerpts (see last 
note), who has blended MaL I.e. with 
Exod. xxiii. 20. 

TTpO TTpOCTtoTTOV CTOf] Victor : 

,..67Tt Tcot/ (Baa-iXecov ol cyyvs TOV 
IULTOS fXavvovrfS OVTOI T&V ofXXcoj/ etVi 

3. <pa>vr) . . .T ptftovs avrov] So the 
LXX. exactly, except that for the last 
word, following the Heb., they give 
TOV 0fov rjiitov a reading which has 
found its way into some Western texts 
of Me. (see vv. 11.). Origen (in Jo. I.e.], 
Jerome (in MaL iii.), and Victor notice 
this remarkable divergence of the 
Synoptists from the LXX. The passage 
is quoted also by Jo. (i. 23), but he 
stops at Kvpiov. 

Tregelles connects eV rfj epi/fto) with 
erot/zao-are, following the M. T. ; but 
the absence in the Greek of any 
parallelism corresponding to nini;2 
justifies the ordinary punctuation 
which is common to the Gospels and 
the LXX., and it is supported by Jewish 
interpretation (Delitzsch ad /.). 

4. eyeWro itodvrjs rX.] There 

arose John the Baptizer in the wilder 
ness, preaching &c. For this use of 
eyevero cf. 2 Pet. ii. I, I Jo. ii. l8; and 

especially Jo. i. 6, where it begins a 
sentence with equal abruptness. On 
the forms ladv^s, Iwai/i^s see WH., 
Notes, p. 166; Winer-Schmiedel, p. 57 ; 
Blass, p. 1 1. Mt. (iii. I ) has TrapcryiWrcu, 
tfrv is nearly 


5 as a(f)6(nv d/uapTicoi/. 5 Kai e^eTropevcTO Trpos CLVTOV 
irdora r\ lovSaia xtopa Kai ol lepO(ro\v/UL6iTai 

i /3a7rTL^OVTO V7T aVTOV iv TO) 

5 c&iropevovTo EFHLSVr lat* tn go | iravres KM e/3. N c - a BDLT d AS 28 33 
1071 ab qt vg syr 1 * 8 * 1 arm me] /ecu e/3. IT. APPII al syr hcl go 13 al om Tray-res < minP* uc 
f om /ecu tf* 69 a | om Trorct/iw D 604 a b c 

era of spiritual remission (Lc. iv. 21). 
In the N.T. both words are used with 
some reserve (acpea-is 18 , p-eraVota 22 ) ex 
cept perhaps by Lc. (a(p. 10 , /uer. 11 ). 

5. ^f7Topfi ero...7rai/res] Judaea is 
personified, as in Gen. xli. 57 iratrai al 
X<x>pai rf\6ov. So Mt. ; Lc. (iii. 7) pre 
fers to speak of eWopevop.ei/oi o^Xot. 
With 77 I. x^P a (Vg ludaeae regio) 
cf. the similar phrases in Lc. iii. i, 
Acts xvi. 6, xviii. 23 ; 77 lovdaia yfj 
occurs in Jo. iii. 22, 77 xP a T <*> v lovdaianr 
in Acts x. 39, 77 X - r^js lovdaias in Acts 
xxvi. 20. More usually we have simply 
ij lovdaia (e.g. Me. iii. 7, x. i, xiii. 14). 
For the limits of Judaea see Joseph. 
B. J. iii. 3. 5, and comp. Neubauer, 
geogr. du Talmud, p. 59 ff., G. A, 
Smith, Hist. Geogr., c. xiii. Mt. adds 
/cat Tratra T? Trept^wpos TOV lopSai/ou, i.e. 
the Jordan valley (finiB < ^??" ?|i, Gen. 
xiii. 10) ; some came from Galilee, as 
Simon, Andrew, and John (Jo. i. 35 ff.), 
and Jesus Himself. Ot lepoo-oXv/ierrai 
(on the breathing see WH., p. 313, and 
on the termination in -eirrjs, WH., 
Notes, p. 1 54 : for the form comp. 4 
Mace, xviii. 5, Jo. vii. 25, Joseph, ant. 
xii. 5. 3) ; distinguished from 77 L ^&> pa 
as a conspicuous portion of the whole, 
cf. Isa. i. i, ii. i, iii. i not only the dis 
trict in general, but the capital itself, 
poured out its contribution of visitors. 
Hao-a, TrdvTfs, like the Heb. 73, are used 
with some looseness : cf. Mt. ii. 3 Tmo-a 
lepocrdXu/Lia. The movement was prac 
tically universal. The long-cherished 
desire for a revival of prophecy 
(i Mace. iv. 46, xiv. 41, cf. Mt. xi. 
9, 32) seemed to have been realised; 
hence this exodus to the Jordan. 

Both the exodus and 

was the cry of a herald (N"^ is ren 
dered indifferently by (Soav and Krjpixr- 
o-fiv, cf. Dan. iii. 4, LXX. and Theo- 
dotion), proclaiming a religious rite 
which was to be at once the expression 
and the pledge of repentance (/zera- 
voias, gen. of inner reference, WM., p. 
235), and had remission of sins for its 
purpose and end (ds a<p., WM., p. 495). 
The baptism of John was strictly 

speaking els fj-eravoiav (Mt. iii. 1 1, Acts 
xix. 3 ; cf. Wiinsche, neue Beitrdge, 
p. 385); it was els afacriv only inas 
much as it prepared for the !i> /3. els 
a<pf(nv ap,apTia>v of the Christian 
Creed. Ambr. in Lc. ii.: "aliud fuit 
baptisma paenitentiae, aliud gratiae 
est ; Victor: TrpooSoTrotooz/ Trapayeyoi/e 
/cat 7rpoeTot/xaooi/, ov TTJV Scopeai/ x a P l ~ 
ofji(vos . . . aXXa 7rpOTTapa(rK(vda>v ray 
^v^ay. J/ A0eo-ty belongs properly to 
the Messianic Kingdom (Me. ii. 5 ff.), 
in which it is associated with the 
Baptism of the Spirit (Acts ii. 38). 
The Law itself offered forgiveness of 
external offences through external 
rites ; the new order, anticipated in the 
Psalms and Prophets and beginning 
with John, proclaimed a full forgive 
ness citra sacriftcia levitica (Bengel). 
On the form /Sunrto-^a see Me. vii. 
4, note, and Lightfoot on Col. ii. 12: 
neither /3a7rrio>ia nor /SaTn-tcr/zos is 
known to the LXX., and the verb is 
used of a religious purification only 
in Sir. xxxi (xxxiv.) 30. Merai/ota is 
nearly restricted to the non-canonical 
books (Prov. 1 Sap.3 gi r .s). 
though frequent, occurs nowhere in 
the Greek O.T. in the sense of forgive 
ness, although the 6 wawrfc 

(Lev. xxv. 10) is the archetype of an 





TCLS /uLapTias avTtov. Ka r\v 6 6 

Tpi%as Ka/u.ri\ou Kal ^covrjv Sep- 
Trepi Trjv 6<r<pvv avTov, Kal ecrdtoi/ dicpiScK Kal 

6 /cat yv KBLT d 33 sP 61 "* b d al vg] t]v 5e ADPFAHZ* al j r/>txas] dfpprjv D a 
(pellem) \ om /cat uvi)v . . .aurou D a b d ff t | ecrfltwi ADL^Tm al? 1 

the baptisms were continuous ; corap. 
Jo. iii. 23, and contrast the aorists in 
Acts ii. 41, i Cor. i. i3f., x. 2, xii. 13. 
YTT* avrov determines the voice of 
/3a7rr., they received baptism at the 
hands of John (cf. v. 9) ; the middle 
is also used, as in 4 Regn. v. 14, 
Judith xii. 7, Acts xxii. 16, i Cor. x. 2. 
For Josephus s account of the baptism 
of John see ant. xviii. 5. 2, and on the 
question of its relation to proselyte- 
baptism, cf. Schiirer n. ii. 319 ff. Ev 
TOJ lopS. TTora/xw (cf. is rov lop., V. 9, 

note): so Mt. ; "im Jordanstrome" 
(Schanz). L irora^os is regarded as a 
single term, needing but one article 
(synthetical apposition, cf. WM., p. 
72 f.). 

e^o/JoX. ras ap. avrwv] Evidence of 
TavoLa. E^o/ioXoyeio-tfai in Biblical 

Greek is usually to give glory to GOD 
/= ^ nnin), a phrase especially common 
in the Psalms ; see also Mt. xi 25, 
Rom. xiv. 1 1. The rarer e o/zoX. apap- 
rias occurs in Dan. ix. 20 (LXX.), where 
Th. lias fgayopevetv, the usual equiva 
lent in the LXX. of the Hithp. of FIT. 
ayopn>civ does not occur in the 

. T., but e o/xoX. raff a/iapr/ay is Used 

in James v. 16 as well as by Mt., Me. 
in this place ; see also Barnabas (19), 
Clement of Rome (i Cor. 51), Ps. 
Clement (2 Cor. 8), Tert. pat. 15, 
paen. 10, 12. 

6. tfv...vftf8vnct>os KrX.] Elijah had 
worn a sheepskin mantle (^Xcor?;, 
3 Regn. xix. 19; cf. Heb. xi. 37, Clem. 
R. i Cor. 17) and a leathern girdle 

(4 Regn. i. 8 ^COITJV dfp^aTivrjv 7repteco- 
(Tfifvos TTJV 6o~(f)vv O.VTOV) | and a similar 
costume had become the traditional 
dress of the prophet (Zech. xiii. 4 

; cf. Mt. vii. 
1 5). Acppiv has been transferred from 
Zech. I.e. into some representatives of 
the Western text of Me. ; see vv. 11. 
But John s ei>8vfj.a OTTO rpi\(ov KapyjXov 
(Just. dial. 88) was probably not a 
camel s skin, but an ordinary garment 
of sackcloth (o-aos rpix^os, Apoc. vi. 
12) woven from the rough hair of the 
animal ; J. Lightfoot ad loc. points 
out that the Talmud speaks of such 
a garment (D^Di "IDVO in). Cf. 
Victor : a-cKpecrrepov 6 MarOalos (prjcriv 
<os TO fvdvpa avrov r\v OTTO Tpt^coy 
/ca/ijyXou* Euth. rpt^as ov^i darep- 
ydo Tovs dXX vcprjcpacrfjifvas, and see 
Joseph, ant. xvi. 4, B. J. i. 17. Hieron. 
op. imp. : " non de lana cameli habuit 
vestirnentum . . . sed de asperioribus 
setis." The crowd did not go out to 

see avOptoirov ev p,a\a.Kols ijpfpieo fj.evov 

(Mt. xi. 8), but one who inherited the 
poverty as well as the power of Elijah. 
Jerome claims the Baptist as the 
head of the monastic order : " mona- 
chorum princeps Johannes Baptista 
est." With the constr. eVSeS. rpi ^as 
cf. Apoc. i. 13, xix. 14. 

Kal tcrBtov] Mt. 77 e rpofpfj r\v avrov. 
It was " wilderness food" (Gould). Cer 
tain locusts were accounted * clean : 
Lev. xi. 22, 23, raCra (pa-yetrtfe aVo 
TCOI/ fpTTfTO)V...rr]v aKpida (^Pl) Kal TO. 

o/ioia avrf). "The Gemarists feign 
that there are 800 kinds... of such 
as are clean " (J. Lightfoot ad loc.) : 
Hieron. adv. Jovin. ii. 6, " apud orien- 
tales...locustis vesci moris est." It 
was perhaps in ignorance of this fact, 
perhaps from encratite tendencies, 
that some ancient commentators 
understood by a<pls in this place a 

u.e\i aypiov. 7 Kai eKtjpvcrcrev Xeywv 

, f f * > T - 


KV\ISCZS Xvcrat TOV IjULavTa TWV v: 


7 8 KCU eXe-yev airrcus 701 per vjj.. pairr. fv 1 5. cpx- 5e ov. pov o urxvpor. p.ov ov 
OVK et/u IK. \v<rai T. ifju TWV woo. avrov KOI euros vfi. j8awTti" ev TTV. ay. D (a) (ff). 
7 fvTjpi o-crev] ciccicpayev T \ iff X vpos A min 1 | om fu>v 2 B Or 1 | om OTrtcrw /zou A 
min 1 ff t | om KV^CLS D iS 256 1071 s^abcfg Amb 

kind of vegetable food (cf. Euth.); see 
J. R. Harris, Fragments of Ephrem, 
p. 17 f. As to the wild honey of 
Palestine (ayptov, Vg. rilrestre, Wy- 
eliffe, "hony of the wode"), cf. 4 Regn. 
iv. 39, Ps. Ixxix. (Ixxx.) 14, and see 
Exod. iii. 8, Deut. xxxii. 13, Judg. 
xiv. 8, i Sam. xir. 25 ; also Joseph. 
B. J. iv. 8. 3, where it is named among 
the products of the plain of Jericho. 
The Sinaitic (Mt.) and Jerusalem 
Syriac versions render /ie Xi ayptov 
mountain honey i,cf. Lc. xii. 28 in 
g vrrp the Ebiouite Gospel had 
the curious gloss (from Exod. xvi. 31, 

Num. xi. 8) ov T) yevaif rjv TOV fidvva 

cos cyKpls fv fXaiai : cf. Resch, Paralld- 
tejcte zu Jit. u. Me., p. 56. The 
name p.e\i aypiov (met silcestre) was 
:ilso given by the ancients to a 
vegetable product : Diod. Sic. xix. 94, 

(plTai..MTTO TO)V 8fv8pti)V KOI /if At TToAv 

TO KaXovpevov aypiovl Plin. ff. ^V. xix. 
8, " est auteni mel in aruudinibus col- 
lectum." But it is unnecessary in the 
present case to go beyond the natural 

"Eafciv = <rdiftv, a Homeric form 
which "occurs Me. 1 and probably Me. 1 , 
Lc. 4 , mostly in the participle "(WH. 2 , 
Notes, p. 152 f., cf. WSchm., p. 127, 
Blass, p. 54). In the LXX. the shorter 
form of the participle is frequent in 
cod. B. 

7- Kai KTjpv(T(Tev Ae -ycoi/ v Epxercu *rA.] 
A second stage in the Baptist s preach 
ingthe heralding of the Christ. Lc. 
iiii 15) mentions that he was led to 
it by the growing belief in his own 
Messiahship. O to-^vporfpos /zov : cf. 

Lc. xi. 22. Mt inverts the sentence (o 

fit O7T. pOV fpX lO~VVpOTfpO5...) , COtllp. 

Jo. i. 15, where the ground of the 
superiority is found in the preexistence 
of Messiah (on TTP&TOS p-ov qv). O5.. 
auroO : see WM., p. i84f. 

OVK elp.1 IKOVOS] Cf. Exod. iv. IO 

(LXX.). IKOVOS (lp.i in the N. T. is fol 
lowed by an inf., as here (Burton, 
3?6), by iva (Mt. viii. 8), or by npos 
Ti (2 Cor. ii. 16). Jo. (i. 27) substitutes 
a|ios for iKavos; see Origen in Jo. 
t vi. 36 (20). 

Kv^ras \vo~ai TOV lp.dvra KrA.] Ku^at 
is a touch peculiar to Me. and ex 
punged by D and some other Western 
authorities. For AOo-at... viroS. avTov 
(Me. Lc.) Mt. substitutes ra vnod^paTa 
$aora0-ai, cf. Victor, and Origen (in 7b. 
t. vi. 34), who suggests, a/cdAou#6i/ ye 
fjLTjdevos a(pa\\ofjivov TU>V e r ayy t \IO~TCJV 
...dp.ff)QTfpa KOTO. 8ia<popovs Kaipov? \ 
elprjKevai TOV ftcnmcmjv : similarly 
Aug. de cons. ii. 30. Both were | 
servile acts connected with the use of 
the bath, and possibly suggested by 
the baptismal rite (Bengel : * ad bap- 
tisinum...calceiexuebantur"): see Ps. 
Ix. 10, and Lc. xv. 22, where the 
slaves offer viro^paTa. Plautus trin. 
ii. i speaks of slaves known as sandali- 
ferae: and cf. Lucian Herod. 5, o del 

TIS ^laAa SouAiKcoff d(paipel TO o~av8d\iov- 

For ipd$ (corrigia) see Isa. v. 27 (LXX.) 
of IpAvrcs TU>V 
Victor: f/*. (prjai rduj, 
o-(pnipcor^pa (Gen. xiv. 23) roO vVro-jj 
drjfj.aTos. Euth.: TOV tK Acopou decrp-ov.: 
For AOo-at in this connexion see Exodj 
iii. 5 (LXX.) and Polyc. Mart 

I. 9] 



9 Kac eyeveTo ev etce ii/cus rals tjfiepcus f\\6ev 9 
Irjcrous OLTTO Na^apeT Trjs 


8 cyu] + fjit> ADPrAIIZ3> al (om /xcv KELT* 33 69 al a b c ff t vg Or 1 ) I vSart] pr 
er ADLPTdriIZ<f> (om ev KBHA 16 33 al pauc Or 1 ) | om vftat 3 K* (hab K c - a )b | 
irvevfMTi] pr ec KADHPT d rAII23> al ac f ff r me Or 1 (om ev BL b t vg) | ayiu] + Kai trvp. 
P^>al syr hcl * 9 om /ecu iB | om KCU eyevero a | Ii7<rou$] pr o DMrAIIZ<f> al | Xafctper 
KBLFA 33 69 rorr a b d f Or] Xafapar APS Xaftpe0 DEFHKMUVILfc min mu vg me go 

KOI VTToXvftv eavTov, p.r) nporepov TOVTO 

TTOIOOI/. Ov. .avrov, cf. viL 25, and see 
WM.,p. i84f. 

8. /3a7rrio-a] Mt, Lc., /SaTrri^a). 
The aor. represents John s course as 
already fulfilled in view of the coming 
of Messiah : cf. the epistolary eypa^a 
scripsi, and cirfp^a misi (WM., p. 
347). c Ydari...7ri/ev/iari with water, 
with the Spirit, dat. of manner or 
instrument (WM., p. 271): ev vfian, 
fv irv. are used (Mt. Lc. Jo. i. 33, 34, 
Acts i. 5) in reference to the spheres, 
material and spiritual, in which the 
action is performed (WM., p. 483 ff.). 
For the correlation of {/Sa>p and 
TrvevfjA see also Jo. iii. 5, iv. 14, vii. 
38, 39, Acts i. 5, Tit iii. 5. Mt., 
Lc. add KOI TTvpi. The effusion of 
the Spirit was a well-known character 
istic of the Messianic age (see Isa. xliv. 
3, Ezek. xxxvi. 25 27, Joel ii. 28), but 
the phrase a7m<|Vii/ trvcvpMTi is new, 
though Joel (LXX.) has e/c^e<5 and Ezek. 
pavw. Iii/. ayiov is the Holy Spirit in 
operation; contrast TO TTV. (i. 10, 12), 
TO irv. TO ay. (iil 29), the Holy Spirit 
regarded as a Divine Power. 

9 ii. THE BAPTISM (Mt. iii. 13 
17, Lc. iii. 21 22 ; cf. Jo. i. 32 34). 

9. KCII yVfTo...y\6v] A Hebra 
ism, 3--*rH ; also KO.I cy. (or ey. 8)... 
Kai : both constructions occur in the 
LXX., e.g. Gen. iv. 3, 8, and the N. T., 
but Me. has only the first For KCU 
eytvfTo followed by the inf. see Me. ii. 
23, and on the whole subject consult 
WM., p. 760 n., Burton, 357 f. Ev 

Tals qfj.(pais t another Hebra 
ism = Diin D PJS. Cf. Exod. ii. ii, 
Jud. xviii. i, &c., and in the N. T. Mt. 
iii. i, Me. viii. i, xiii. 17, 24, Lc. ii. i, 
iv. 2, Acts ii. 1 8, vii 41, &c. ; ev cKflvr) 
TfljJ/ic pa occurs in nearly the same sense 
Lc. xvii. 31, Jo. XVL 23, 26. As a 
note of time the phrase is somewhat 
indefinite, but like Tore (Mt. iii. 13) it 
brings the narrative which follows into 
general connexion with the preceding 
context. Here e.g. it connects the 
arrival of Jesus at the Jordan with 
the stage in the Baptist s ministry de 
scribed in 7, 8. Euth. : jncpas de vvv 
(pqcriv ev ais fKr)pv<T(re...o laawrjs. 

aTro NaiapcT TTJS FaXetXaiaf] Mt, 
aaro TT)S T. ; the exact locality had 
been mentioned by him in ii. 23. 
Mc. s apxri does not carry him behind 
the Lord s residence at Nazareth ; to 
the first generation Jesus was 6 ano N. 

(Jo. i. 46, Acts X. 37), or 6 Nafapi/i/or 

(Me. i. 24, xiv. 67, xvi. 6) or Na^copatos- 
(Lc. 1 Jo. 3 Acts 8 ) on the two forms 
see Dalman Gr. d. Aram. p. 141 n. 
Naapfr (-p0, -pa#, -pa are also found, 
but not in Me., see WH., Notes, p. 160, 
is unknown to the O. T. and to Jose- 
phus ; and its insignificance seems to 
be implied by the explanatory notes 
which accompany the first mention of 
the place in Mt. ii. 23, Lc. ii. 39, and 
here : perhaps also by the question of 
Jo. i. 46. The onomastica revel in 
etymologies, e.g. " N. flos aut virgultum 
eius vel munditiae aut separata vel 
custodita"; the first was based on a 


10 ek TOV lopSdvrjv VTTO Icodvov. I0 /ca* evOus dvafiaivw 



6K TOV i/a-ros e 

9 e T. Iop5. viro Iwav. NBDL 33 al] VTTO 
arm go aeth j Iop5.] + irora^v syr hler 
33 al go] a?ro APrAIIS* al pler | <rxi<y* < 
gy r hier i T0 Tj-j/ev/Aa] + TOV 6eov arm 

supposed reference to the "TO?, in Isa. 
xi. i. Delitzsch (Z.f. d. L Th., 1876) 
proposed to connect the name with 
rn$, Aram. JT3V3 (Dalman, p. 119, 
prefers fl^P, Aram. fn3, l"nV3), a 
watch-tower, in reference to its posi 
tion on the flank of a hill commanding 
a wide prospect. On the situation 
see G. A. Smith s H. G., p. 432 f. and 
Merrill, Galilee,}*. 122. T^s TaXeiXatas 
(Mt. xxi. n, Lc. i. 26) is the topo 
graphical gen., cf. WM., p. 234. H 777 
77 TaXftXaia, or simply r; r., occurs 
in the LXX. as far back as Jos. xx. 7, 
xxi. 32 ; cf. 3 Regn.ix.,ii, 4 Regn. xv. 
29, i Par. vi 76 (61), Isa. ix. i (viii. 

23), and answers to 7V5, "YV^ a 
roll, or ring, hence a circuit of country : 
see G. A. Smith, H. G., p. 413 ff., cf. 
Joseph. B. J. iii. 3. i. From Nazareth 
the journey to the place of the Bap 
tism would lie along the Esdraelon 
as far as Bethshan, and then down 
the valley of the Jordan. On the 
locality of the Baptism see G. A. 
Smith, //. G., p. 496. 

Ka\ t$aiTTio~6r) . . .VTTO !.] Mt. adds 

that the journey was taken for this 
purpose (TOV @a<rrTio-6f)vai). Els TOV 
lopodvrjv (WM., p. 517 f.} = v r<5 

lopSaj/r; (i. 5), but with the added 
thought of the immersion, which 
gives vividness to th^ scene. In 
every other instance fiairrl&iv els is 
followed by the ace. of the purpose 
(els fJLTavotav, els a(j>eo~iv) or of the ob 
ject to which the baptized are united 

((IS XptGTTOI *Ir)O~OVV, fig TOV MtBlKTT;, 

fls TOV BdvaTov). YTTO icoai/ou (cf. i. 5, 
note), as the rest /iera rcoi/ SovXo>v 6 
detTTTorr/s (Euth. Zig.). 

10. Kai ev6vs /crX.] Evtivs (Wy- 

TOVS ovpavovs Ka TO 

Iwav. eis T. Iop8. APrAH24> alP ler f syr hcl 
10 6i/0ews APrn om D a b t | e/c NBDLA 
>ys] ijvvyfievovs D latt (apeTtos, aperiri) 

cliffe, anoori) is characteristic of Me. 
"em Lieblingswort des Marcus," 
Schanz occurring Me. 41 Mt. 19 Lc. 7 ; 
Mt. shews a similar partiality for Tore. 
In the LXX. (Gen. xv. 4, xxxviii. 29) 
KOI v6vs nijni. = KQI tSov, a phrase 
which, though common in the other 
Gospels, is not used by Me. Of the 
forms v6vs, fvdetos the first only 
occurs in Me.; the second predomi 
nates in the rest of the N. T. (f f ). 

dvafiaivav K TOV v8aTos] Out of the 
river into which He had descended : 

cf. Jos. iv. 1 8, et-eftrjo-av ol tepes...cK 

TOV lopSai/ou, Jer. xxix. 20 (xlix. 19), 

eotTTrep Xecov dra/Sqo-ereu e /e JJLCO-OV TOV 
lopSai>ov. Mt. s OTTO TOV v8aTos is less 

graphic, giving merely the point of 
departure: cf. Acts xxv. i, Apoc. vii. 
2. Lc. adds Trpoo-ei^o/iei/os, cf. Me. i. 
25, vi. 46, Lc. ix. 28. 

flftev o~xio[jivovs TOVS ovpavovs] 
The subject is Irjo-ovs (v. 9). Some 
interpreters, influenced by Jo. i. 32 ff, 
have regarded dvaftaivnv as a nom. 
pendens, and understood o Icoai/ryy 
after eiSei/: cf. Tindale, "John saw 
heavens open" (so even in Mt.). It 
was permitted to the Baptist to share 
the vision as a witness (Jo. l.c. ewpafca 
Kai /ie/iaprvprj/ta), but the vision was 
primarily for the Christ. 

o-xifrpevovs ] Vg. apertos, with the 
Western text, from Mt. (ijvftoxOrja-av 
ol ovpavoi, cf. Lc.) ; in the true text of 
Me. both the word and the tense are 
more graphic He saw the heaven 
in the act of being riven asunder. 
Bengal: "dicitur de eo quod antea 
non fuerat apertum." S^t ^eiv is used 
of a garment (Isa. xxxvi. 22, Jo. xix. 
24), a veil (Lc. xxiii. 45), a net (Jo. 
xxi. n), rocks (Zech. xiv. 4, Isa. 

I. n] 

TrepurTepav KaTafialvov els CCVTOV. 


10 ws] wtrec MPS3> al | Karapaivov] + /cat />oi> KA forte8 P tttvac 33 262 al b f t vg me 
aeth | e BD 13 69 alP auo ag] e-rr KALPrAIIZ* alP er 

xlviii. 21, Mt. xxvii. 51), and wood 
(Gen. xxii. 3) : scindere caelum occurs 
in Silius Italicus i. 535 f. Ai/oryi/ 
is the usual word in this connexion 
(Gen. vii. n, Ps. Ixxvii. (Ixxviii.) 23, 
Isa. xxiv. 1 8, Ixiv. i, Acts vii. 56, 
Apoc. iv. i, xix. 11): cf. esp. Ezek. 

1. I, Tijvoi\6r]0-av ol ovpavol Kal eidov 

opdo-eis 6eov. Orig. in Jo. fragm. 
(Brooke, ii. 238), avoigiv dc rj o-xio-iv 
ovpavnv aMT&tfrut&t OVK. <mv Idew, 
O7TOT6 ovde ra>v ira^yTcpwv o co/iaToov. 
Jerome in Matt. I.e. " aperiuntur au- 
tem caeli non reseratione elemento- 
rum, sed spiritualibus oculis." This 
vision of the rending heavens seems 
to have symbolised the outcome of 
Christ s mission: cf. Jo. i. 5 1 - 

Kal TO 7rvfVfj.a] Mt. 7rvfv[jia 6fov (cf. 

Gen. i. 2), Lc. TO irv. TO dyiov. The 
art. either looks back to i. 8, the 
(Holy) Spirit already mentioned/ or 
more probably indicates the Person 
of the Spirit, as in Jo. i. 32, 33, Acts 
x. 19, xi. 12, &c. 

<os irepioTepdv] Mt. uxrel TT., Lc. 
(ra)/j.aTiK(p tiSei o>s TT. Jerome : " non 
veritas sed similitudo monstratur." 
The Ebionite Gospel paraphrased : 

V ei Set 7Tpi(TTfpas Ka.T\6ovo~r)$ KOL 
ci<r(\6ov(TT)S fls avrov. Cf. Justin 
dial. 88, tas Trepurrcpav TO ayiov 
fimrTrivai 7T avrov eypatyav ol anot 

Xot, and see other references in Resch, 
Paralleltexte zu Luc., p. 15 The 
vision corresponds to that of Gen. i. 

2, where nsrnp suggests the motion 
of a bird; cf. Chagigah (ed. Streane) 
15 A. The dove is a familiar image 
in Hebr. poetry; see esp. Ps. Ixviii. 
13 (Cheyne), Cant. ii. 12 ; F. C. Cony- 
beare (Exp. iv. ix. 436) produces 
illustrations from Philo, e.g. quis rer. 

div. her. 25, 77 6ela o-o(i / a...a-u/*/3oAiKc5s 
...rpvy&v KaXemu : ib. 48, Trepiorepa 
fjifv 6 rj/jLerepos vovs...fiKdcTai, TO> de 
TOVTOV TrapaSety/xaTi (i.e. the Divine 
Aoyos) 77 rpvywv. In the Protev., c. 9, 
Joseph is said to have been marked 
by a like phenomenon : Ibov 
T(pa...ff)\6v eVi rrjv K(pa\T)v 

On the significance of the symbol, cf. 
Mt. x. 1 6, Tert.6op*. 8, and the Greek 
commentators ad I., e.g. Victor : eV ei Set 

TOV 6(ov KarayyeXXov TTJ oiKOvp,fvrj, afj.a 
Kal dr]\ovi/ OTI TOV TTvevfiiiTiKov a.TTovr]pov 
flvai xpr) KO.L rrpaov, carXovv T KOI 

KaraftoLvov fls ai>Tov\ The KaTaftacris 
answers to the dvd@ao-is of i. 10 ; cf. 
the play upon these compounds in 
Jo. iii. 13, Eph. iv. 9, 10. For els 
avTov, Mt., Lc. prefer eV avToV : only 
Jo. (i. 33) has KOI fji(Vfi> eV CLVTOV (cf. 
Isa. xi. 2 ; see vv. 11. here). The im 
manence of the Spirit in Jesus was 
at once the purpose of the Descent 
and the evidence of His being the 
Christ; see note on next verse. 

II. Kal $o>i>r} KTA.] Victor: 17 dyye- 
\LKTJ TIS r)V TJ Kal fTfpa CK TrpocrwTTov TOV 

TraTpos. For exx. of such voices in 
the O. T. see Gen. xxi. 17, xxii. n, 15, 
Exod. xix. 19, xx. 22, i Kings xix. 12, 
13. In the Gospels the Father s Voice 
is heard thrice, at the Baptism and 
Transfiguration (cf. 2 Pet. i. 17) and 
before the Passion (Jo. xii. 28). The 
Voice was audible or articulate only 
to those who had ears to hear (Jo. 
v. 37, xii. 29) : comp. the scoff of the 
Jew in Orig. c. Gels. i. 41, TIS TJKOVO-CV 
e ovpavov cpwvrjs ; On its relation to 

the ?1p 713 see Edersheim, Life and 
Times, i. p. 285. 




[1. II 

<po)vr/ eyeveTO K TWV ovpavwv Cv el 6 vios JULOV, 6 

CLVTOV eK/3d\\6i els Tr]v 

ia Kai ev6vs TO 

ii eyevero K c - a ABLP alP ler lat vet P lerv syrr arm me] om K*D ff g t -rjKovffdri 28 
31* | oupa w ] + Ae7&H syr Wer +Afat Aeyei arm | <roi NBDLPAS1 i 13 22 33 69 604 2** 
al a t vg me al] o> Am<l> al b d g | rjvdoK-rjffa D 00 " EFHVPA al 12 TO Trvev^a] + ro 
aytov D 

<ri> ei o vios /AOU, o dyaTTTjTos] So 
Lc., after Ps. ii. 7 ; Mt., ovros eanv 
KT\. The words point to Gen. xxii. 2 
and perhaps also to Isa. xlii. i (cf. Mt. 
xii. 1 8). AyaTTTjTos in the LXX. answers 
to TIT (novoyevris, unicus, cf. Hort, 
Two Diss. p. 49 f.) in seven instances 
out of fifteen ; in the N. T., where 
the word is much more frequent, 
it is exclusively a title of Christ, or 
applied to Christians as such. As a 
Messianic title (cf. Me. ix. 7, xii. 6, 

2 Pet. i. 17, Epl). i. 6 (o jjyaTr^eVos), 
Col. i. 13 (o vlos rfjs aycnrr)s ai>Tov\ 
where however see Lightfoot), it indi 
cates a unique relation to GOD ; thus 
in Rom. viii. 31 roO I8iov vlov is sub 
stituted for rov dycnrrjTov vi. of Gen. 
xxii. 16. The title is frequent as a 
name of Messiah in the Ascension of 
Isaiah (ed. Charles, p. 3 &c. ; see also 
Hastings, D. B. ii. 501 ; cf. Test. 
XII. patr. Benj. II, ai/aorijcrerai... 
dycnrrjTos Kvpiov) and is used in the 
Targum of Jonathan on Isa. xlii. i. 

ev aoi evdoKrja-a] Latt., in te COm- 
placui. Mt., ev < ev8. EvdoKflv eV = 
? $$ 2 K-egn. xxii. 20, Mai. ii. 17, or 

3 nvn Ps. xliii.(xiiv.)4, cxlvi. (cxlvii.) 
1 1. The reference is probably to Isa. 
xlil I ^3 nn^ (LXX. irpoo-fd^aro, 
Th.r)v8oKr)Vv) ; the exact phrase occurs 
in Isa. Ixii. 4. In Lc. an early Western 

reading Substitutes eya> arjucpov yeyev- 

vrjKa ae (from Ps. ii. 7), cf. Just. dial. 
103; in the G. ace. to the Hebrews the 
two sayings seem to have been com 
bined (Epiph. haer. xxx. 13). Ace. to 
Jerome (on Isa. xi. 2) the Nazarene 
Gospel had the interesting gloss, " Fili 
mi, in omnibus prophetis expectabam 

te ut venires et requiescerem in te; 
tu es enirn requies mea." 

The aor. evdonrjo-a does not denote 
merely "the historical process by 
which God came to take pleasure in 
Jesus during his earthly life" (Gould), 
but rather the satisfaction of the 
Father in the Son during the preexist- 
ent life; cf. Jo. i. 2, xvii. 24. Thus 

it corresponds to the perf. nnV"} of 
Isa. xlii. i ; cf. Driver, Tenses in 
Hear. 9, Burton, 55. 

Theodore of Mopsuestia, in the in 
terests of his Christology, held that 
the evdoKia arose from the foreseen 
perfection of the Man with whom the 
Word united Himself (Minor Epp. ii. 
p. 294 ff.). According to his view the 
Son in whom GOD took pleasure was 
not the Word, but the dvaXrj^Qels 
av6pa>7Tos (ib. i. 63, 260 ; Migne, P. G. 
Ixvi. 705 6). 

1213. THE TEMPTATION (Mt iv. 
i n, Lc. iv. i 13). 

12. KOI evdvs TO Trvevfjui KT\.~] For 
Kal evOvs see i. 10 n. EK/3aAX, Vg. 
expellit ; other Latin texts (a, f ) have 
duxit, eduocit : Wycliffe, "puttide 
hym (forth)." Mt. has simply dmjxOr). . . 
virb TOV 7rvvp.aTos, Lc. fjyfTO ev TO) irvev- 
fian. ~EKfid\\fiv is used for the power 
exercised by Christ over the Sat/^owa 
(e.g. i. 34). But expellit and " driveth " 
(A.V.) or "driveth forth" (R.V.) are 
perhaps too strong in this context, cf. 
Mt. ix. 38, Me. i. 43, Jo. x. 4 ; k- 
aAAeti/ = &Oin in 2 Chron. xxiii. 14, 
xxix. 5 (see Guillemard, G. T., Hebra 
istic ed. p. 20). At the most the word 
denotes here only a pressure upon the 
spirit (Victor: eA/cei), not an irresistible 


13 KCLL ?\v ev Trj eprjjULO) Tecro-epaKOVTa rjjmepas 13 
VTTO TOV craTava, Kai rjv jmeTa 

drjpicov Kai ol ayyeXoi SirjKovovv 


7-17 ep.1 pr em EFHMrAII corr <l>ST al? 1 syrr arm go aeth e/cet sine ev r. e. EH* 

i 28* 69 124 131 209 604 2P al syr sin arm 
K. v. T.) LM 13 33 al vg syr hclm s me aeth | 
01 AMI 33 al 

power. Mt. adds the purpose (TTCI- 
pao~6iji>cu vTTo TOV Sia/3oAov). Cf. Hilary 
in Matt., "significatur libertas Spiritus 
sancti, homiuem suum iam diabolo 
offerentis" ; Jerome in Matt. I.e., "du- 
citur autem non invitus aut captus, 
sed voluutate pugnandi." 

els TTJV epj//ioz/] To be distinguished 
apparently from the cpr)p.os of i. 4- 
Christian tradition from the time of 
the Crusades points to the Quaran- 
\&m&(Jebel Kuruntitf), a rugged lime 
stone height which rises 1000 feet a- 
bove the plain of Jericho (cf. Josh, 
xvi. i); the Arabs on the other hand 
select the conical hill Osh el Ghu- 
rdb. The Gospels give no indication 
beyond the fact that the Lord went 
to the place from the Jordan. 

1 3. Teo-a-fpaKovra rjp.epas . . . aaTava] 
The same limit of time occurs in the 
lives of Moses and Elijah (Exod. xxxiv. 
28, i Kings xix. 8), and again in the 
life of Christ (Acts i. 3) ; for other 
exx. of the number in Scripture see 
Trench, Studies in the Gospels, p. 13 ff. 
Me., Lc. make the Temptation coex 
tensive with the 40 days ; Mt. seems 
to connect the limit of time with the 
fasting, and to place the Temptation 
at the end of the days. Comp. in 
support of the Marcan tradition Clem. 
horn. xi. 35, xix. 2 ; Orig. horn, in 
Luc. 29. IT? ipd&iv in the LXX. is used 
of man tempting GOD, and of GOD 
tempting man, but not o/ Satanic 
suggestions: in i Chron. xxi. i we 
have eTTcvfto-ev in this connexion : in 
i Mace. L 15 fTTipd0T]o-av (ft< c - a? ) ap 
proaches to the latter sense, but the 

/ecu reaffapaKovra VVKTO.S (vel 
pr /cat D | ot 0776X01] om 

reading is more than doubtful. In 
the N. T. this meaning is common 
(cf., besides the present context and 
its parallels, i Cor. vii. 5, Gal. vi. i, 
Heb. ii. 18, Apoc. ii. 10, iii. 10); in 
Mt. iv. 3, perhaps also in i Thess. iii. 
5, 6 TTCipdfov^o traravas. See Mayor 
on James i. 13. 

VTTO TOV craTava] Mt., Lc., VTTO TOV 
o-iapoXov. The LXX. translate jp ^n by 
6 didftoXos in Job i., ii., and Zech. iii. ; 
craTav is used in the sense of an ad 
versary in 3 Regn. xi. 14, 23, 6 o-arai/as 
appears first in Sir. xxi. 27 (30). In 
the N. T. 6 o-aTavas or 2arai>as (Me. iii. 
23, Lc. xxii. 3) is invariably the Ad 
versary /car foxjv, and the name 
is freely used by the Synoptists and 
St Paul, and in the Apocalypse. On 
the history of the Jewish belief in 
Satan see Cheyne, Origin of the Psal 
ter, p. 282 f., Schultz, O.T. Theology, 
ii. p. 274 ff., Edersheim, Life &c. ii. 
p. 755 ff., Charles, Enoch, pp. 52 ff., 
119, Weber, Jud. Theologie, ed. 2, 
p. 251 f. 

rjv [j.eTa T<OV fajpiow] Comp. 2 Mace. 
V. 27, loi58as...di/a^a)pT/(ras eV ro?s ope- 
<riv (i.e. probably the wilderness of 
Judaea), Brjpioav Tponov Bif^rj. In Ps. 
xc. (xci.) 13 the promise of victory over 
the Qrjpia follows immediately after 
that of angelic guardianship, cited by 
the Tempter in Mt. iv. 6. But this 
peculiarly Marcan touch may be simply 
meant to accentuate the loneliness of 
the place ; cf. Victor : OVTO>S a/3aros r^v 
77 epTjfjios to? /cai 6r/pia>v ir\r/pr/s vnap^civ . 

it was not such an eprjfios as John 
tenanted, but a haunt of the hyaena, 


i TO 7rapa$o6fjvai TOV Icodvrjv r\\Gev 6 
Trjv FaXeiXaiav Ktipvcrcrcov TO evayyeXiov 



14 /cat /iera BD a (c) syr" in ] /iera Se KALrAnS^l al latt Hmuv s syrT^ shhcl go 
aeth | TOV law.] om TOV AEFG*H al | o Irjffovi] om o AV^rm al | Kripwewv] pr 

Judaea, he does not "exclude it" 
(Gould); it lies outside his subject 
perhaps outside his information. 
From Mc. s point of view the Lord s 
Ministry begins where the Baptist s 
ends : " loanne tradito, recte ipse 
incipit praedicare; desinente lege, 
consequenter oritur evangelium" (Je 

rfkBev] Mt., dvexa>pr)o-ev. This jour- 
ney to Galilee was in fact a withdrawal 
from Judaea, where the tidings of 
John s imprisonment (Mt.), and still 
more the growing jealousy of the 
Pharisees towards the new Teacher 
(Jo. iv. i), rendered a longer stay 
dangerous or unprofitable. Though 
Galilee was under the jurisdiction of 
Antipas, His mission there would not 
expose Him at first to the tetrarch s 
interference (cf. Me. vi. 14, Lc. xiiL 
31 f., xxiii. 8). It was Jerusalem, not 
Galilee, that shed the blood of the 
prophets ; in any case it was clear that 
Jerusalem would not tolerate His 
teaching ; Galilee offered a better 
field (cf. Jo. iv. 45). The Greek com 
mentators think of the move only as 
an escape from peril (Theod. Heracl., 

ira ijfjMs 8io dt-7] /AT) anourj^av Tols Kiv8v- 
vois : Victor, dieTr/pei eavTov) ; but the 
other motive should be kept in view. 
els TTJV FaXet/vaiai/] Jo. adds TraXiv, 
and states the route (iv. 4 fita TTJS 
2a/ictpi as). Cana was visited on the 
way to Capernaum (Jo. iv. 46). 

Kr]pvo~o-Q>v TO evayye\iov TOV GfOii] 
Contrast i. 4 Krjpvo-o-cov /SaTrrwr/jia 
HCTavoias. Both proclamations urged 
repentance, and both told of good 
tidings ; but peTdvoia predominated in 
the one, cvayycXiov in the other. The 
preaching of Jesus began, as a regular 
mission, with the silencing of John : 

jackal, and leopard (cf. Tristram, 
Land of Israel, p. 240 ; G. A. Smith, 
H. G., p. 316 f.). The mystical refer 
ence to the Second Adam (Gen.ii. 19), 
which some have imagined, seems, as 
Meyer has well said, out of place in 
this narrative ; see, however, Trench, 
Studies, p. 9 f. 

Kal oi ayyeXoi dtrjKovovv aurai] Ap 
parently during the forty days, the 
imperf. corresponding with ^v...neipa- 
6p.evos...qv. Mt. seems to limit this 
ministry to the end (rore irpovr)\6ov). 
Comp. Gen. xxviii. 12, Jo. i. 51, Heb. 
i. 14 ; esp. the hymn in i Tim. iii. 16, 

eSiKaicoflr) (V 7rvevp,aTi, (S(pdrj dyyeXois. 

The dtaKovia may refer to the supply 
of physical (i Kings xix. 5 ff.) or 
spiritual (Dan. x. 19 ff.) needs. Such 
a ministration, while it attests the 
human weakness of the Lord, bears 
witness also to His Sonship ; cf. Clem. 
Al. exc. Theod. 85 <s av 77^77 fiao-i\evs 

d\r)Qr)s VTT* dyye\<0v rfbrj SiaKovelrai. 

GALILEE (Mt. iv. 1217, Lc. iv. 

14. /zero TO napadodijvai TOV iwa- 
vrjv] A definite terminus a quo for 
all that follows : cf. Mt., d/covo-as 8e on 
*l<t>dvr)s TrapfdoQrj. Hapadio tofj.i (in the 

LXX. generally the equivalent of fru) 
acquires its special meaning from the 
context ; the most usual complement is 
s (TOES) xetpas (rail/) e^^pajj/ or the like, 
but we find also TC. els Gavarov 2 Chr. 
xxxii. n, els irpovop.r)v (Isa. xxxiii. 23), 
els a-fpayrjv (xxxiv. 2). Here we may 
supply els (pvXaKJv, as in Acts viii. 3, 
xxii. 4; cf. Lc. iii. 20, Jo. iii. 24. The 
events of Jo. ii. iii. must be placed 
before the commencement of the Syn 
optic Ministry. If Mark is silent as 
to the previous work in Galilee and 

I. I 5 ] 


TOV 6eov * 5 Kai \6<ya)V OTL rieTrXrjptoTai 6 Kcupds, 15 
l ri<y<yiKev n ftcurtheia TOV 6eov /xeTai/oelre, 
ev TO* evayjeXico. 

14 TOV 0eov] pr rys /Sao-iXetas ADFAII2^>T al a f g vg syrP* 11 go aeth 15 /cat 
\eywv BKLMAnl> alP ler a b vg S yrrP e8hhcl me] om /tat K a ADEFGHSUS1 1071 al 
f ff g t go om /cat, \ey. K* c syr sin Or | TreTrXypuvTat, ot /cat/Dot D abcffgrt | om ev 
36 ev 481 b f vg Or 

cf. Mt. iv. 17, OTTO rore rfparo. He 
took up the Baptist s note, but added 
another. To euayyeAtoi/ roO dfov (ev. 
6fov] is a Pauline phrase (Rom. i. I, 
xv. 16, 2, Cor. xi. 7, I Thess. ii. 8, 9), 
used however also by St Peter (i Pet. 
iv. 17). The gen. probably denotes 
the source : the Gospel which comes 
from GOD, of which GOD (the Father) 
is the Author and Sender ; cf. v. i ; 
see, however, the more inclusive view 
advocated by SH. (on Rom. i. i). The 
insertion of rfjs /Sao-iAems (vv. 11.) is 
due to a desire to explain an unusual 
phrase : see next verse. 

15. OTI IleTrAT/pcoTai o Kaipos KT\."\ 
The substance of the new proclama 
tion. "On is here * recitative (WM., 
p. 683 n.), as in i. 37, 40, ii. 12, and 
frequently in Me. For TrX^povo-tfat 
used of time, cf. Gen.xxix. 21, TreTrAj;- 
pcBi>rai (-IfcOTp) at ijp,epai a phrase fre 
quently occurring in the LXX.; and 
for its connexion with Kaipos see Tob. 
xiv. 5 (B), Esth. ii. 12 (A). Kaipos 
(usually = ny or *Wi) is the < season, 
the opportune moment (see esp. Eccl. 
iii. 18), with an ethical outlook, 
Xpovoy being merely the time, con 
sidered as a date: see Trench, syn. 
vii. and cf. Lightfoot on i Thess. v. i. 
Thus St Paul speaks of the TrA^pco/ia 
TOV xpoz/ou (Gal. iv. 4), when he has in 
view the place of the Incarnation in 
the order of events, but of the 7r\rjp. 
T&v Kaip&v (Eph. i. 10), when he thinks 
of the Divine oiVoi/o/ua. Here the 
thought is that of the opportuneness 
of the moment. The season fixed in 
the foreknowledge of GOD (Acts i. 7), 

and for which the whole moral guid 
ance of the world had prepared, was 
fully come. It is not so much in 
regard to Galilee that the words are 
spoken as in reference to the world 
and humanity considered as a whole. 
See Lux Mundi, Essay iv. 

Kal yyyiKev 77 /3ao"iAei a TOV 6eov^ 

Acc. to Mt. (iii. 2) this announcement 
had been anticipated by John. Mt. 
has usually -q (3acr. T&V ovpavwv (TOV 6. 
only in vi. 33, xii. 28, xix. 24, xxi. 31, 
43), but the two expressions are nearly 
equivalent (see Schurer n. ii 171, 
Bevan on Dan. iv. 26, Stanton, J. and 
Chr. Messiah, p. 208 f.). The term 
possibly originated in the language of 
Daniel see esp. ii. 24, vii. 22 (Nestle, 
Marginal., p. 41), and cf. Stanton, p. 
2ii and there are parallels in pre- 
Christian literature, e.g. Ps. Solom. 

XVli. 23, dvao~Tr)o~i a,VTols TOV /3ao~iAe a 
avTa> TOV Kaipov ov tSey. On the 

Rabbinical use of the term see Stan- 
ton, p. 2i4f. A yearning for a Di 
vine Kingdom pervades the history 
of Israel, and the new preaching in 
announcing its realisation probably 
found the phrase ready. For a fresh 
and invigorating if incomplete view of 
the subject see Ecce Homo cc. iii., iv. 
*HyyiKi>,appropinquavit, hath drawn 
near, is nigh ; cf. Isa. Ivi. i, Thren. iv. 
19, Ezek. vii 7, &c. (T$ or 3Vlj?) ; 
Me. xiv. 42, Lc. x. 9, 1 1^, i Pet. iv. 7. 

jneravoeire, Kal TTio-reikre KrA.] See 

on v. 14. ior the connexion of 

pCTavoia and TTLCTTIS cf. Acts XX. 21, 
Heb. vi. I. Ui<TTvciv ev (Zl TP^ 1 ?.) 
occurs in Ps. Ixxvii. (Ixxviii.) 22, cv. 


1 6 l6 Kal Trapdywv Trapa Trjv Qa\a(T(Tav Trjs FaXei- 
\aias eidev Ci/uLcova Kal AvSpeav TOV d$e\(f>ov 
d/uKf>i/3d\\ovTas ev Trj 6a\d<T(rri, r](Tav yap 

1 6 /cat irapayw KBDL 13 33 69 604 al latt syr 85 "? 6311 arm me] irepnraTWV 8e 
ArAn2f> al pl syr hcl ( txfc ) | SI/AWVCS KBLM<I> min** 110 a arm me] TOV S. AE^^A i 69 al nonn 
avrov TOV S. E*FHKSUVnS$T al mu syr hcl go O.VTOV DGF 33 al latt vt P lv s syrr aeth | 
<t/j.<f>ipa\\ovTas KABDE* al] /SaXXovras E corr Mrn corr al + afjupipX-rjo-Tpov ArAIIE<i>l 
2 pem g a j b ft + a /j.<j>ip\r)(rTpa I al + ra diKTva D 13 28 69 134 346 2P txt a c f g 
vg | aXiets KB corr (D)m al 

(cvi.) 12 (cf. 24), Jer. xii. 6, and else 
where, frequently however with a v. 1. 
which omits eV. In the N. T. the 
construction is perhaps unique (see 
Westcott on Jo. iii. 15, and Ellicott 
on Eph. i. 13 on its occurrence in 
Ign. Philad. 8, cf. Lightfoot adl.} ; nor 
do we elsewhere hear of believing the 
Gospel (see however Me. xvi. 15, 
1 6); faith is regarded as primarily 
due to the Person of whom the Gospel 
speaks (cf. e.g. Jo. xiv. i). Yet faith 
in the message was the first step ; a 
creed of some kind lies at the basis 
of confidence in the Person of Christ, 
and the occurrence of the phrase TT. 
fv TO) fvayyeXio) in the oluest record of 
the teaching of our Lord is a valuable 

witness to this fact. To evayyeXiov is 

the nucleus of Christian teaching 
already imparted in the announce 
ment riyyiKfv, KT\. For other mean 
ings see note on i. i. 

DISCIPLES (Mt. iv. 18 22 ; cf. Lc. v. 


1 6. KGU Trapaycoi/ Trapa TTJV 6aXao-(rav 
icrA.] Mt. Trepwraraw de ; see VV. 1L 
here. Ilapdycov intraus. ( = "O^) oc 
curs in the LXX. (Ps. cxxviii. (cxxix.) 
8, cxliiL (cxliv.) 4) and K T. (Mt. 
Me. Jo. Paul), but the construction 
with Trapa seems to stand alone; see 
however 3 Mace. VI. 16, Kara TOV imro- 
dpo^ov napfiyev. Mt and Me. carry 
the reader at once to the lake-side ; 
Lc. prefaces the preaching at Caper 

naum with the synagogue-scene at 
Nazareth : see Me. vi. i , note. 

TTJV daXacra-av TTJS I\] So Mt, Me., or 
more usually the Sea. Jo. adds (vi. i) 
or substitutes (xxi. i) TTJS Tiftepiddos. 
Lc. prefers XI /XI/T/ to ^oXao-o-a, and in 
v. i calls it 77 X. TtvirqarapfT, apparently 
from the district known as Tevvrjo-apeT 
on its western shore (Me. vi. 53) : c 
Joseph. B. J. iii. 10. 7, 77 X. rei/^orap, i 
Mace. xi. 67, TO vdvp TOV r. The O. T. 
name is rn.33 DJ, ^aXao-o-a Xez/apa 
(X/e p<!#, X/ep<00), Num. xxxiv. n, 
Jos. xiii. 27. On the topography of 
the Lake see G. A. Smith, H. G. 
c. xxi. 

fiftev 2t/na>i>a KOI Ai/Speai/j 2ifj.a>v is 
a Hellenized form of 2v/iea>j/ ( = jiVP^, 
Gen. xxix. 33, cf. Apoc. vil 7) ; both 
forms are used in reference to Simon 
Maccabaeus, i Mace. ii. 3, 66, to whose 
reputation the popularity of this name 
is probably due (Lightfoot, Gal, p. 
268). The Apostle is called Sv/tfcoy 
in Acts xv. 14, 2 Pet i. i (NA) ; the 
Synoptists call him St/ncoi/ up to the 
choosing of the Apostles, after which 
he is IleYpos (but see Mt. xvi. 16, 17, 
xvii. 25, Me. xiv. 37, Lc. xxii. 31, xxiv. 
34), a name which Mt anticipates here 
(iv. 1 8, 2. TOV Xeyopcvov II.). For a fuller 
discussion see Hort, St Peter, p. 1 5 1 ff., 
or Chase, in Hastings D. B. iii. p. 756. 
Ai/ope as is a true Greek name (Hero 
dotus vi. 126), but instances occur of 
its use by Jews (Smith s D. B., ed. 2, 
i. 128); and Andrew appears in com- 

1. 19] 


eiTrev ai/ToIs 6 Irjcrovs AevTe OTT/cro) /ULOV, Kal 17 
i)//as <yeve<r6ai aXeeis dvOpayTTcav. lS /ca* evdvs 18 
d(j)6VT6S TO. SiKTva riKO\ov6r]arav CIVTW. I9 Kai 7Tpo/3ds 19 

17 om o Irjtrovs 4> | om yevcvdcu i 13 28 69 118 209 604 1071 al b 
aeth | aXtets B corr DriI 18 evdvs KL 33] ei>0ews ABCD al pi j TO. SIKTVO. KBCL al 

vg arm me] + avruv ArAII2^>T alP |er f g syrr go aeth iravra D a b c ff ret \iva 
604 | ffKoXovdovv B 19 7r/3o/3as] + e/cei0ei fc<*ACrAII2<l al pler (K c - a 33 post 0X17.) 
c f vg syr hcl arm go aeth 

pany with Greeks in Jo. xii. 20 f. The 
brothers came from Bethsaida (Jo. I.e., 
i. 44, cf. Me. vi. 45 n.), but at this time 
resided in Capernaum (Me. i. 29) ; the 
father s name was Jonas (Mt. xvi. 
17), or John (Jo. i. 42, xxi. 15 17). 
Andrew had been a disciple of the 
Baptist (Jo. i. 35, 40), but apparently 
both A. and S. had for some time fol 
lowed Jesus, witnessing His miracles 
in Galilee (Jo. ii. 2, 7) and Jerusalem 
(ib. 13, 23), and baptizing in His 
Name (Jo. iii. 22, iv. 2) ; after His 
return to Galilee they had gone back 
to Capernaum and resumed their fish 

dfjL(pi^dX\oifras cv rrj $0X00-077] Mt. 
/3d\\ovTas dfJ.<pifi\r)(rTpov els rrjv 6d\a<T- 
a-av: cf. Hab. i. 17, d)i(i/3aXei TO dfi(pi- 
P\r)(rrpov avrov, and see vv. 11. here. 
Me. alone uses d/i<t/3dXXei> absolutely ; 
cf. however 01 d/i$t/3oXeis, Isa. xix. 8. 
On the synonyms d^obi/SX^orpoi/, &LK- 
rvov (Me. i. 1 8, 19), trayrivrj (Mt. xiii. 

47), see Trench syn., Ixiv. : dp<p. 
and <rayr]vr) occur together in Hab. i. 
16, cf. Isa. xix. 8. On d/u(i/3. els, eV, 
see WM., p. 520. 

Tfcrav yap dXeets] The form dXeelr 

predominates in the best MSS. of the 
LXX. (Isa. xix. 8 N*B*, Jer. xvi. 16 
K*B*, Ezek. xlvii. 10 B*A (but Job 
xL 26 dXieW) ; cf. W II., Notes, 151. On 
the fish of the Lake of G. see Sir 
C. W. Wilson in Smith s D. B., ed. 2, 
ii. p. 1074 ; Merrill, Galilee, p. 43 f. 
17. Kal ciTrei> avTols KT\.] The 

brothers are in their boat, Jesus 
speaks from the shore; cf. Jo. xxL 
4> 5- Aeirre OTTLO-CO pov 

Regn. vi. 19; other forms are 

(Me. viii. 34), dTrepxfo-dai (Me. i. 20), 

aKo\ovdflv OTTIO-O) (Mt. X. 38), or 

simply dKoXovQelv w. dat. (Me. ii. 14, 
viii. 34 b, Jo. i. 43, &c.) ; for vndyeiv 
OTTLOTQ) with a very different sense, see 
Me. viii. 33. On the form of the 
sentence see Burton 269 c. 

Kal 7roi^(T<i>...dvdpcoTra)v] Mt. omits 
ycv<r0ai (n ^rip)- see WM., p. 757, 
and C. W. Votaw, Use of the Infinitive, 
p. 7- AXeeTy di/$p<B7ra>i> : so Mt. ; Lc. 

OTTO TOV VVV dvQpOiTTOVS f(TT) fayp&V. For 

the metaphor, cf. Prov. vi. 26, Jer. 
xvi. 16, 2 Tim. ii. 26, and cf. Pitra, 
Sp-ic. Solesm. iii. 419 ff.; as to its in 
fluence on early Christian thought 
and art see the articles fish, fisher 
man in Dgf. A. In Clem. Alex. 
hymn, in cKr. the Lord Himself is 
the dXtei lV] fjicpoivoiv | TWV (T<i)ofjiei>(i)v | 
TreXdyoi;? KOKLOS | lx@vs dyvovs | Ku/xaros 
x&pov | y\vKfpq faf) df\(ad)v. The 
anulus piscatoris worn by the Pope 
is of mediaeval origin (D. C. A. ii. p. 
1807). Erasmus appositely remarks, 
"piscantes primum piscatus est 

1 8. KOL fvfivs dfpevrcs TO. diKTva] 

So Mt.; Lc., who appears to follow 
another tradition (cf. Latham, Pastor 
pastor um, p. 197 f.), and connects the 
call with a miraculous draught of 
fishes, concludes (v. Ii) : Karayayovres 
TO. TrXota cirl TTJV yfjv d<f>VTcs ndvra TJK. 

19. ical irpofias crX.] Another pair 
of brothers (Mt. aXXovs dvo d8c\(povs}, 
called shortly after the first pair 
(o\tyov, Me. only). laKcoftos, lacobus 



[I. 19 

oXiyov e&ev laKcofiov TOV TOV ZefieSaiov Kat Icodvrjv 
TOV d$eX<pov avTOVy Kat avTOvs ev TCO TrXoicp 
20 Tibiras Ta SiKTva, 30 /ca* evdvs eKaXecrev avTOvs. 
TOV TraTepa avTwv Ze/3e$a7ov ev TW 



19 ora o\Lyov K*S<I> (irpofi. o\iyot> sine e/c. BDL min nonn a b ff g syrr ^P 66 * 1 me) 
20 ev6vs (evdews ACDrAII al minP 1 ) ante a<j>. transpon A 124 al c f syrP 6811 arm | 
<nn)\dov oiriffb) aurou] ijKO\ov6r](rai avrw D latt 

= lpl LXX. la/Kco/3 (Gen. xxv. 26 and 
throughout 0. T.), English James 
(through Ital. Giacomo, Mayor) from 
Wycliffe onwards. ludvrjs (for the 
orthography, see on i. 4)= ^nirp, jjni* 
(LXX., leoai/dy, lami/di/, iwva, but in 
2 Paral. xxviii. 12, i Esdr. viii. 38, 
cod. B uses leooV^s, and y la)dvvr]s 
occurs in cod. A, i Esdr. I. c., i 
Mace. ii. i sq.). The father, who 
is mentioned as present (infra), was 
one Ze/Se&uor = ^3! or rather i"PT!l? 
for which the LXX. have Za/3Seia in 
2 Esdr. viii. 8, x. 20, and Za/SaSat as- 
in i Esdr. ix. 35, or Za/35aio$-, ib. 21 ; 
the mother was Salome, see Me. xv. 
40 on the form of the name cf. Dai- 
man, p. 1 22. Tbv ddf\(f>bv avTov implies 
that John was the younger or the 
less important at the time; cf. TOV 

a8e\(f)bv Sifj.Mvos (v. l6). ttpoftas 

oX/yoi/, i.e. along the shore (i. 16) 
towards Capernaum (ii. i). 

KOI avrovs] Me. only. Vg. et ipsos, 
they too : c Lc. i. 36, Acts xv. 27, 32 
(Blass); the exx. of K al avTos with 
a finite verb, adduced by Knaben- 
bauer, are inapposite. James and 
John, like Simon and Andrew, were 
in their boat (ev ro> n-X.), though not 
similarly occupied. Karapn bi/ras ra 
diKTva, Vg. componentes retia : "Wyc 
liffe, "makynge nettis," Tindale, A.V., 
R. V., "mending their nets,"cf. Jerome : 
"ubi dicitur componentes ostenditur 
quod scissa fuerant." Karapr/fcw is 
used of rebuilding a ruin (2 Esdr. iv. 

12, 13), and in surgery, of setting a 
bone, or bringing the broken parts 
together (Galen). In a metaphorical 
sense the word is a favourite with 
St Paul (see Lightfoot on GaL vi. i, 
i Thess. iii. 10), but it is also used in 
i Pet. v. 10. Here it may include the 
whole preparation (see Heb. x. 5, xi. 
3) of the nets for another night s 
fishing. Comp. the different account 
in Lc. v. 2. 

20. KOI evdvs eicdXeo-cv avrovs ] On 
cvdvs see v. 10, note. Mt. omits it 
here, but places ev& o* before dQevrcs, 
as in v. 18. The call was doubtless 
as before, v. 17 ; and the voice was as 
familiar and as authoritative in the 
second case as in the first. 

d(j)VTes TOV Trarepa] See the arche 
type of this parting in i Kings xix. 
20 f., and cf. Me. x. 28, 29. Mt. brings 
out more fully the relative greatness 
of the sacrifice in this case : a ^eWe? 
TO irXolov Kal TOV Trarepa OUTWV. In 
both cases the abandonment was 
complete (Lc. acpeVes Travra) ; all left 
what they had to leave. Mc. s /zem 
TWV iJLio-dcoTwv has been thought to 
imply comparative prosperity, but the 
two pairs of brothers were partners 
in the fishing industry (Lc. v. 7, 10), 
so that there was at least no social 
difference. Of fjuo-6a>Toi we hear again 
in connexion with other businesses 
(Jo. x. 12, 13, cf. Mt. xx. i). 

d7rf)\6ov OTTIO-CO avTov. Mt. 
Gr\aav avTa>. See note on i. 17. 


ai Kai ei&TTOpevovTai ek KafyapvaovfjC Kai evQvs 21 

21 om ei<rTr. eis K. /cat eu0. syr sin | eiffeiropevovro D 33 61 a b f go | 
ACLril alP 1 | evOvs KL i 28 33 131 1071] evdeus ABCD rell minP 1 | om ei(reX0a> 
KCLA 28 6g 346 2P" al pauc me syrr" 11 ? 6811 Or biB (hab ABDrnZ3> al latt syr hcl arm 
go aeth) | TTJV aw.] + avruv A 

NAUM (Lc. iv. 31 37). 

21. /cat elcrir. els KcKpapvaovfji] Cf. 
Mt. iv. 13 KaraXiTreov rr)v Naapa cKQa>v 
KdTtpKTjo-fv fls K. ; Lc. iv. 31 (after the 
Sabbath at Nazareth) Kar^dev els K. 
In Me. the entrance into Capernaum 
follows the walk by the Sea, but eiW. 
does not of course exclude a previous 
arrival from Nazareth. Ka(j>apvaovp 
(Kmrcpv. is a Syrian corruption, 
WH., Notes, p. 160) : Mt. adds rijv 

irapaOdXaaro-iav eV opiots Za/3ouXooi/ KOI 

Ne$#aXei/i, in ref. to Isa. viii. 23 (ix. 
i). The name D-im IB?, Nahum s 
village, is unknown to the O. T., but 
Josephus mentions a KO>HTJV Ke$api/eo- 
KOV \cyopevriv (vit. 72) and a fountain 
called Capharnaum in Gennesar (nrjyfj 

. . .Kixpapvaovp avrrjv ol eVt^coptot \eyov- 
<riv, B. J. iii. 10. 8), identified by some 
with Ain-et-Tin close to Khan Minyeh, 
by others with Ain-et-Tabigah. The 
site has been sought either at Khan 
Minyeh, at the N. end of the plain 
(so G. A. Smith, H.G. p. 456; Enc. 
BiU. i. p. 696 ff.), or at Tell Hum 2^ 
miles N.E. of Khan M. (see Wilson, 
Recovery of Jerusalem, p. 3426., and 
the other authorities quoted in Names 
and Places, s.v.). Jerome onomast. 
says, "usque hodie oppidum in Gal- 
ilaea." On the Talmudic references 
see Neubauer, geogr. du Talmud, p. 
221. Tell Hum is now a wilderness 
of ruins, half buried in brambles and 
nettles ; among them are conspicuous 
the remains of a large synagogue 
built of white limestone (Wilson, I.e.). 
On the strange statement of Hera- 

S. M. 2 

vde 7TTTOlT]KCi)S Tl Xe yfTCU V dVTT] 

rj XfAoX^Kcos see Origen in Joann. 
t. x. ii. 

Kai evBvs rols ardftjBaa-iv] On the first 
sabbath after the call of the Four. 2a/3- 
/Sara (so Joseph, ant. iii. 6. 6, and even 
Horace, sat. i. 9. 69) is perhaps pi. 
only in form = Aram. NHIl^ ; cf. how 
ever TO. av/za, ra yfV<ria } and the like. 
The LXX. use both o-a/3/3aroi/ and o-d/3- 
/3ara for a sabbath, cf. Exod. xvi. 23, 
xx. 8f., xxxi. 15; but o-a/3/3aroi/ does 
not appear in cod. B before 4 Regn. iv. 
23. Me. uses the sing, in ii. 27, 28, vi. 
2, xvi. i, and it is the prevalent form 
in the N. T. ; <ra/3/3ara occurs as a 
true plural in Acts xvii. 2. The meta- 
plastic dat. o-dpftao-iv is normal in the 
N.T. ; " B twice has o-a^arois," WH., 
Notes, p. 157 (in Mt. xii. i, 12). On 
rots cr. with or without Iv see WM., 
p. 274. 

fla~f\Bo>v fls T^V (rvvaywyrjv f8i8a<rKcv] 

He was engaged in teaching in the 
synagogue, when the event about to 
be recorded took place. The rejec 
tion of eiVeX#eoi> by some good authori 
ties (? Alexandrian ) may be justified 
by such passages as i. 39, x. 10, xiii. 9. 
The pregnant use of els is not to be 
attributed to confusion of els with cv ; 
see WM., p. 5 1 6 ff. Trjv a-w. ; there was 
probably but one (see Lc. vii. 5). The 
synagogue teaching of Christ seems to 
have been characteristic of the earlier 
part of His ministry : we hear no more 
of it after Me. vi. 2. On the Synagogue 
as an institution see Schiirer n. ii. 52 ff. 
The word occurs abundantly in the 
Pentateuch (LXX.) for nir or 7HJ?, the 
congregation of Israel (see Hort, 


Kai 6%e7r\n<rcrovTO enl^ TYJ SiBa^y avrov, rjv yap 22 
avTOvs ws e^ovcriav e^ow Kat ovx ^ ol 

CMAS 33 al c f syrr aeth + et farisaei e 

Ecclesia, p. 4 flf.) : later on it is used 
for any assembly (Prov. v. 14 cv p-ea-co 
(rvvaywyrjs KOI eK/cXj7<rias, I MaCC. XIV. 
28 eVi <rvvaya>yrjs pfyaXrjs tepeW), esp. 

a religious assembly, Ps. Sol. xvii. 8 ; 
but as denoting a place of assembly it 
is almost peculiar to the N. T., aud 
occurs chiefly in the Synoptists and 
Acts (Jo. vi. 59, xviii. 20, James ii. 
2 are not real exceptions). Teach 
ing was a chief purpose of the syna 
gogues ; Phil, de Sept. 2 calls them 

didaa-KaXfla (ppovij(rea>s. It arose out 

of the Scripture lections (Lc. iv. 16, 
Acts xiii. 15), which were followed by 
a ni^"n or exposition. The expositor 
(^"H) was not an officer of the syna 
gogue, but any competent Israelite 
who was invited by the officers. Hence 
the synagogue supplied invaluable 
opportunities to the first preachers of 
the Gospel. 

22. KOi ^7T\rj(T(rOVTO KrX.] SO Mt. 

Yii. 28 f., Lc. iv. 32. EicTrX., though 
used from Homer downwards, is rare 
in the LXX. (Eccl. 1 Sap. 1 Mace. 3 ) and 
in the N. T. is limited to Mt., Ma, 
Lc. OT " * For rl TTJ 8. see WM., p. 491 
( over = at). The amazement was due 
to the manner of the teaching. It was 
authoritative, and that not on certain 
occasions only, but in general (rjv 8i8a- 
tricmv, periphrastic imperf., cf. Blass, 
Gr. p. 203 f.). Its note was cgovo-la, 
Justin, apol. i. 14, contrasting our 
Lord with the Greek o-oQurrcu, says: 
/Spa^eis 8e KCU crvvrofjioi Trap* avrov Xo- 
yoi yeyovcKriv ov yap a~o<picrTr)s VTrfjpxfv 
aXXa 8vva^.is Scov 6 Xoyoy avrov r\v. 

The frequenters of the synagogue were 
chiefly struck by the Lord s tone of 
authority; there was no appeal to 
Rabbis greater or older than Himself, 
His message came direct from GOD. 
The same character pervades all our 

Lord s conduct : cf. i. 27, ii. 10, xi. 28 flf. 
The source of this cov<ria is the Father 
(Mt xxviii. 1 8, Jo. v. 27, x. 18, xvii. 
2) ; the Son delegates His authority 
to His servants (Me. vi. 7, xiii. 34, Jo. 
L 12). On the distinction between 8v- 
vapis and eou<ria see Mason, Condi 
tions of O. L s Life, p. 98 : " authority 
is not always power delegated, [nor is 
it always] a rightful power... the dis 
tinction is rather between the inward 
force or faculty... and the external 
relationship." For the use of as with 
the part, to denote the manner of an 
action cf. Burton, 445. 

KOI ovx s L "YP-\ Ot yp., generic 
art., the Scribes as a class. On the 
functions of this class see Schiirer n. 
i. 306 flf.; Robertson Smith, O.T.J.C. 
42 flf. The classical ypa^arevs is the 
secretary or clerk of a public body; 

TTS /ouy, rrs ycpovcras, 
v are mentioned in the in 
scriptions, cf. Hicks, Inscr. ofEphesos, 
p. 8, and Blass on Acts xix. 35. In 
the LXX. ypa/A/iarels first appear in 
connexion with the Egyptian e pyodi<3- 
jcreu, and Deissmann has shewn (Bibelst. 
p. io6f.) that the papyri employ the 
word for a class of military officers, 
presumably those who kept the regis 
ter of the army (cf. Driver on Deut. 
xx. 5, Moore on Jud. v. 14). In the 
later sense of a Biblical scholar the 
word first occurs in i Esdr. viii. 3, 
2 Esdr. vii. 6: cf. i Mace. vii. 12, 
2 Mace. vi. 1 8 ; the Gospels know no 
other. But the ypa^arels had before 
this time become a dominant factor in 
Jewish life, the recognised teachers of 
Israel, taking their place in the Sanhe- 
drin with the representatives of priest 
hood and people (Me. xv. i). Scribe 
(Latt. scriba) unfortunately lays stress 
on the etymological sense of the word 



5/J \ f , ~ 

evuvs r\v ev Tn 


^ ev TrvevjjLaTL ctKaddpTw , Kal dveKpa^ev 1 
Ti TIJJUV KCLI croi, Irjcrov Na^aptjve ; f7\06s 24 
; o/Scc <re T/S e/, d dyios TOV 6eov.^ ^ 

23 om eutfvs ACDrAIIZ3> al latt syrr arm go aeth (hab KBL i 33 131 209 me Or) ) 
om avrwv DL 72 b c e E g | aveKpa&v] + (pwiq fAeyaXrj 1071 24 n] pr ea 

K c - a ACLrAII2<i> al syr hcl arm go Or 1 Eus 3 (om ea K*BD 102 157 i^ latt 
me aeth) | otdafjiev KLA arm me aeth Or 2 Eus 4 

DHSpD); lawyer 
Mt. 1 Lc. 6 ) is scarcely better : Lc. s 
vopodidao-KaXos (v. 17, cf. Acts V. 34) 
is perhaps the most exact title. On 
the relation of our Lord s teaching to 
the Law and its authorised expounders 
see Hort, Jud. Chr. p. i4ff. T Hi/ yap 
8i8da-K(0v is a little wider than edi- 
tiao-Kev above ; as He proceeded, the 
note of authority rang out more and 
more clearly. 

23. KOI fv6vs tfv KT\.~\ Me. and Lc. 
only. Lc. omits evQvs and avraiv; both 
words as they stand in Me. belong to the 
completeness of the picture ; the events 
occurred at a definite time and place, 
on that Sabbath during the sermon in 
the synagogue of the Capharnaites. 

av6p(07TOS CV TTVfVfJLCLTl CZKa&] LC. 

av6p. %a>v 7rvevfJ.a diapoviov aK.a6a.prov 

an easier phrase. For [clvat] eV 
mmtfuert cf. Mt. xxii. 43, Me. v. 2, 
xii. 36, Lc. ii 27, Rom. viii. 9, i Cor. 
xii. 3, Apoc. i. 10. Ev is not here in 
strumental or indicative of manner 
(Blass, Gr. p. 131) : rather it represents 
the person who is under spiritual in 
fluence as moving in the sphere of 
the spirit. Most of the exx. refer 
to the Holy Spirit, but there is no 
thing in the formula to forbid its 
application to evil spirits in their 
relation to men under their control. 
Hvevfj-a cLKadaprov appears already in 
Zech. xiii. 2 ( = nNplsn n-n); cLKaQap- 
TOS and aKadapo-ia are ordinarily used 
in Leviticus for the ceremonial pollu 
tion which banishes from the Divine 

presence. This idea of estrangement 
from GOD probably -predominates in 
the present phrase : cf. Victor : dta TTJV 
a.(re(3ciav ical rrjv OTTO 6fov dva\(apr)(riv, 

adding however what should not 
perhaps be excluded dia TO irda-ais 
rals ala-xpals Kal Trovrjpals 

Kal dvenpa^cv xrX.] Avaicpafciv (LXX. ; 

late Gk.) is used again of the cry of a 
demoniac in Lc. viii. 28 ; and of the 
cry of human terror (Me. vi. 49) or 
excitement (Lc. xxiii. 18). Lc. adds 
here $001/77 pfydXj] (cf. I Regn. iv. 5 
and Me. infra, v. 26). 

24. ri Kal o~oi /crX.] = 
*s\%\: cf. Jos. xxil 24, Jud. xi. 12, 
2 Regn. xvi. 10, 3 Regn. xvii. 18 ; the 
phrase was used also in class. Gk., see 
Wetstein on Mt. viii. 29 and WM., p. 
731. What have we in common with 
Thee? Cf. Me. v. 7, and esp. 2 Cor. 

vi. 14, ris yap /xero^r) diKaio(rvvr) Kal 
dvopia KT\. Hfuv rols doiftowotff, 
us, as a class ; only one seems to 
have been in possession in this case, 
but he speaks for all. Nafapqpos 1 is 
the Marcan form (cf. xiv. 67, xvi. 6) ; 
Mt, Lc. (xviii. 37), Jo., Acts, give 
Na^copcuos. On the origin of the two 
forms see Dalman, p. 141 n. 

r/XOcs diroXeo-ai ^/xas-;] Probably a 
second question, parallel to TI 

didst Thou come (hither from 
Nazareth, or perhaps, since 77^0? is 
generic, into the world) to work our 
ruin, to destroy and not to save, in 
our case 1 Contrast Lc. xix. 10. The 



vTco 6 Irjcrovs \eycov <Piiu.a)6riTi 


25 om \eywv K*A* vid | e avrov] e/c rou avdpuirov D (8P 6 ) latt (exc f) air aimw HLS 
33 alP 1 + TT^eu/ia aKa.ea.pTov D (8?) b c e ff g q go aeth | avrov] avrwv 1071 

Saviour of men must needs be the 
Destroyer of unclean spirits. See the 
use made of this context against 
Marcionism by Tertullian, adv. Marc. 
iv. 7. 

oldd o-e TLS fi KT\."] See James ii. 19 
TO. Saifjiovia 7rio~Tvovo~iv KOI <ppio~o~ov- 
o-iv, and cf. also Lc. iv. 41, Me. v. 7, 
Acts xix. 1 5. Orig. in Jo. t. xxviii. 1 5, 
dvvarai KOI Trovrjpa irvev/jLara p.aprvpea> 
TO) Irjo ov Kal irpcxprjTeveiv irepl avrov. 

For the special meaning of olda as 
opposed to yuvoa-Ko (Acts I.e.) see 
Lightfoot on GaL iv. 9, Rom. vii. 7, 
I Cor. ii. 1 1 : oida is absolute, yiv(oo-K<o 
relative. At this stage the evil spirits 
merely knew as a matter of fact that 
Jesus was the Messiah : experience of 
His power came later on. The slightly 
pleonastic o-e is common to Me. and 
Lc. here, and perhaps is due to an 
Aramaic original (Delitzsch, D T^p 
iiriK) ; for the attraction cf. Mt. xxv. 
24. O ayios TOV dtov : cf. Ps. CV. 
(cvi.) 1 6, Aapeoi/ TOV ayiov Kvpiov : 
4 Regn, iv. 9, avQpa>iros TOV dfov ayios. 

The Apostles learnt afterwards to 
adopt the title (John vi. 69, cf. 
i Jo. ii. 20, Apoc. iii. 7). Employed in 
this way it distinguished the Christ 
from all other consecrated persons. 
Victor: aytoy fjv KOL eKaoros 1 rail/ n-po- 
(})T)Ta>v . . Sta TOV apdpov TOV eva o-rjfj.aivei 
T&V a\\a>v f^aipfTov. O diKaios is also 
used (Acts xxii. 14, James v. 6 : the 
two stand together in Acts iii. 14). 
But it was the ayio-njs of Jesus His 
absolute consecration to GOD (Jo. 
x. 36, xvii. 19) which struck terror 
into the &u/ioj/to. Bede : " prae- 
sentia Salvatoris tormenta sunt dae- 

25. eVert/xjyo-ei/ auroi] Sc. TO> dv- 
^pa)7r<j>, but in effect the spirit, as the 
words that follow shew; cf. v 8 

E7riri/iaz/, Vg. comminari, Wycliffe 
and Rheims "threaten," other Engl. 
vv., " rebuke " ; the strict meaning of 
the word is to mete out due measure/ 
but in the N. T. it is used only of 
censure ; cf. 2 Tim. iv. 2, where it 
stands between eXe -y^eii/ and Trapa- 
KaAeii/ : Jude 9 (Zach. iii. 2), tVm- 
jj,rjo-ai crot Kupios. With these two- 
exceptions it is limited to the Synop- 

Kal cge\6e] The rebuke 
takes the form of a double command : 
Euth., egovo-iao-TiKov TO <pi/i. TO 
?|eX^e. The offence was two-fold: (i) 
The confession oldd a-e KT\., coming 
inopportunely and from unholy lips ; 
cf. i. 34, Acts xvi. 18, and see Tert 
Marc. iv. 7, "increpuit ilium... ut in- 
vidiosum et in ipsa confessione petu- 
lantern et male adulantem, quasi haec 
esset summa gloria Christi si ad 
perditionem daemonum venisset " : 
(2) the invasion of the man s spirit 
by an alien power. Su/xoui/ occurs in 
its literal sense in Deut. xxv. 4, cited 
in i Cor ix. 9, i Tim. v. 18; <pifiovo-6at, 
is in the LXX. (4 Mace. i. 35, KV) and 
N.T. uniformly metaphorical, Vg. ob- 
mutescere. The word is not a vulgar 
colloquialism, as Gould s rendering 
suggests; it occurs in this sense in 
good late writers (Josephus, Lucian,. 
&c.) ; see, however, Kennedy, Sources, 
p. 41. In Mt. xxii. 34, i Pet. ii. 15 we- 
find the active similarly used, cf. Prov. 
xxvi. lo Th. <pifjLa>v a(ppova <pi/zeu ^oXovs 1 . j 
For egeXQe see v. 8, ix. 25. The sum 
mons to depart was in this case the 
penalty for unprovoked interruption; 
the daifjLoviov was the aggressor. An 
exodus was possible, since the human 
personality, although overpowered, 
remained intact, awaiting the De 
liverer : cf. iii. 27, Lc. XL 21 & 

1. 27] 



avTov. * 6 Kai cnrapd^av avTov TO TrvevjuLa 26 
TO aKaOapTOV Kal (pcovfjcrai/ (pwvrj jj.e yaXri efj\6ev 
e CIVTOV. ^ Kai e6afj./3ti6rjcrav ajravTes, eocrre 27 w m 


16 /ecu i-rj\0ev TO TTV. TO o.K. /ecu <nrapaas avrov /cai */>aas (frwrj fiey. eTj\dev air 
avTov D (e) (ff) | om TO irv. B 102 | <pwri<rai> KBL 33 (1071) Or] Kpa^av AC(D)rAIIS<l> 
alpier | e ] a?r C(D)MAS 33 al mu -27 eda/j-prjaav D Or | Trcwres ACDrAII al | avrovs 
KB b e ff q] irpos aurous GLS<I> min mu irpos eaur. ACDFAIIS al min? 1 irpos OLVTOV 
7 pem g i x^yo^res ACE*MA corr 13 33 238 346 736 | om TI <TTIV TOVTO D evP* uc b c e ff q 

26. Kal <Tirapdav...rj\0ci ] The 

spirit obeyed, but displayed his 
malice (Apoc. xii. 12); cf. Lc. pfyav 

CIVTOV IS T< fJLfVOV cr)\0V . . fJ.T)8eV 

j3\d\lsav avTov. Sjrapd^av, Vg. ^45- 

cerpens ; the verb is used in reference 
to a spirit again in Me. ix. 20 (<rw O-TT.) 
26, Lc. ix. 39, 42 (crui/o-Tr.). The later 
usage of the word inclines towards 
the meaning convulse ; see 2 Regn. 
xxii. 8, but esp. Dan. viii. 7, where 

l is translated by Th. 

v avrov etrl TTJV yrjv, but by LXX. 
CLVTOV eVl TTJV yr)v. From 
the second instance it is clear that, on 
the hypothesis of a Hebrew or Aramaic 
original, Lc. s pfyav may represent 
the same word as Mc. s o-irapdgav, and 
that the latter implies no laceration, 
so that Lc. s (perhaps editorial) note 
p.T)8fv /3X. avrov is justifiable. The 
reading of D in ix. 20 (fTdpagev) and 
in Lc. ix. 42 (O-WCT.) is a serviceable 
gloss. For the mystical interpreta 
tion see Greg. M. horn, in Ezek. i. 
12. 24, "quid est quod obsessum 
hominem antiquus hostis quern pos- 
sessum non discerpserat deserens 
discerpsit, nisi quod plerumque dum 
de corde expellitur acriores in eo 
tentationes generat ? " ^coi/j/craj/ (pcovy 
pfyd\T], using for the last time the 
human voice through which he had 
so long spoken. Lc. has connected 
<pa>vf] p.yd\Tj with the cry rt cp.ol K. tr., 
and omits it here. 

27. Kal eOapftriOTja-av airavTes\ 

Amazement (v. 22) deepened into 

awe. Lc. eyevfTO 6d/j.[3os eVi Trdvras. 
Qappelo-Qai, eK&anfielffQai are used ill 
the N. T. only by Me., but occur 
occasionally in the LXX. ; in class. 
Gk. the words are found chiefly in 
poetry, and Oapfielv is intrans. ; cf. 
i Regn. xiv. 15, and the reading of 
D here. 0a^/3o? is connected with 
cKaTao-is in Acts iii. 10, and the verb 
with (pofielo-Oat. in Me. x. 32. 

cocrrf <rvvrjTflv avrov?] = Lc. crvvt- 
XaAoui irpos dXXjjXovf. "Svv^rjTf iv IS 

usually followed by irpos (ix. 14, 
Acts ix. 29), or the dative (viii. n, 
Acts v. 9), or a dependent clause 
giving the subject of debate (ix. 10) ; 
see vv. 1L here. Here, as again in 
xii. 28, it is used absolutely: they 
discussed. The word is predomi 
nantly Marcan; see Hawkins, Hor. 
Syn. p. 10. 

TI f(mv TOVTO; dio~a)(T) Kaivrj] Lc. 
Tty o \6yos euros ; on KT\. Me. 
gives the incoherent and excited 
remarks of the crowd in their natural 
roughness : the Western and tradi 
tional texts attempt to reduce them 
to literary form. For didaxrj naivrj see 
0. 22. There was now another ele 
ment which was new : the et-ovo-ia 
was manifested in accompanying acts 
/car eovo~iav nal KT\. Exorcism 
was not unknown among the Jews 
of this period, cf. Mt. xii. 27, Acts 
xix. 13 (on the latter reference see 
Blass, and cf. Edersheim L 482); but 



Kar eov<riav Kat TOK 7rvei>}j.a<riv TO?9 

# .o \ 

28 dKaOdpTOis eTTLTao-a-eL Kal v7raKOVov<riv avry. 

28 > 



29 * 9 Kai evdvs IK 

t]\6ev els 

27 didax-r) KWI\ Kar e. KBL 33 IO2 (i 28* 2" e *) (604)] ru *) Std. r, KO.UHI avr-rj ore 
/car e. (A)CrAIIZ<l> al min? 1 f vg syrr? 68 " 01 arm go ns t] did. eKeivi} i? KO.IV. avr. i\ 
efowia on D T 77 8i5. fo KCUI/.) aur. /car e. b c e ff (q) r (syr-*) 28 e^X^ep 5e 

Arn al | om ev0vs N* i 28 33 al b c e ff q syr 8in arm | om iravraxov N*ADrAIIS<l> 
mm? 1 c f ff vg syrr arm go (hab ( c - a ) BC(L) 69 124 b e q me) | rr)s Ta\.] r^s louScuas 
* rou lopSavov 28 + /cat TroXXot TjKoXove-rjffav aurw syr sin 29 om evdvsDoeffg 

Syrr smpe8h aet h | % \ew -rjXdev B(D)(S) i 22 69 124 604 al f g syr hcl < m *> arm aeth] 

min? 1 P^ hcltxfc eeX0 W y 7X^ ff 

it consisted in the use of magical 
formulae, not in the power of a direct 
command. The tone of authority 
adopted by Jesus was extended even 
(H) to the uncontrollable wills of 
spirits who defied all moral obliga 
tions (rois TTV. rols a/a#., an order 
which emphasises the adj., cf. Eph. 
iv. 30, i Thess. iv. 8), and even in that 
sphere it received attention (KOI vrr. 

avrw, cf. iv. 41). For 8i8axrj <aivj] cf. 

Acts xvii. 19, and for the sense of 
Kaivos as compared with veos see Me. 
ii. 21, 22. The freshness and vigour 
of the teaching, and not merely its 
novelty, attracted attention. 

Kar eov<riav] Lc. ev e^ovcria Kal 
dwdfuu With Kar e. in the way of 
authority cf. Rom. iv. 16, Iva Kara 
X&piv, PhiL ii. 3, prjdev Kar fpidiav 
p.r]8f Kara Kfvodo^iav. Lc. s Kal Suva/net 
brings into sight another factor (see 
i 22, note), in the act, which however 
was not in the forefront of men s 
thoughts at the time. Kal TOLS irvfv- 
/uao-0/... even the demons obey His 
word, cf. iv. 41 Kal o avep-os KOI TJ 
daXaa-aa. See Lc. X. 17, 2O. YTTOKOT;- 
ova-iv aura> : Lc. et-fpxovrai. 

28. Kal e^X^ei/...7rai^ra^ov] From 
that hour (evOvs) the new Teacher s 
fame (OKO^, Vg. rumor] spread in all 
directions. AKOTJ is (i) hearing (e.g. 
in the common LXX. phrase 

(2) in pi., the organs of hear 
ing (Me. vii. 35, Acts xvii. 20); (3) the 
thing heard, hearsay, i Regn. ii 24 
(iTyD^), Isa. liii. i, cf. Rom. x. 16, 17, 
where (3) passes back into (i). 

els o\rjv rrjv TT. rf/s I\] Either = if 
O\T)V TTJV Ta\et\aiav (TIJS T. being epexe- 
getical of r. TT.), or into all the district 
round G. ; Wycliffe, "the cuntree of 
G."; Tindale, Cranmer, &c., "the 
region borderinge on G." The latter 
accords with Mt. s summary (iv. 24, 
airrjXOcv 77 CKO^ avrov els ciXrjv TTJV 
Svpiav) and with usage: cf. f) IT. TOV 
lopddvov (Gen. xiii. 10, n, Mt. iii. 5), 
r5i/ Tepao-rjvav (Lc. viii. 37), Ifpovaa- 
\rip. (2 Esdr. xiii. 9) ; and on the other 
hand see Deut. iii. 13 -n-aa-av ireplx^pov 
Apyofi. A third interpretation is the 
whole of that part of Galilee which lay 
round Capernaum. 7 But for this elf 
o\rjv TTJV TT. Kafpapvaovfj. would have 
sufficed, for there was no need at pre 
sent to contrast the Galilean Trepix^pof 
with the tetrarchy of Philip which had 
not yet been mentioned ; moreover the 
report could not have been limited to 
the W. of the Jordan. Lc., however, 
seems to incline to the narrowest 

sense (ets TroWa roirov rrjs Trept^copov). 

WIFE S MOTHER (Mt. viii. 1415, 
Lc. iv. 38 39) 

29. Kal evOvs K rrjs cruv. ee\6<bv 


o iKiav 

Kai AvSpeov fueTa laKwfiov Kai 
Iwdvou. 3 77 Se 7rev6epd CLJJLCOVOS KaTexeiTO 7rvpe<r- 30 
crofora, Kai evBvs Xeyowriv avTto Trepi avTrjs 3l Kai 31 
7TpO(T\6(*)V ri<yeipev a\)Tr\v KpaTrj(Tas T^S %ipos, Kai 
d(pfJKv avTriv 6 TTvpeTos, Kai SirjKovei ai/rcus.^ ^ H 

30 /care/cetro 5e TJ TT. S. D latt (exc f) | om evdvs b c ff g q syrr^P 681 * aeth 
31 -rjyeipev avrrjv tcpar. TT/S X ei Ps] fKreivas TTJV X i P a Kpar. -rjy. avnjv D (b f q) | 
X fi Ps] + av-njs ACrAII2<l> al vg syrr arm me (om aur. KBL (D b q)) | 7ruperos] + 
eutfews A(D)rAII2<l> al (b c e f ff q vg) syrrC^HP* 811 ) 1 * 1 go aeth (om ev8. KBCL i 28 
33 alP auc e arm me) | /cat dirjKovei] pr /ecu rjyeperj 16 syrr sinhcl aeth 

man" before his call, and his wife 
accompanied him afterwards in his 
Apostolic journeys (i Cor. ix. 5, cf. 
Suicer s. v. yvvrf) ; see the story told 
of her by Clem. Alex, strom. viii. 1 1. 
62 (Eus. H. E. iii. 30), and Clement s 
statement, strom. iii. 6. 52 (cf. Hieron. 

adv. Jocin. i. 26) : r) KOI drrooroXovs 
Herpos p.fv yap /cat 
(for irfvOfpa and the correlative vvixprj 
see Mt. x. 35) kept her bed of a 
fever, decumbebat febricitans : Kctra- 
<(l(T0at is used of the sick by Galen, 
and occurs again in this sense Me. ii. 4, 
Lc. v. 25, Jo. v. 3, 6, Acts ix. 33, xxviii. 

8; cf. Mt. fiepXrjuevrjv Kai irvp. See 

Field, Notes, p. 25. For TrupeWovo-a 
Lc. has the professionally precise <ruv- 
\o/j.fvrj Trupero) /zeyaXep, * in a high 
fever, and similarly ypnTTjo-av for the 
simple \eyova-iv. The pi. is best ex 
plained as referring to of irfpl TOV 
2i/i&)i/a. The Lord is told as soon 
as He enters the house (evQvs) ; they 
have waited till He returned from the 

31. Kai Trpocrf\B(ov KT\.] He ap 
proached the sufferer, took her by the 
hand, and raised her up. Lc. adds e n i- 

(TTas eTrdvco avTrjs eTreTi^rjcrev T<U irvpcrto 

(cf. Me. i 2 5 , i v. 39). For KpaT-qvas r. x- 
compare Me. v. 41, ix. 27. The aor. 
part, is one of * antecedent action, 
see Burton 134 rather perhaps of 
concurrent action, the grasp scarcely 
preceding and certainly coinciding 

The narrative is still unbroken, 
as K. evdvs suggests, and e< rrjs <r. 
shews. We are carried back to the 
end of v. 26, vv. 27, 28 being paren 
thetical. As soon as the congrega 
tion had broken up (Acts xiii. 43), 
Jesus went to the house of Simon. 
E^eX^coi/ ?i\6ev, as it stands, is a * sub- 
singular reading of B (see WH., Intr. 
308 ff.), but D gives i&\6. de <T K TJS 
o-vv. y\6(i>, and 2, KOI ef\d. cvdvs CK 
Tys a-w. rj\0cv : with B are also a fair 
number of important cursives (see vv. 
1L), and the sing. part, is supported 
by Syr. 810 - and the 0. L. MS. /"; be 
sides, the roughness of B s text is in 
its favour, and ^\66vrcs ^\6av fol 
lowed by pfTa laKo>/3ou /cat Icoai/ov is 
hardly tolerable ; see however Zahn, 
Einleitung ii. pp. 246, 252, where an 
ingenious explanation is given of the 
reading of A. Trjv olnLav 2i /no>i>os 
Kai Avdpeov. Mt, Lc. mention only 
Simon (Mt., HeVpov) ; the home was 
probably his, since he was a mar 
ried man, but shared by his brother. 
gy r sin. nas . Andrew and James and 
John were with Him" (? pcra Avdp. 
K. la*. KOI la).). A house in Caper 
naum is frequently mentioned as the 
rendez-vous of Jesus and the disciples 
(Me. ii. i, ill 27, vil 24, ix. 33, x. 10). 
Jerome : " utinam ad nostram domum 
veniat...unusquisque nostrum febri- 

30. 77 8e ircvBfpa 2i /no>i/os] Simon 
was therefore " himself also a married 


32 s 




ias Se 7ei/o//eW 7 ore ecWei/ d #Ytos, 6 ^epoi/ 
Trai/ra? roik /ca/cak e^oi/ras /ca* roik 

32 edvw BD 28] eu NACLTAnS^ al? 1 | e<j>epo<rw D | om Trpos avroi> 
ex-] transil K* ad KO.K. ex- ( r - 34) + "o<n>is Troi/aXcus D b c e E g q syr 81 " vid 

syr* 11 

their sick before sunset, cf. Victor: 

ovx OTrXeo? TO * bvvovros TOV 
r/\iov, } dXX Trcio~Tj evo^ov fir] eelvai 
TIVI Bepairfveiv o-a/3/3aro>, TOVTOV X^P IV 
TOV o-a/3/3arou TO irfpas dvepevov. For 
&vtra = dvv see WSchm., p. 109, and 
cf. vv. 11. 

cfapov KT\.] Case after case ar 
rived (imperf.); Mt. irpocr^vfyKav, Lc. 
r/yayov, with less realisation of the 
scene. In using the Marcan tradition 
Lc. has changed the position of 
TrotKtXaiff voo-ois : cf. what is said of 
(po>vfj (j.eyaXj) supra, v. 26. KdK&s 
e^e/ (Ezech. xxxiv. 4) is not uncommon 
in the Gospels (Mt. 7 Me. 4 Lc. 2 ). Kai 
TOVS daifjLovi(o^.ifovs : Mt. d. TroXXous (cf. 
Me. infra, v. 34). Aatjuowa have not 
yet been mentioned by that name, yet 
the verb is used as if familiar to the 
reader. The corresponding classical 
form is daipovav, and ftaipoWfco&u is 
rare before the N. T. ; there is no 
trace of it in the Gk. 0. T., but it 
occurs in the later literary Greek in 
reference to the insane. In the N. T. 
its use is nearly limited to the parti 
ciples 6 x cu^oi>to/Liei>off, Stu/ioi/io-tfei s-, in 
the sense of a person possessed by a 
: cf. Acts X. 38, TOVS Kara- 
s viro TOV 5ia/3oXou. 

33. Kal rjv 0X77 YI TroXis /CTX.] See 
note on i. 5. Eirio-vvdyeiv is a strength 
ened form of a-vvdyfiv found in late 
Greek and frequent in the LXX., nor 
mally implying a large or complete 
gathering, cf. i Mace. v. 10, 16, Mt. 
xxiii. 37, Me. xiii. 27, Lc. xii. i ; c 

C7rio~vvrpex lj ) M C ix. 25. Ilpbf TT]V 

Bvpav : the ace. dwells on the thought 
of the flocking up to the door which 
preceded, and the surging, moving, 

with the lifting of the prostrate 
form; cf. Blass, Gr. t p. 197. The 
genitive is partitive (WM., p. 252); 
for an ex. from the LXX. see Gen. 
xix. 1 6. With the whole narrative 
compare Acts xxviii. 8 another case 
of miraculous recovery from fever. 

KOI dirjKovei avrols] The prostration 
which attends early convalescence 
found no place ; she at once assumed 
her usual function in the household (cf. 
Lc. x. 40, Jo. xii. 2). Jerome : "natura 
hominum istiusmodi est ut post febrim 
magis lassescant corpora, et incipi- 
ente sanitate aegrotationis mala sen- 
tiant; verum sanitas quae confertur a 
Domino totum simul reddit." The 
service was probably rendered at the 
Sabbath meal; cf. Joseph, mt. 54 CKTT] 
&pa KaB^ Tjv rols crafifia<Tiv apioroTrot- 
eia-Qai vopifjiov eVrtv jfuv. For SiaKovelv 
*to wait at table cf. Lc. I.e., xvii. 8, xxii. 
26, 27, Acts vi. 2. Victor : ai/ex<ap w 
(Off ev (ra/3/3erra> eVi eoTtatrii/ els TOV OIKOV 
TOV fia6r)Tov. AVTOIS Me., Lc. : Mt., 

avToJ. The Lord, Who had restored 
her, was doubtless the chief object 
of her care. Jerome: "et nos mini- 
stremus lesu." 


(Mt. viii. 1 6, Lc. iv. 40 41). 

32. otyias 8e yfvop.evrjs, ore eSvcrcv 
6 ij\ios] For the phrase o^/a e-yeVero 
cf. Judith xiii. i. Mt. omits ore 
fftvcrev 6 77., Lc. changes it into bvvovros 
rov T)\IOV: comp. the similar discre 
pancy in the readings of Me. xvi. 2 
(dvcLTfiXavros S. dvareXXovros TOV r/Xiov). 
Lc. s recension is probably intended 
to leave time before dark for the 
miracles that follow. On the Sab 
bath the crowds would not bring 

I. 34] 


s TY\V Bupav. 34 Ka* eOepctTrevcrev TroAAoik /ca/ccos 34 

7roiKi\ais vocrois, KCLL Saijudvia TroAAa e^e- a 
i OVK ij<pi6V \a\elv TO, Sai/moi/ia, OTL 6 f 

33 7r/)os TTJV dvpav (wp. Tt] Qvpo. U Trp. Tas dvpas 28 124 2 pc )] + airrou D c ff g q 
24 /cat e0ep. aurous /cat rovs daifMovia. ex- e[3a\ev aura a?r avruv /cat ou/c 
70. aura XaXetP on rjidicrav avrov /cat e0e/o. TT. /c. e^oi/ras TTOI/C. y. /cat Sat/*. TT. 
c^e/3a\ev D | om /ca/cws. . votrois syr 8 * 11 | om TTOI/C. vo<r. LK* (hab K c - a ) | ret Sat/x. XaX. 
B aura XaXeiv D | xpt(rro etvai BLS i 28 33 69 a! 8 * tmu g syr hcl arm me aeth] rov 
W etcat ^<=-CGM 2,1 om fc<*ADEFKSUVrA0 f 4> alabcefffqvg syrr" 11 ? 61111 go 

mass before it : cf. ii. 2, xi. 4, and 
contrast Jo. xviii 16, ior^/cei Trpos r^ 

34. /cat fQfpairfva-fv KT\.] For ^epa- 
Treufti/ to attend on a patient, to treat 
medically, see Tobit ii. 10 (), eTroptvo- 

flTjV TTpOS TOVS IdTpOVS 6fpa7Tv6f)Vai. 

It is in Mt. and Me. the nearly constant 
word for Christ s treatment of disease ; 
laadai occurs only in Mt. viii. 8, 13, 
xiii. 1 5 (LXX.), xv. 28, Me. v. 29. The 
treatment was not tentative ; iro\\ovs 
is either coextensive with Trdvras (v. 
32, cf. Mt), or it implies that if 
all could not approach the Lord that 
night, there were many that did and 
were healed (on Mt. see Hawkins, Hor. 
Syn., p. 96). Lc. adds the method of 
individual treatment: eVt ocaoro> av- 
ru>v ras xetpaff fTrtndels. The diseases 
were various Troi/c/Xaiy: cf. IT. firitiv- 
fuat (2 Tim. iii. 6), ^Soi/at (Tit. iii. 3), 
dvvdfMfis (Heb. ii. 4), dtda^at (Heb. 
xiii. ^9). 

Kai 8aifj.6via TroXXa f^e/BaXev] The 
class. Scu /ieoi/ (Mt. viii. 31) or Saipoviov 
is simply a power belonging to the 
unseen world but operating upon men 

here (deos r) dfov epyov Arist.; /xera^v 

ori 6fov /cat 6vr]Toi) Plat.). In Bibli 
cal Greek the word took a bad sense 
through its appropriation to heathen 
deities (Deut. xxxii. 17, Ps. xcv. (xcvi.) 
5, Bar. iv. 7, cf. i Cor. x. 20, 21), re 
garded either as DH^ genii (?) (see 
Driver on Deut. 1. c., Cheyne, Origin 
of the Psalter, p. 334!!) or D^. In 

Tobit, under Persian influence, the 
conception of evil bai^ovia is devel 
oped (Tob. iii. 8, Ao-^dSavs- (-Scuoy X) TO 
irovrjpbv Saipoviov) ; a further progress 
is made in Enoch (c. xvi.), where how 
ever the Greek has irvfv^aTa. Joseph. 
B. J. vii. 6. 3 identifies them with the 
spirits of the wicked dead (ret KaXovp-eva 
8ai(j.6via, ravra Se irovrjpwv e<rTtv av6pa>- 
iro)v Trvev/JLara rot? a>criv eicrSud/xei/a). 
On the later Jewish demonology seo 
Edersheim, Life and Times, ii., app. 
viil, or the subject may be studied in 
J. M. Fuller s intr. to Tobit (Speaker s 
Comm.) or in Weber Jild. Theologie 
pp. 2519; c F. C. Conybeare in 
J.Q.R. 1896, and the arts. Demon, 
Demons in Hastings, D.B., and Enc. 
Bibl. The N.T. uses 8aifi6via as = irvcv- 
(jMTa a/ca^apra, adopting the accepted 
belief and the word supplied by the 
LXX. E<?/3aXei> : see note on i. 12. 
Mt adds Xo yw a command sufficed. 

/eat OVK f)<pt(v AaXeti/] Cf. i. 25. Lc. 
fills in this brief statement, represent 
ing the spirits as Kpd^ovra /cat \eyovra 
OTI 2i el 6 vlos TOV 6eov. *H0tev, SO 
Me. xi. 1 6 ; cf. dcpiopev Lc. xi. 4. A0t<u, 
a(pteeo, d(pir)ij.i seem to have been all 
in use (WH., Notes, p. 167, Blass, Gr., 
p. 51) : a(pio> occurs in the best MSS. of 
the LXX., i Esdr. iv. 50, EccL v. 1 1, and 
d(ptf<o in Sus. (LXX.) 53 rov? 8e evo- 
Xovs jfpiets, cf. PhiL leg. ad Cai. 1021. 
"Hdfurav avrov: see on ot Sa trc i 24; 
and contrast Jo. x. 14 yivcoa-Kova-i pe 

TO. /ia. XptOTOV (OF TOV ^plOTOJ/) flVdt 


syr hler 35 35 Kai Trpcoi evvv^a Xiav dvaa~Tas e^Xdev [KO.I 

36 a.7rfj\6ev\ ek eprj/uLOV TOTTOV /ca/ce? Trpoa-rjv^eTO. 3<5 fccu 

37 KaT6$ia)ev avTOV CifJiwv Kai ol JJLT (ZVTOV, 37 J 


KBCDL0 f 28 33 al] evvvxov ArAnS< alP ler | om avaaras D 226 a c [ 
om ^\dev KO.L 1071 b de q | om /cat aTrr)\6ev B 28 56 102 235 2** ff g | e/s^. roir.} pr 
TOP D | /tat eK AD | Trpo<rrjveTO D 36 /careSiwfev KBMSU 28 40 604 vg al] 

ACDLrA0 f n24> abcefffgq syrr | o Eifuav ACrA6 f o re S. KH 1071 ot 

aur.] om ot B + 170-01 A 

is strongly supported, yet may have 
been an early gloss from Lc.; cf. 
Victor: TO 5e reXfuTatoi/ Map/toy OVK 
e^et. But in any case it probably 
strikes a true note. It does not seem 
as though the knowledge of the daipo- 
via went beyond the fact of our Lord s 
Messiahship; both 6 aytos rov 6eov 
and 6 vlos T. 6. are Messianic titles. 

GALILEE (Lc. iv. 42 44). 

35. K.OI Trptot evvvxa Aiai> KrA.] IIpou 
may be the morning watch the </>u- 
\dKTj Trpcota (Ps. cxxix. = cxxx. 6), as in 
Me. xiii. 35 ; but in the present context 
the simpler meaning seems preferable 
early/ so early that it was still quite 
dark : cf. Ami/ TrpoH (xvi. 2) = opOpov 

fiaOeas (Lc. Xxiv. I ) = Trpco t (TKorias ert 

ovo-rjs (Jo. xx. i). *~Ewvxos is used by 
the poets from Homer downwards, 
and in the prose of the later Gk., 
cf. 3 Mace. v. 5. With the adv. ewvxa 
(O.TT. Aty.) compare Travw^a (poet, and 
late Gk.); Hesych. quotes vvxa = 
VVKT&P. The Vg. diluculo valde fails 
to give the force of eWi>xa (Euth. 

avr\ TOV VVKTOS ert ovo-rjs}. In Lc. this 

touch of intimate acquaintance with 
the circumstances is lost (yevop.evr)s de 
fiftfpas egfXdwv). E7]\0ev: i.e. out 
of the house and town. It is difficult 
to believe that the reading e . K al 
aTrrjkQtv is not a conflation which 
happens to have secured a consensus 
of the great majority of the autho 
rities (see w. 11.), although under the 
circumstances it must retain its place 

in the text : a-rrrjXdfv is probably from 

vi. 32, 46. The epTjp.os TOTTOS (Me. Lc.) 

was doubtless in the neighbourhood 
of Capernaum : cf. vi. 31 if., Lc. ix. icx 

KaKel Trpoa-rjvxfTo] C Ps. V. 4, 
Ixxxvii. (Ixxxviii.) 14. These words 
reveal the purpose of the sudden with 
drawal. Sunrise would bring fresh 
crowds, new wonders, increasing popu 
larity. Was all this consistent with 
His mission ? Guidance must be 
sought in prayer. Comp. vi. 46, xiv. 
32, Lc. vi. 12, ix. 1 8, 28, xi. i. Victor: 
OVK avros TavTTjs dfopevos. . .aAA OLKOVO- 
p.i/ceoff TOVTO TTOKBI/. Ambros. in Lc. v. : 
"quid enim te pro salute tua facere 
oportet quando pro te Christus in 
oratione pernoctat ? " There is truth 
in both remarks, but they overlook 
the ei5Aa/3eta of the Incarnate Son 
which made prayer a necessity for 
Himself (Heb. v. 7, 8). 

36. KOL KareStc0ei/ avrbv SI/MCOV /crX.] 
Vg. Et persecutus est eum Simon 
(whose personal narrative we clearly 
have here) started in pursuit of Him 
with Andrew and James and John (ol 
p.cTavTov,cf.v.2C) Bengel: "iam Simon 
est eximius "), and tracked Him to His 
retreat. KaraStcoAco) (an air. Aey. in the 
N.T. butfreq. inLxx., where it usually = 
H l l) has an air of hostility : Gen. xxxi. 

36, Tl TO dftlKTJfJid /IOV...OTI KClTfdiuga? 

oTTi o-o) /xov ; yet cf. Ps. xxii. (xxiii.) 6, 
TO eAeoy crov Karadico^fTai fj.. SSimon s 
intention at least was good ; the Master 
seemed to be losing precious oppor 
tunities and must be brought back. 
Yet see note on v. 31. 


evpov avTOV Kai Xtyovcriv avTiio OTL Flai/Tes 


s 38 

KcojuioTroXeis wot Kai e/ce? K 


37 K. evpov avrov Kai \ey. KBL e me 004 aeth] K. cvpovres avr. \ey. ACrA9 f II<I> 
al K. evpovres avrov etirov *L K. ore evpov avrov \ey. D | dicentes b C | ere frrovffiv 
AFe f II 1071 38 om aXXa^ou AC corr DrA0 f IIZ<f> latt syrr go (hab NBC*L 33 

arm me aeth) | exo/xevas (exo/Awa B)] evyvs D | /cw/zo7roXeis] /ca>/*as /cat eis ras TroXeis 
D latt syrr 8111 ? 681 * 

37. Kai fvpov avTov KrX.] Lc. 3 S ac- 

count apparently is not based on the 
Marcan tradition, and in form at least 
conflicts with it : in Lc. the 0^X01 pur 
sue Jesus and stay Him; from Me. we 
learn that in fact the attempt was 
made by the disciples. Tatian en 
deavours to harmonise the two tradi 
tions, in the order Me. i. 35 38, Lc. 
iv. 42, 43. HavTfs (JJTOIHT IV <re, i.e. all 
the Capharnaites and others on the 
spot. Cf. Jo. vi. 24, 26, xiii. 33. The 
quest was prompted by very mixed 

38. KOL Xeyet avrols *Aya)fJiev aXXa- 
Xo{5 rX.] In Lc. similar words are 
addressed to the crowd, but the occa 
sion is clearly the same. ""Ayoo/zei/, 
intrans., as in Me. xiv. 42 ; Jo. xi. 7, 
15, 1 6, xiv. 31, and as aye in Homer 
and the poets : let us go elsewhere ; 

= aXXoae or aXXa^ocre, as 
^ i. 28, = 7rdvTO(T( or iravra- 

: the latter forms are not used in 
N. T. Gk. AXXaxoC occurs here only 
in N. T. ; cf. aXXa^o^ei/, Jo. X. I. 

is TCIS e^ofjievas K<o/xo7roXeis] Into tho 

neighbouring country towns ( WycliflFe, 
" the nexte townes and citees," after 
Vg., in proximos vicos et cimtatesi 
comp. the reading of D). O e^o^ei/o? = 
6 TrXrjo-iov is freq. in the LXX., but un 
common in the N. T., cf. Lc. xiii. 33 ; 
Acts xiii. 44, xx. 15, xxi. 26 ; Heb. vi. 
9 : the phrase " is used of local con 
tiguity and also of temporal con 
nexion" (Westcott on Heb. I.e.). Ka>/uo- 
TroXis- an air. Xey. in the N. T. and not 

found in the LXX., though Aq. and 
Theod. seem to have used it in Josh, 
xviii. 28 (Field) occurs in Strabo 
(PP- 537> 557), and in Joseph, (ant. 
xi. 86). According to J. Lightfoot 
it is the 123 as distinguished from 
the TV (cf. Schurer n. i. 155) the 
small country town, whether walled 
or not, or partly fortified (cf. Euth. 77 

cv /ne pet p.ei> drei ^io-ro? fv /ie pei 5e re- 

Tfixio-uevrj). There were many such 
in Galilee : Joseph. B. J. iii. 3. 2, iro- 

Xei? TrvKval KOI TO ra>v KU>/LICOI/ 77X^0? 
TroXvavflponrov dia rr/v ev~ 

Lc. has merely iroXis in this 
context. Such small towns are called 
indifferently K3/u or TroXets ; cf. Lc. 
ii. 4, Jo. vii 42. 

tva Kai eKfl KT\.] The Lord s primary 
mission was to proclaim the Kingdom 
(i. 14) ; dispossessing demoniacs and 
healing the sick were secondary and 
in a manner accidental features of His 

work. Ets TOVTO yap crj\dov (Me.) is 

interpreted for us by Lc. on eVi TOVTO 
aireo-ToXr^v. J E^\6ov does not refer to 
His departure from Capernaum (v. 35), 
but to His mission from the Father 
(Jo. viii. 42, xiii. 3); whether it was so 
understood at the time by the disci 
ples is of course another question. 
The thought, though perhaps unin 
telligible to those about Him, was 
present to His own mind from the 
first, as even the Synoptists shew (Lc. 
ii. 49). Bengel: "primi sermones lesu 
habent aenigmatis aliquid, sed paulla- 
tim apertius de se loquitur." 



[I- 38 

i r\\6ev Kr}pvcro-u)v ek rets (rvva- 
o\r]V Tr]V FaXeiXaiav Kat TO, 

39 yap erj\6ov. 
ywyas avTcov 


40 4 Kai epxcTai TTpos CLVTOV XeTrpos 7rapaKa\a)V 
avTOV [jcai ryovvTreTwv], \e<y(*)v CLVTW OTL Gav 

38 cfr\dov NBCL 33] eeXi;Xi;0a ADrilZ* al cX^Xu^a A (00 -2** min B fcmu 
39 -rfKdev NBL syr 1 ^ me aeth] TJV ACDrA9 f IIZ<i> latt syrr 8111 **" 111101 arm go | eis ras 
KABCDKLAOTI I 69 al] ev rats o-wcryarycus EFGMSUVrS<I> (ev ras 
40 irapa.KaXuv ] epuruv D | /ecu yovwirerajv HL I 209 300 736* 2?* 
alp"efqvg arm] AC. 7. ai// ACA6 f n2i al syrr me aeth om BDGF minP* 110 
a b c E g | Xe7wv] pr /cat K c - a ACDLrAe f n2<l> al | on eav BeXtjs NAFAH al min? 1 
syr 8in ] Kv/ote o. e. 0. B /cvpie e. 0. CLS c e ff g arm go aeth o. e. 6. Kvpie f <i> 28 cav 
(D) 69 71 238 b f q vg syr^ sh | SWT; B 

as the first of its class, or as having 
made the deepest impression. All 
the Synoptists relate it, but in differ 
ent contexts. Aeirpos (jrriVp, ^ f 1^V)> 
suffering from leprosy, is in the 
Gospels used as a noun. Lepers were 
evidently a numerous class of sufferers 
in Palestine in our Lord s time, c Mt. 
x. 8, xi. 5 ; Lc. xvii. 1 2, perhaps at all 
times (Lc. iv. 27), as indeed the ela 
borate provisions of Lev. xiii., xiv. seem 
to shew. The approach of this leper 
(irpo<re\Ba>v, Mt.) to Jesus is remark 
able ; cf. Lev. xiii. 45, 46, Lc. xvii. 12 
(iroppadev). He came near enough to 
be touched (v. 41). The event took 
place ev [jua T&V TToXecai/, i.e. in one of 
the KoafjLOTToXfis of Galilee where the 
Lord was preaching, but doubtless 
outside the gate (Lev. I.e.). 

TrapaKoXav avrov K. yovvTrerajv] Tho 
entreaty begins at the first sight of the 
Lord ; when the leper has come up 
with Him, the prostration follows. 
TovvrrfTflv (Polyb., but not LXX.) occurs 
also in Mt. xvii. 14, xxvii. 29, and Me. 
x. 17 ; in this place the words KOI yov. 
are open to doubt (see w. 11.), yet as 
they are not from Mt. (irpoo-fKvvei) or 

Lc. (Treo cop eVt TrpocrwTTOv) it is difficult 

to regard them as an interpolation. 
For \eyuv OTL see i. 15 note. 

eav OeXys, ftvvaarai pe KaOaplcrai] So 

Mt, Lc., but with a prefixed Kvpic. 

39. KOI Tj\6eV KTJpV(T(T(OV KT\.] A 

tour of synagogue preaching follows, 
extending through the whole of Galilee 
(Me., cf. Mt. iv. 23), and if we accept 
the reading lovSaias (see WH., Notes, 
p. 57) in Lc. iv. 44, through Judaea 
also ; Judaea is occasionally used by 
Lc. inclusively (i. 5, perhaps also vii. 
17, Acts ii. 9, x. 37), but not as = Gali 
lee. See the references to this syna 
gogue preaching in Lc. xxiii. 5, Jo. 
xviii. 20. Such a cycle may have 
lasted many weeks or even months 
(see Lewin, fast, sacr., 1245, Eders- 
heim, Life and Times, i. p. 501, and 
on the other hand Ellicott, Lectures, 
p. 1 68), although only one incident has 
survived. Els ras o-vvaywyds : where- 
ever He went, He entered the syna 
gogue and proclaimed His message 
there ; els o. T. TaXeiXatav adds the 
locality, = e V 3\rj rfj TaXeiXam (cf. Mt. 
iv. 23), but with the added thought of 
the movement which accompanied the 
preaching. Me. has fused into one the 
two clauses rjkflcv els o. r. r. (cf. i. 14), 
and eKTjpvo-a-fv ttff ray crvv. avrvv (cf. i 

(Mt. viii. 2 4, Lc. v. 1216). 

4- fpxeTai irpos avTov XcTrpoy] 
Though the purpose of this circuit was 
preaching, miracles were incidentally 
performed. One is selected, possibly 


: fjL6 Kadapicrai. 4I 



air avTOv r\ \67rpa, 

41 /cat i KBD a be] o 6e is AGFA al | o-7r\a7x i to ^ ets ] opyurdeis Daff r* Eph om 
bg | avrov Ti\j/aTo] + avTov D 7** latt pl 77^. aurou ACrA6 f II al pl | om avrw fc< i -209 cff 
42 /cat i] + eurovTos avrov ACrA6 f II2<;E> min? 1 f q vg syr hcl arm go aeth | om 
awrjXdev air avrov tj \. /cat syr 8 11 | e/ca0api(T0?7 KB corr DEKMSUm al pl 

Contrast the petition in Me. ix. 22, Delitzsch renders here, Ivl? DITTJ1 
and the Lord s method of dealing with but Drn is represented in the LXX, by 
the two cases. On the force of the eXeeS or otKretpeo. The <nr\ayxva I^o-ov 
apodosis see Burton 263. For SiW XpicrroC (PhiL I.e.) are a favourite 
o-ai = 8vv7] (Me. Lc.) see WH., Notes, topic with the author of the Ep. to 
p. 1 68. Ka6apifiv = Ka0aipfiv p^P), the Hebrews (see ii. 17, iv. 15,7.2). 
the term used for the ceremonial 
cleansing of a leper in Lev. xiii., xiv., 
is transferred in the Gospels to the 
actual purging of the disease. 

41. Kal (nr\ayxvicr6eLS /crX.] On the 
* Western reading opyicrdfis see WH., 
Notes, p. 23 : "a singular reading, per 
haps suggested by TO. 43 (e/i/Spi/^o-a- 
pfvos), perhaps derived from an ex 
traneous source." Nestle thinks that 
it may be "an instance of a differ 
ence in translation"; see his Intr., 
p. 262. Op7^ is attributed to our Lord 
in Me. iii. $, but under wholly different 
circumstances ; nor is Ephraem s ex 
planation satisfactory : " quia dixit 
Si vis, iratus est" (Moesinger, p. 144) ; 
for at this stage in the story there is 
nothing to suggest anger, and crn-X. 
is obviously in keeping with CKT. r. ^. 
a. ^f^aro. In the N. T. a"ir\ayxvi^f(r6ai. 
is limited to the Synoptists : in the 
LXX., Prov. xvii. 5 o eiricrirXayxvi- 
6fjvos (A, CTTrX.) eXer/^crerai (where 
the Gk. is the converse of the Heb.) 
seems to be the only instance of its 
use in a metaphorical sense ; for the 
literal sense of the verb and its 
derivatives, see 2 Mace. vi. 7, 8, 21, 
vii. 42, ix. 5, 6. It is remarkable that, 
while a-nXayxva was used in classical 
Gk. for the seat of the affections, the 
verb appears first in Biblical Greek: 
see Lightfoot on PhiL i 8, "perhaps 
a coinage of the Jewish dispersion." 

Contrast i. 31, Kpar-qa-as TTJS X fL P s > 
the action is adapted to the circum 
stances. Even after the Ascension 
the Apostles remembered the out 
stretched Hand (Acts iv. 30). As 
specimens of patristic exegesis see 
Origen c. Gels. i. 48 : VOT]TO>S p.a\\ov rj 

alo-drjTccs Irjo-ovs ff^faro TOV XeTrpoC, 
iva avrov KaOapio-ij, o>s ol^ai, St^tos. 
Victor: dia ri 8f aTTTerai TOV \firpov 
KOI p.T) \6yco fTrayei TTJV ia<rti/;...ort OKO- 
6apcria Kara (pvcriv ovx aTrrerat Scor^pos 
...xal OTI Kvpios eOTt TOV tdiov v6(j.ov. 
<9eXa>, Kadapio-GrjTi] So Mt., Lc. The 

Lord s human will is exercised here in 
harmony with the Divine: contrast 
Me. xiv. 36, where it remains in har 
mony by submission. The subject 
may be studied further by comparing 
Mt xv. 32, xxiii. 37; Me. iii. 13, vi. 
48, vii. 24; Lc. xil 49; Jo. vii. i, xvii. 
24, xxi. 22. For a singular misunder 
standing created by an ambiguity in the 
Latin version see Jerome in Matt. : 
" non ergo ut plerique Latinorum 
putant...legendum volo mundare, sed 
separatim \volo, mundare}" 

42. icat v6vs...fKaQepLcr6rj\ Mc. s 
text seems here to be a conflation of 
Mt (KOI ev0Q>s eic. avTov 77 XcVpa) and 
Lc. (KCU v6ea>s rj X. aTr^X^ei OTT avTov). 

But it is possible that Mt and Lc. 
have each preserved a portion of the 
original tradition, and the general 


43 Kat Ka66pi<r6ri^ 4 W epfipifju>i<rdpvo$ aura evBvs 

44 etepaXev avTOV, 44 /ccu \eyei avTW l Opa jUf/Sei/t* /j 
e /TT*??, a XXa i;Va76 (reafroi/ Se?^oi/ TW le^el, 
Trpoa-eve^Ke irepl TOV Ka6apia-p.ov <rov a TrpocreTa^ev 

43 om evOvs e%epa\t> avrov Kat syr sin 44 om wSev ADLA 33 69 124 604 

al latt syr? 6811 me aeth | tepei] apxt-epei 33 ^9 vg 

phenomena agree with this hypothe 
sis. For the form ega&ptVdi? (Mt. 
Me.) see WH.,.ZVbfe*, p. 1 50, and Winer- 
Schm., p. 50. With the whole nar 
rative it is instructive to compare 
4 Regn. v. 614. Of Naaman too 
is used. 

43. Kai fj,^pip,rjo-p.vos avro> *r. 
E/i/3pi/iao-0at (Aesch. Sept. c. Theb. 46, 
of the snorting of the horse) is to speak 
or act sternly: cf. Dan. xi. 30 (LXX.) 
t Pa)p.aLot,...e^pt^(TovTaL auYo>, in refer 
ence to the attitude of C. Popilius 
Laenas towards Antiochus (Bevan on 
Daniel I.e.) ; in Lam. ii. 6, f/i#P l f t7 7f um 
opyys avTov = iSN Dm?. But the idea 
of anger is not inherent in the word ; 
see Jo. xi. 33, 38, where it is used of 
our Lord s attitude towards Himself ; 
rather it indicates depth and strength 
of feeling expressed in tone and man 
ner. A close parallel to the present 
passage is to be found in Mt. ix. 30. 
In neither case can we discover any 
occasion for displeasure with the 
subject of the verb : the Vg. commi- 
natus est (Wycliffe, "thretenyde hym") 
is too harsh, nor is there any apparent 
room for eVtri^crts, unless by antici 
pation. We may paraphrase, * He 
gave him a stern injunction : cf. 
Hesych. e/x/Spt/iTyo-at KcXeG<rat. A sum 
mary dismissal followed evdvs ee- 

(BaXev avrov . on K/3aAAa> cf. V. 12. Vg. 
eiecit ilium ; Wycliffe, " putte hym 
out " ; Tindale, " sent him away," and 
so A.V. ; R. V. " sent him out." If the 
first rendering is too strong, the last 
seems to fall short of the original, 
which involves at least some pressure 
and urgency. 

44. KOL Ae yet auro) KT\.] The words 

reveal in part the need for this stern 
and curt manner. If the man re 
mained even a few minutes, a crowd 
would collect; if he went away to 
spread the news, the danger of inter 
ruption to the Lord s work of preach 
ing would be yet greater. He mast 
go at once, keep his secret, and fulfil 
the immediate duty which the Law 

imposed. "Opa prjdcvl nydev clvy* (Mt. 

omits p,T)Sev) : for the double negative 
cf. Rom. xiii. 8. How grave the 
danger which Jesus sought to avert 
ultimately became is apparent from 
Jo. vi. 15. 

aAAa vTraye KrA.] So Mt. ; Lc. aTreA- 
6o>v delgov cr. r. I ; cf. Lc. xvii. 14, in 
a narrative peculiar to the third 

Gospel, TropfvOevTfs 7Ti8eia.Tf eavrovs 

rols lepeva-tv. All depend on Lev. xiii 

49 dfi^ei TO) tepei [TTJV a-Cpyv], xiv. 2 
ff av 77/iepa Ka6api<r6fi KOI Trpoo-a^- 
Orja-erai rc5 tepei. "\Tray = ^\?. y as in 

ii. ii, v. 19, and frequently: a use of 
vird-yeiv which, though classical, is un 
known to the LXX. 

Kai TT poa-evfjKe KrA.] Mt. Trpoa-tvey- 
KOV : on the two forms see WSchm., 
p. Ill f. Ilepi TOV KadapKr/jiov (rov, 
in the matter of, in reference to 
the ceremonial purification required 
by the Law ; cf. Lev. xiv. 32 els 
TOV KaOapicrnov avrov. So Ka6. IS 
always used in the Gospels (cf. Lc. ii. 
22, Jo. ii. 6, iii. 25) ; in the Epistles 
(2 Pet. i. 9, Heb. i. 3) the deeper 
sense comes into sight. *A (o, Mt. ; 
/cantos, Lc.) 7rpo<reraei/ Mcova-rjs, see 
Lev. xiv. 4 ff. The Mosaic origin of 
the Levitical and Deuteronomic legis- 


Mcovcrfjs ek fj.apTvpiov auTols.^ 45 6 Se e^eXBcov rip^aTO 45 IF 

K.Y]pVCra LV 7TO\\CL Kdl ^La(^)r]fJLL^LV TOV \OyOVy U)CTT 

fju]KTi CLVTOV ^>vvacr6ctL (pavepoos et9 TTO\IV 


lation is accepted as belonging to the 
recognised belief (cf. vii. 10, x. 3, 4, 
Jo. vi. 32, vii. 19), and not set forth 
by our Lord as part of His own 
teaching; see Sanday, Inspiration, 
p. 413 ff. There was no revolt on His 
part against Moses, still less any 
disposition to detach the Jew from the 
obedience he still owed to the Law : 
cf. Hort, Jud. Chr., p. 30. 

els papTvpiov avrols] The phrase 
occurs again in vi. n and xiii. 9, cf. 
Lc. ix. 5> f ls P- ^Tr* avTovs. For ft? 
fiapTvpiov in the LXX. see Prov. xxix. 
14 ("1$), Hos. ii. 12 (14), Mic. i 2, 
vii. 1 8 1$). The cure of the 
leper would witness to the priests 
(avTols = Tols ifp(v<Tiv suggested by 
TW tepei above) that there was a Pro 
phet amongst them (2 Kings v. 8); 
the knowledge that Xerrpol Kadapi- 
govrai (Mt. xi. 5) might lead them 
to suspect that the Messiah had 
come. WM., p. 183, interprets avrols 
of the Jews, but they are not in ques 
tion : indeed it was not the Lord s 
purpose that the miracle should be 
generally known it was enough to 
leave the guides of the nation without 
excuse, if they rejected Him (Jo. v. 
36, xv. 24). AvTols however is not 
like eV avTovs necessarily hostile ; 
whether the witness saved or con 
demned them would depend on their 
own action with regard to it Victor s 
exposition is too harsh: TovreW>, els 
Karrjyopiav TTJS avrutv dyvcofiocrvvrjs. 

Comp. Jerome: "si crederent, salva- 
reutur ; si non crederent, inexcusabiles 
forent." OVT&S (writes Origen in Jo. 
t. ii. 34) els fj-apTvpiov rols diricrrois ot 
papTvpes naprvpovo-i KOL TTCLVTCS ot ayiot. 

45- o de %\6>v icrX.] He left the 

45 om TroXXa D latt 

to e^/3aXfi/), only to tell his tale to 
every one he met. For this use of 
KTjpva-a-fiv cf. v. 20, vii. 36 ; the ad 
verbial TroXXa occurs again in iii 12, 
v. 10, 23, 38, 43, ix. 26, with the 
meaning much or often. Both 
senses are almost equally in place 
here. An oriental with a tale not 
only tells it at great length, but 
repeats it with unwearied energy. 
*Hpgaro Krjpvo-o-eiv : cf. ii. 23, iv. I, 
v. 17, etc., and see Blass, Gr., p. 227. 

KOI 8ia(pr]p.L^ftv TOV Xoyoi ] AuKprj- 
lii&iv (Vg. diffamare\ a word of the 
later Greek, not in LXX. ; cf. Mt. ix. 31, 
xxviii. 1 5. Tov \6yov = "n H, the tale ; 
Tindale, "the dede," A.V., "the 
matter"; cf. i Mace. viii. 10 eyvwa-drj 
6 \6yos, Acts xi. 22 ijKovcrBrj 5e o 
Xoyos : Lc. here, St^p^rro 6 Xoyos-. 
Euth. understands by TOV \6yov the 

words of Jesus (tfe Xoo, KaBapia-drjTi). 
But Victor is doubtless right: TOVT- 
eorij TTJV 7rapd8oov 6 ] f pa-rrt Lav. 

<uo-re pTjKfTi avTov 8vvao-6ai KT\.] The 

result was, as Jesus had foreseen, 
another enforced retreat, and the 
abandonment of His synagogue 
preaching ; if He entered a town, it 
could only be at night or in such a 
manner as not to attract attention (cf. 
Jo. vii. IO, ov (pavfpns aXX coy ev 
KpuTrrco). But in general He lodged 
henceforth outside the walls (e o>, 
cf. xi. 19) in the neighbouring open 
country (tTrt with dat. of place = on, i.e. 
remaining in, the locality, WM., 489; 
for eprjfMot TOTTOI cf. i. 35). The inter 
val was spent in prayer : Lc. 
puv ev TOIS eprjfJiois Kal irpoo- 
On o><rre /^/ce ri see WM., p. 602. 
The inability was of course relative 
only: He could not enter the towns 
to any good purpose, or indeed with 
out endangering the success of His 


d\Xa ew 67r 






g y r hier 

1 x Kal elcre\6u)V Tca\iv 

/ /I t/ f *f J/ 

2 rjKOvcrur] OTL ev OLKO) ecTTiv 


n, \ 


A \ \ 


45 e?r KBLA minP auc ] ev ACDr0 f II24> al | om -r\v B 102 om ^ /cat b e | iravrodev 
KABCDKLMSAe f n24> i 33 1071 al nonn ] Travraxodev EGUVF al 

II i ei<re\9wv KBDL 28 33 604 alP* uc a c arm me aeth] eun]\dei> ACEFGKMSI> al 
b d e f ff q vg S yrrP eshhcl go | om ira\iv S e | KaTrepraov/x. ACLre f n al? 1 | yKovad-n] 
pr /cat ACDrA9 f II2<f> al latt vt P lv * gyrr^ 1101 go | ev OIKU] eis OIKO? ACrA6 f n< al g vid 
2 KCU i] + eu0ews ACDrAGTIS^ al pier a c e f ff g q syr hcl go 

mission; of physical danger as yet 
there was none. 

Ka rjp^ovTO Trps avrov 
Lc. uvvr] p^ovro 0^X01 TroXXoi 

not dfpaircvfo-dat. He could still de 
liver His message, but not in the 
synagogues, where He willed to 
preach at this stage in His ministry. 
ndvrodev, cf. Lc. xix. 43, Heb. ix. 4; 
so the LXX. (Jer. xx. 9, Sus. 22 Th., 
Sir. li. 7 (10)); the prevalent form 
in Attic prose is TravraxoOev (vv. 11.). 

I 8, Lc. v. 17 26.) 

I. /eat ia~e\@a)v rraXiv icrX.J The 
circuit (i. 39) is now over, ended 
perhaps prematurely by the indiscre 
tion of the leper (i. 45) ; and the Lord 
returns to Capernaum. EtVeXtftoV, 
an anacoluthon, cf. WM., p. 709 ff. 
and w. 11. ; TraXiv looks back to the 
visit before the circuit (i. 21 ff.). 
According to Mt. the Lord appears 
to have arrived by boat from the 
other side of the lake, but the im 
pression is perhaps due simply to 
Mt. s method of grouping events ; in 
Lc. as in Me. the healing of the para 
lytic follows the healing of the leper. 
Mt. in this context calls Capernaum 
TTJV ISiav TroXtv, probably, as Victor 
suggests, Sta TO TroXXoKis eKelo-e 7ridr)- 
[jielv . Lc. ev jMia roSi/ TroXecoi/. Al ^/uepaji/ 
(Lc. ev fjuq ra>i/ ^/xeptoi/), Vg. post dies, 

TOV dieXot>o-3v 

TLVV } : for this use of fita see WM., 

p. 146 f. and Lightfoot on Gal. ii. i, 
and cf. Dion. Hal. ant. x. Sta 7roXXo3i> 
rjp.epwvj and the class. Sta %p6vov. The 
note of time is to be attached to fla- 
eX^coi/, not to r}Kovo-0T), and covers the 
interval between the first visit to 
Capernaum and the second ; as to the 
length of the interval it suggests 
nothing. See note on i. 39. 

TjK.oi>cr6rj OTL ev O%KO> eoriVJ Men 
were heard to say He is indoors/ 
HKOVO-^?; impers., Vg. auditum est : 
cf. 2 Esdr. xvi. 1,6, Jo. ix. 32; in Acts 
xi. 22 we have ^ova-Or) 6 \oyos : cf. 
Blass, Gr., p. 239, who suggests a 
personal construction here. The read 
ing els -OIKOJ/ (WM., 516, 518) is at 
tractive, but the balance of authority 
is distinctly against it in this place. 
The house was probably Simon s (i. 29), 
but ev OLK(O is not ev TG> OIKO> ; the 
sense is at home, indoors, 5 cf! i Cor. 
xi. 34, xiv. 35. 

2. Kal (rvvrix.0r)arav TroXXot /crX.] Cf. 

i. 33. The concourse was so great 
as to choke the approaches to the 
house, so that even the doorway 
could hold no more, 3 Vg. ita ut non 
caperet neque ad ianuam. The Qv 
or house-door seems to have opened 
on to the street in the smaller Jewish 
houses (cf. xi. 4, irpos Ovpav e o> 67Tt row 
a/z$odov) ; no TrpoavXiov or irpodvpov 
(xiv. 68) would intervene between the 
door and the street, nor would there 
be a 6vpo)p6s (Jo. xviii. 16) to exclude 
unwelcome visitors. Ta Trpos TTJV 
Bvpav is simply the neighbourhood of 

II. 4] 



a(TT fj.riK.6T i %a)pev jULrjSe TO. TTpos TV\V Oupav, 
e\d\ei avToIs TOV \6yov. z ep^ovTcu (pepovTes 3 
S CLVTOV TrapaXvTiKOV aipofjizvov V7TO Tecrcrapcov. 
TTpocreveyKai avrw Sid TOV o%\ov 4 

4 Kai IJLY\ 


2 avr.ois] irpos avrovs D b c ff q | TOV \oyov~\ om TOV D 3 epx- Trpos avrov Tives 

TrapaX. <pep. & \ VTTO] euro L CTTI A Trapa y 801 " 4 irpoaeveyKcu &SBL 33 al f Vg 

syj-hci me a eth] irpoo-eyyurcu ACDrA6 f II24> al minP ler abceffg syri* 811 arm go | Sta 
TOV oxXov] airo TovjoxXov D arm* 1 | om eopvavTes D lat vt P ler syr? 6811 aeth 

the door on the side of the street : cf. 
Trpos rrjv GaXao-o-av, iv. I : on the ace. 
cf. i 33. For xoopeti capere see Gen. 
xiii. 6, 3 Regn. vii. 24 (38), Jo. ii. 6, 
xxi. 25 ; and on ourre fjiT)KTi...p.T)de see 
notes on i. 44, 45. 

Kal eXaXet avrots 1 Toy Xoyoi ] The 

preaching- meanwhile proceeded with 
in (imperf.). C O Xoyos = ro evayye Xtoi/ 
occurs with various explanatory geni 
tives, e.g. TOV 6fov, TOV Kvpiov (Acts viii. 

14, 25), TTjS O-toTT/piaS, TTJS X^P ITOS ) T V 

ft ayyfXtou (Acts xiii. 26, xiv. 3, xv. 7), 
ToD o-Tavpov (i Cor.i. 1 8), TTJS /caraXXay^y 
(2 Cor. V. 19), TJ7? aX?;<9etas- (Col. L 5) ; 
but the term (like 77 686s, TO #e X?7/*a, 
&c.) was* also used by itself in the first 
generation ; cf. Me. iv. 14 ff., 33, Acts 
viii. 4, x. 44, xiv. 26, xviii. 5. To 
CLVTOS T\V dtdo~K(iiv Lc. adds KOI 
Bvvafus Kupi ou rfv els TO lao~dai CLVTOV : 
on which see Mason, Conditions, &c., 

3- Kal epxovrai (pepovTes KT\.~] Mt. 
Kal iSou Trpoo-efapov CLVTV, Lc. K. I8ov 
avftpes (frepovTts. Me. alone mentions 
that the bearers were four. They 
reach the outskirts of the crowd, but 
are stopped before they can approach 
the door. For alpo/j-fvov cf. Ps. xc. 
(xci.) 12, cited in Mt. iv. 6. Ilapa- 
\VTIKOS (not class, or in LXX.) is used 
by Mt., Me. in this context, and by Mt. 
also in cc. iv. 24, viii. 6 ; Lc. seems to 
avoid it (v. l8, avtipwrrov os ?fv irapa- 
XeXv/xe i/oy, 24 TO> TrapaXcXt^iei/eo). 

4. Kat p.T) 8vv. Trpoa-fveyKdi] Vg., 
cum non posset tt off err e ewm illi ; 

S. M. a 

for TTpoo-cveyKai the Western and 
traditional texts read irpoo-fyyio-at, 
possibly a correction due to the 
absence of O.VTOV. Cf. Lc. ^ evpov- 
TS Tfolas el<TfVyK.(t)(Tiv avTov. Nothing 
daunted, they mounted on the roof (so 
Lc. alone expressly, dvapdvTcs eVt TO 
6\5/xa, cf. Acts x. 9), by an external 
staircase, the existence of which in 
Palestinian houses of the period is 
implied in Me. xiii. 15. 

dirfO Ttyacrav TTJV crrfyrjv KTX.] 
A7roo"reyaa> (air. \cy. in the N. T.) 

is used by Strabo (iv. 4), and by 
Symmachus in Jer. xxix. 1 1 (xlix. 10) 
for *fl^|, LXX. aTrexaXu^o. The Un- 

roofing was, according to Lc., limited 
to the removal of the tiles (8ia Kepdp.a>v: 
see however W. M. Ramsay, WasChrist 
born, &c., p. 63 f.) just over the spot 
where the Lord sat. It was done by 
digging up the place (fgopvgavTes). 
E^opvo-o-eiv is chiefly used of putting 
out the eyes (Jud. xvi. 21, i Regn. xi. 
2, Gal. iv. 15); the housebreaker is 
said Stopvo-orfiv (Mt. vi 19); Joseph. 
ant. xiv. 15. 12 uses dvao-Ka-n-Teiv simi 
larly. It is difficult to realise the 
circumstances. The Lord was clearly 
in a room immediately under the roof. 
The v-n-fptoov would answer to the 
conditions, and it appears to have 
been a favourite resort of Rabbis when 
they were engaged in teaching; cf. 
Lightfoot ad I., Vitringa de Syn. 145, 
Edersheim, Life and Times, i. 503 ; 
the last-named writer suggests a roofed 
gallery round the av\rf. But it may 



[II. 4 

TOV KpdfiaTTOV OTTOV 6 TrapaXvTiKOs Kare- 
5 KeiTO. 5 Kai i$un> 6 Irjcrovs TY\V TTLCTTLV avTwv Xeyei 
TO) TrapaXvTiKtp Tewov, ctyievrai (TOV ai d/uLapTiai. 

4 KpapaKTov K item 9, n, 11 Kpa.ppa.Tov B corr V grabattum a e grabatum c d f g ff | 

j-ov 2 KBDL a g] e</> w ACEG6 f 4> al lat^ 1 " 1 ^ syrr arm me go aeth etf> o T | T?J> o 

irapoX. /caraKei/ievos D 5 re^o?] pr 0ap<m C + ^ou K* syr hier me | a0iej>rai 

B 28 33 a c e ff vg syrr go] afaovrai A aQeuvraL KACDLr6 f I12(4>) al | crou at a/x. 

KBDGLA i 33 69 al nonn ] <roi ai ctyu. <rov AC 3 EHKM 2 SUVriIZ$> al a c d f q 

be doubted whether a fisherman s 
house in Capernaum would have been 
provided with such conveniences. 
.The next step was to lower (xaXtSo-t 
= Lc. KaOrjKav) the pallet on which the 
man lay (Lc. the man, bed and all). 
For xaXav cf. Jer. xlv. (xxxviii.) 6, 
e^aXao-av avrov fls TOV XOKKOP, Acts 
ix. 25, 2 Cor. xi. 33. Kpa/3arro?, said 
to be a Macedonian word (Sturz, dial. 
Mac., p. 175 f.), does not occur in the 
LXX., but is used by Aq. in Amos iii. 12 
for. bni? (see Jerome s remarks ad l.\ 
and in the N. T. by Me. (in this con 
text and vi. 55), Jo. (v. 8 ff.), and Lc. 
(Acts v. 15, where it is distinguished 
from K\ivr] see Blass, ad I., ix. 33) ; 
from the N. T., perhaps, it has passed 
into Ev. Nicod. 6, Act. Thorn. 50, 51. 
It was used by certain writers of the 
New Comedy. For the forms of the 
word (/cpajSaro?, KpdfiaKTos SO N{, cf. 
Kpa/3aKrioi>, Grenfell, Gk. papyri ii. p. 
l6l Kpa/3/3aros-, Kpa/3arros) see Winer- 
Schm., p. 56, and n. ; in Latin it be 
came grabdtus (Catullus and Martial) ; 
modern Greek retains it in the form 
Kpf/3/3an (Kennedy, /Sources of N. T. 
Gk., p. 1 54). The classical equivalents 
are dcrKavrrjs, crKi/i7rous (Phryn. ova /iTrovs 
Xe ye aXXa p.rj Kpa/S/Saros ), O"/cijU,7r6Sioi . 

Clem. Al. paed. i. 6 substitutes O-KI /Z- 
TroSa here ; see also the story related 
by Sozom. H.EA. 1 1. The Kpa/3arro? 
or o-KipTTovs was the poor man s bed 
(Seneca, ep. mor. ii. 6, where gra- 
batus goes with sagum and panis 
durus et sordidus), small and flexible, 
and therefore better adapted for the 
purpose of the bearers than the 

which Mt. and Lc. substitute. Lc., 
who seems to feel the difficulty as to 
K\ivr), uses K\ivi8iov as the story ad 
vances (v. 19). 


So Mt., Lc. ; Victor : ov TTJV TTIOTIV 
TOV 7rapa\c\vfj.evov aXXa rail/ Kopicrdv- 
TO>V. Ephrem: "See what the faith 
of others may do for one." Ambros. 
in Lc. v. 20, " Magnus Dominus 
qui aliorum merito ignoscit all is... si 
gravium peccatorum diffidis veniam, 
adhibe precatores, adhibe ecclesiam" 
an application of the words which, 
as the history of Christian doctrine 
shews, needs to be used with caution. 


iria-riv (Bengel : " opero- 

sam") cf. i Mace. xiv. 35, James ii. 
l8. Aeyet r<5 TrapaXvrjKQ) : Mt. enrev 

T. 7T., LC. flTTV. 

TKVOV, dffrifVTai <rov al d/iaprtai] 
Child, thy sins are receiving forgive 
ness. 3 TCKI/OI/ is used of disciples and 
spiritual children (Me. x. 24, i Cor. iv. 
14, 17, &c. ; see Intr., p. xx f.) ; for the 
contrast between TCKVOV and 7rai8iW 
see Westcott on Jo. xxi. 5. Victor: 
TO Se TCKVOV 77 feat aOra) Tria-Tfixravn 
TI Kara TTJS drj/jnovpyias Xeyet. In either 

case it is intended to cheer and win 
confidence (Schanz : " Jesus den 
Kranken mit dem gewinnenden TCKVOV 
anredet"), a point of which Lc. s 

ai/0p&)7re loses Sight. A0tei/rat, di- 

mittuntur, see vv. 11. here and in v. 9, 
and cf. Mt. ix. 2, 5. The forgiveness 
is regarded as continuous, beginning 
from that hour (see however Burton, 
13, who calls d(f). an "aoristic pre 
sent "). Lc. has d(pea)VTat (a Doric 


6 r}(rav Se Tives TWV ^pafjLjjLaTedov e/ce? Ka.6riiji.evoi Kai 6 
SiaXoyt^ojULevoi ev TCUS KapSiais avTtov 7 Ti OVTOS 7 
OVTCOS AaAeF; /3\acr^)r7^ter T/S SvvctTai d(pi6vai djj.ap- 

6 ai/row] + XeyovTfs D lat vtexcf i 7 TI] <m B 482 om b c | om ourws min 20 c 

arm | om OVTUS XaXei b q | XaXei |SXa(r07;/iet KBDL a f ff vg me] X. p\a<r<jyr)/uas 
ACr(A)IIS<i> al c S yrr(p h > hcl arm go aeth 

perfect, Winer- Schin., p. 1 19, cf. Blass, 
Gr., p. 51), regarding the afao-is, 
from another point of view, as com 
plete, although enduring in its effects. 
Jewish thought connected forgiveness 
with recovery : " there is no sick man 
healed of his sickness until all his sins 
have been forgiven him" (Schottgen 
ad I.). 

6. rjcrav df rives rutv ypa/z/zareW 
*rX.] The first appearance of the 
Scribes in the Synoptic narrative ; cf. 

supra L 22. Lc. &apio~aloi KOL //o/io5t- 

(cf. Me. ii. 1 6), adding ot 


e/c 7ro~rjs 

Ta\t\aias /cat loufiaia? feat 
Le., the local Galilean Rabbis had now 
been reinforced by others from the 
capital, some of them possibly mem 
bers of the Sanhedrin (see Me. iii. 22). 
The suspicions of the Pharisees of 
Jerusalem had been roused before 
Jesus left Judaea (Jo. iv. i, 2), and 
they had decided to watch His move 
ments in Galilee (cf. Jo. i. 19, 24). 
The Scribes were seated (jca^/nei/oi 
Me., Lc.), probably in the place of 
honour near the Teacher (cf. xii. 38, 

dia\oyt6p.fvoi cv rais Kapdiais 
avT&v] ML flirav ev eavrols (cf. Me., 
v. 8) ; in the immediate presence of 
Jesus communication was impossible. 
Like many of the finer points this 
passes out of sight in Lc. (tfpgavTo 
&aXoyi Vo-0at). For the two senses of 
8ia\oyi<rp.6s see Lightfoot on Phil. ii. 
14. The KapSta is the source and 
seat of deliberative thought, cf. Me. 
vii. 21, Lc. ii. 35, ix. 47. As the 
centre of the personal life, it is the 

sphere not only of the passions and 
emotions, but of the thoughts and 
intellectual processes, at .least so far 
as they go to make up the moral 
character. Thus didvoia may be dis 
tinguished from icapSia (Me. xii. 30, 
Lc. i. 51), as one of the contents from 
the seat and source ; see Lightfoot on 
PhiL iv. 7, and Westcott on Hebrews 
viii. 10 (cf. p. 1 1 5 f.)- Yet in the LXX. 
didvoia. is for the most part used as a 

rendering of 1? or D3?, with icapbla. 
as an occasional variant ; see e.g. Exod. 
xxxv. 9, Deut. vi. 5, Job i. 5. 

7- TI OVTOS ovTtos XaXei; (3Xa.(T(pT)- 
pel] Comp. Mt. OVTOS p\ao-<pr)ficl, Lc. 
ris f(TTiv OVTOS os XaXfi ft\ 
For /3Xacr(p7/zeZj = XaXelp /S 
cf. 2 Mace. x. 34, xii. 14, Mt. xxvl 
65, Jo. x. 36, Acts xiii. 45, &c.: the 
more usual constructions are /3X. nva 
(n), fis Tiva, cv TIVI, and in class. Gk., 

7Tpi, Kara TIVOS (WM., p. 278). Used 

absolutely the word is understood 
of the sin of blasphemy (sc. els rov 
6fov, cf. Dan. iii. 96 (29), LXX., Apoc. 
xvi. n). The offence was a capital 
one (Mt. xxvi. 65 f.), and the normal 
punishment stoning (Lev. xxiv. 15, 
1 6, i Kings xxi. 13, Jo. x. 33, 
Acts vii. 58). The blasphemy in the 
present instance was supposed to 
lie in the words d<ptei/rai &ov al dp.. 
(OVTWS XaXei), by which the Lord 
seemed to claim a Divine preroga 
tive : cf. Jo. x. 36, Mt xxvi. 65. 

riff dvvaTai...i p,rj fls 6 6eos ;] See 

Exod. xxxiv. 6, 7, Isa. xliii. 25, xliv. 
22. On the O. T. doctrine of For 
giveness see Schultz, ii. 96: on the 
Rabbinic doctrine, Edersheim, i. p. 



F 8 rtas el imri els 6 $eos ; B KO.L evdus eTriyvovs 6 Irjcrous 


eavTo s 

avTois Ti 

f ri 

Tavra iaoyecre ev 
evKOTTcoTepov, eiTrelv 

8 om ev6vs D 28 64 565 a b c f g q syrP 68 " 1 arm aeth | om avrov D 258 a b c e ff q [ 
om ourws B 102 a g r | SiaXc^tfoj/Tcu] pr aurot ACrAGTIS 13 22 33 69 1071 min mu 
gyr hci go | favrois] aurots L min 2 | \eyei KBL 33 e f vg] etTre? ACDrAGH al? 1 
a b c f g q | om airrots B 102 ff arm | om raura L 

508 ff. For els solus (Lc. povos) c 
Me. x. 1 8. Mt. omits this clause. 

8. Koi fv6vs eiriyvovs o I. ro> rrvev- 
/uart aurov] The Lord at once became 
conscious of the thoughts which occu 
pied those about Him. ETrryi/ovs (so 
Lc. ; Mt. IStov} : cf. Me. V. 30, etriyvovs 
fv eavT<a : the verb describes the fuller 
knowledge gained by observation or 
experience (cf. Lightfoot on Col. i. 6, 
9) the locus classicus is i Cor. xiii. 

1 2, apri yw(0(TK(0 CK pepovs rare de 
(Triyvaxronai. The recognition was in 
the sphere of his human spirit, and 
was not attained through the senses ; 
there was not even the guidance of 
external circumstances, such as may 
have enabled Him to see the faith 
of the friends of the paralytic. He 
read their thoughts by His own con 
sciousness, without visible or audible 
indications to suggest them to Him. 
For TO 7rvvp.a, used in reference to 
our Lord s human spirit, see Mt. 
xxvii. 50, Me. viii. 12. His spirit, 
while it belonged to the human na 
ture of Christ, was that part of 
His human nature which was the im 
mediate sphere of the Holy Spirit s 
operations, and through which, as we 
may reverently believe, the Sacred 
Humanity was united to the Divine 
Word. "Wycliffe glosses " by the holy 
goost"; Tindale rightly, "in his 
spreete." On our Lord s power of 
reading the thoughts of men see Jo. 
ii. 24, 25, xxi. 17. In the 0. T. this 
power is represented as Divine, e.g. 
Ps. cxxxviii. (cxxxix.) 2 <rv awr/icas 
roiis 8id\oyi<rp,ovs juov, cf. Acts i. 24, 

eos. Its presence 
in Jesus clearly made a deep im 
pression on His immediate followers. 
See Mason, Conditions, &c., p. 164 ff. 
on ovT(t)s SiaX. cV eavrols] = Mt. ray 
i/Bv^r)(Tis avT&v, Lc. TOVS 8iaXoyi(rp,ovs 
avTo>v. For ri ravra diaXoyifco-df Mt. 
has Iva. TI evSvptla-Qc Trovrjpa, whilst Lc. 
simply omits ravra. 

9- Tl f(TTLV VK07TtoTpOV KT\.] Mt. 

T/ yap... The second question justifies 
the first: why think evil... for which 
is easier...? Ti...^ = Trorepov...^ (W- 
M., p. 211). To the scribes the an 
swer would seem self-evident ; surely 
it was easier to say the word of ab 
solution than the word of healing (et- 
irfiv...$l etTTctv), since the latter in 
volved an appeal to sensible results. 
Jerome: " inter dicere et facere multa 
distantia est; utrum sint paralytico 
peccata dimissa, solus noverat qui 
dimittebat." Anticipating this reply 
the Lord utters the word which they 
deemed the harder, with results 
which proved His power. But His 
question, sinking into minds prepared 
to receive it, suggests an opposite 
conclusion; the word of absolution 
is indeed the harder, since it deals 
with the invisible and eternal order. 
In speaking with authority the word 
of absolution Christ had done the 
greater thing; the healing of the 
physical disorder was secondary and 
made less demand on His power. 
But this answer does not lie upon 
the surface; the question presented 
no enigma at the time; and Christ 
does not stop to interpret His words, 

II. 10] 



A<pievTai crov ai d/uLapTtaLy 
Kai apov TOV KpdfiaTTOV <rov Kai 

^\ 5>~ f/ >V- f yf \ ^ /i 

iva O6 eior]T6 OTL e^ova~tav e^ei o vios TOV avupwTrov 10 


9 a.(piVTau...irepnra.Tei] eyeipe apov TOV /c/oa/3. (rov /rat vir. eis T. OLKOV aov i\ enreir 
a<f>au(jJt>Tat <roi at a/A. D | cKpievrai (KB 28 565)] a^ecoirai AC(D)LrA9 f II2(<J>) al | o~ov 
at a/A. KBEFGHKLMUVIIS min tm ] aoi ai ait. ACDSW<TAe f <l> <rot at a^t. <7ou a c f q 
gyrrP eshhci arm me go aet h | e7et/3e KACDEFGHKMSVre f n2<i> i 33 al mu ] 67pov 
BL 28 eyeipai UW c A0 f minP 1 | om /cat i CDL i syrP 66 * 1 arm | TreptTraret ABCm 
al min feroomn b c e f q vg syrrP 08111101 me aeth] viraye ^LW C A UTT. ets TOV OLKOV <rov D 
33 a ff vg arm 10 em T. 7. a<. a/i. ^CDHLMW e A9 f S al mu latt syr? 6 " 11 me arm 

go] a0. 67rt r. 7. a/*. AEFGKSUVm i 69 al syr hcl a0. a/A. eia r. 7. B$ 142 157 

but leaves them to germinate where 
they found soil. EvKorrwTfpov f<mv oc 
curs here in the three Synoptists, and 
again in Me. x. 25 (Mt. Lc.) and Lc. 
xvi. 17; for fvK07ros see Sir. xxii. 15, 

1 Mace. iiL 18, and CVKOTTIO. occurs in 

2 Mace. ii. 25 ; the words belong to 
the later Greek from Aristophanes 
onwards. "Eyeipe: WH. prefer eyeipov, 
the reading of BL 28; see note on 
v. ii. 

10. Iva 8t ddr]Tf OTI KrA.] But 

be the answer what k may to con 
vince you that the word of absolution 
was not uttered without authority, I 
will confirm it by the word of healing 
of which you may see the effects. 
On the construction see Blass, Gr., 

p. 286 f. E^ovo-mi/ e^ei, Mt., Me., Lc., 

not = potest, potestatem hdbet, as the 
Latin versions render, followed by 
the English versions from Wycliffe 
onwards, but " hath authority " : c i. 
22, 27. This eovori a is not in con 
flict with the of GOD (ii. 7), 
but dependent on it. It is claimed 
by the Lord as the Son of Man, i.e. 
as belonging to Him in His Incar 
nate Life as the ideal Man Who has 
received the fulness of the Spirit (cf. 
i 10, Jo. xx. 23), and as Head of the 
race : cf. Jo. v. 26. 

6 vlbs TOV dv8p(07rov\ Used here 
for the first time in the Synoptic 
narrative: cf. ii. 28, viii. 31, 38, ix. 

9, 12, 31, x. 33, 45, xiii. 26, xiv. 21, 
41, 62. The LXX. has (of) viol TOV dv- 
6p<*irov (DnNrpJ?^ EccL iii 18, 19, 
21, and vibs dvdpcoTrov (SWN 13^ Dan. 
vii. 1 3 (LXX. and Th.) and (D1K-J3), Ezek. 
ii. i, &c., Dan. viii. 17. The term is 
usually thought to be based on Dan. 
vii. 13, but see Westcott, add. note 
on Jo. i. 51, and on the interpreta 
tion of Dan. I.e. cf. Stanton, J. and C. 
Messiah, p. 109, and Bevan, Daniel, 
p. n8f. Comp. also Charles, B. qf 
Enoch, p. 312 ff., and on the use of 
vlbs TOV dvBp. by our Lord and in the 
early Church, see Stanton, p. 239 ff. ; 
G. Dalman, Die Worte Jesu i., p. 
191 ff. ; the careful investigations by 
Dr Jas. Drummond in J. Th. St. ii 
pp. 35off., 539; and the art Son of 
Man in Hastings, D.B. iv. 

eVi TTJS yrjs dfpievai a/iapri as] In con 
trast to an implied in Heaven, c 
Lc. ii. 14, fv v^io-Tois...7rl yfjs : Mt. 
xvi. 19, CoL i. 20, fVl rfjs yrfs...fv rols 
ovpavols. The ratification of the ab 
solving words belongs to another order 
(Mt. I.e.) : the act of absolution, which 
is committed to the Son of Man as 
such, takes place in man s world, and 
is pronounced by human lips, either 
those of the Son of Man Himself or 
of men who receive His Spirit and 
are sent by Him for that end (Jo. xx. 
23). Such absolutions do not invade 

IT syr 


1 1 "Co* AeVo, eyeipe, apov TOV KpdfiaTTOV (rov 

izvTraye els TOV O!KOV (rov. Kai riyepffri, Kai < 

apas TOV KpdfiaTTOV e^n\6ev ep7rpo(r6ev TrdvTvv- 

wa-Te efto-Taa-Bai irdvTas Kai $o%deiv TOV 6eov 

"* . ^-^ _f *r *^. / /^. MT 

[\670I/Ta5j OTL 

ii eyupcu LUW C A al- tmu eyeipov K + Kat AWAe H al 12 177- KM ev0vs 

B(C*) L 33 me*** 1 ] 777. eu^ecos KOI AC 3 W c rA6 f n2^> al syrr go aeth cvOeus 777. /cat 
D om eufl. b c e fl q | ^irpoadev BL 604] wv ACDWTAH2 al eyonrcoy W C 6 
33 107! alP*" | Xe70fras KACLW c rA0 f n2l>] om B b KM \eyeiv D arm 
CD (etSoAcej/ ^ c - a BLWr al iSo/xev AKMVH al)] t<t>avn ev rw lo-paTjX fc^* 

the prerogative of GOD, since they 
ultimately proceed from Him, and 
become effective only on conditions 
which He prescribes. 

Xcyei TO) TrapaAvTiKcS] Mt. Tore 
KrX. : Lc. ciirev Tai TrapaXeXv/ieya). It 
is instructive to observe how a note 
which clearly belongs to the common 
tradition receives a slightly different 
form from each of the Synoptists. 

II. o-ol Xeyw, eyetpf] The absolution 
was declaratory (d(iWai), the healing 
is given in the form of a command, 
for the recipient must co-operate. 
"Eyeipe, like aye, is used intransi 
tively; see "Winer-Schm., p. 126; 
tyeipov (w. 1L v. 9) seems to be a 
grammatical correction; eyeipai (Mt. 
ix. 5, 6, Me. ad 1., Lc. v. 24, vi. 8, 
viii. 54, Jo. v. 8) is possibly an 
itacism, yet see WSchm. p. 126. 

apov rov *pa/3. <rov] Cf. Jo. V. 8. 
The KpajSarro? without its burden 
could easily be carried by one man 
if in good health. That the para 
lytic could do this was proof of his 
complete recovery. Taken with viraye 
els TOV ol<6v (TOV (Mt. Me.), the com 
mand points to his being an inhabit 
ant of Capernaum, and not one of 
the crowd from outside. He would 
therefore remain as a standing witness 
to Jesus. 

12. KOI rlyeptir), KOI v0vs KrX.] The 

command received prompt (evOvs, Me. 

only) obedience : the paralytic rose 
(riyepOr), raised himself), took the pal 
let on his back or under his arm and, 
the crowd giving way, passed out into 
the street (f^Xdev, Me.; Mt. Lc. 
airfj\6fv\ in the sight of (fjLirpoadev = 
eV7rtov= t| J35?, cf. Guillemard on Mt. 
v. 1 6) the whole company. 

coo-re e iVrao-$ai Trdvras KrX.] Mt. 
ISovres df (po^r}0rjo-av : Lc. eKorcum 
e\a@cv airavras. For the moment the 
general amazement was too great for 
words (cf. v. 42, vi. 51): when they 
spoke, it was to glorify GOD for the 
authority committed to humanity in 
the person of Jesus (Mt. rov dovra 
e^ovcriav rouivrrjv rols dvdpwTrois). Ac 
cording to Lc. the restored paralytic 
had set the example (dirr)\6cv. . .dogdfav 

\fyovras on Ovr 
Lc. fio ap.ev 7rapado|a ff^epov. The 

contrast between this astonishment at 
the physical cure, and the silence with 
which the absolution had been re 
ceived, did not escape the ancient ex 
positors : cf. Victor : TO pcl^ov Ido-avres 
TTJV TU>V a/xaprteoy a<pecrii> TO (paivopevov 

6avndovo-iv. idelv OVT&S is an unusual 
construction for Id. roiavra, but see Mt. 
ix. 33, ovdeTTOTe (pdvrj ovToas ; for eiSa- 
/zei/ cf. WH., Notes, p. 164: Blass, Gr., 
p. 45. Lc. has given the sense in other 
words ; both accounts convey the same 
impression of unbounded surprise. 



13 Kat 


7rd\iv Trapd TY\V 6d\a(rcrav 
6 o^Ao? iipxeTO Trpos avTOV, Kai eBlScuTKev av- 

Kal Trapdywv elBei/ Aeveiv TOV TOV *A\(f>aiov I4syr hi 
7Ti TO reAwVfoi/, Kai \e<yei avTtip AKO\ov6ei 
/mot Kai dvacTTas rfKO\ov6rj(Tv 

13 om iraXiv D 13 | irapa] eis K* (TT. K c - a ) | om o D* | tjpxovTO 1071 
FGHr min nonn | Aeuew K c - a BE*LMS$> (Aewv CE 2 FGHSUV 
AKSFAH 33 al mu )] lawpov D 13 69 124** abcdeffgr 


13 14. CALL OF LEVI (Mt. ix. 9, 
Lc. v. 2728). 

13. /cat erj\6fv ira\iv KT\.] Pro 
bably as soon as the crowd was dis 
persed and the excitement had sub 
sided. E^r/Xtfei/, i.e. from the house 
and the town, cf. i. 35 : with e irapa 

COmp. Acts xvi. 13, c^Xtfo/zei/ eeo TT/S- 
TrvX?;? napa irora^ov . the way Out led 

Him to the seaside, Vg. ad mare, i.e. 
ac? oram maris. ndXiv a note fre 
quently struck by Me., cf. ii. I, iii. 
i, 20, iv. i, &c. refers not to e., 
but to irapa T. 6dXa(r(rav ) cf. i. 1 6 ; 
once again He found Himself, as at 
the beginning of His Ministry, by 
the side of the lake. 

teal iras 6 o^Xo? ^p^ero KrX.] As 
soon as He is seen there, the crowd 
reassembles as thick as ever (waff), 
and the teaching, interrupted in the 
house, begins afresh by the lake. The 
imperfects ^pxero...e S/Sao-Kei/, as con 
trasted with crj\6ev, point to the 
continuance of the process, perhaps 
at intervals, through the day. Only 
Me. notes the teaching by the seaside 
on this occasion. 

14. Kai Trapaycoz/ AcrX.] As He 

teaches, or at intervals between the 
instructions, He passes on along the 
shore. Hapdya>v flbev : the same words 
are used at the call of Simon and 
Andrew (i. 16) : cf. also Jo. ix. i ; 
even in moving from place to place 
the Lord was on the watch for op 
portunities. Afvelv TOV TOV AX(paiov 
(so Me. only : Lc. ovo/zan Aevfiv : Mt. 


(Afvcl, <l l?) occurs in i Esdr. ix. 14 as 
the proper name of a Jew of the time 
of the exile, and is used in Heb. vii. 9 
for the patriarch ; cf. Aevis Joseph, ant. 
i 19. 7. In Origen c. Gels. i. 62 the 
true reading is Aevjfc, and not, as was 
formerly supposed, Afpr/si see WH., 
Intr., p. 144 (ed. 2, 1896). AX^aior, 
Vg. Alphaeus, was also the name of 
the father of the second James (Me. iii. 
1 8) : hence apparently the * Western 
reading la.Ka>pov in this context, see 
w. 11., and Ephrem s comment "He 
chose James the publican," ev. con 
cord. exp. p. 58 : cf. Photius in 
Possin. eaten, in Me. p. 50 : dvo r\vav 

, Mar&uos Kai 

TOU c AX<pai ov] AX0aioff = Aram. 
*S>kl, cf. Syrr. lto - (I * )peih - ,A" Whether 
it is identical with RAcon-as- (Jo. xix. 
25) is more than doubtful, see Light- 
foot, Galatians, p. 267 n.; against 
that view is the spelling of the latter 
word in Syrr." 6 *- "* with ja instead of 
oj. On the identity of Aevds with 
Martfalos see note on iii. 18.>ov fTrl TO TeXamoz/] Caper 
naum was on the Great West road 
which led from Damascus to the 
Mediterranean (G. A. Smith, Hist. 
Geogr., p. 428), and like Jericho had 
its establishment of reXcoj/at and its 
TeAeoi ioi , but the tolls were here col 
lected for the tetrarch and not for the 
Emperor (Schiirer I. ii. 68). TeXomop 
(Vg. teloneum, cf. Tert. de bapt. 12; 
used in modern Greek, Kennedy, 



[II. 15 

KaTaKeI(r6ai avTov ev Trj OIK.LCL 
avTov, Kai 7ro\\oi TeXwvai Kai d/ULapT(x)\oi (rvvave- 

15 yiverai KBL 33 565 604] eyevero ACDrAII2<l> al latt | KaraKtivdou avr.] pr. cv 
ACW c m2$ alP ler f q vg syrrP 68111101 arm me ev TV /cara/cXt^ai A KaTa.Keifji.evw 
D a b c e ff 

KelcrOai, used of the sick in i. 30, ii. 4, 
refers here and in xiv. 3 to persons 
at table (see Amos vi. 4); cf. Judith 
xiii. 1 5, Lc. v. 29, i Cor. viii. 10, and 
in class. Greek, Plato, Symp. 185 D. 
Mt. prefers dvaKelo-tfai, which is more 
usual in this sense in Biblical Greek 
(LXX., i Esdr. iv. 10, Tob. ix. 6 (K), 
Me. xiv. 1 8, &c.), so Me. just below 
(o-wavcKLVTo) ; the Vg. endeavours to 
distinguish between the two (cum 
accumberet...simul discumbebant). Ev 
rfj oiKi a avrov : so Lc. ; Mt., speaking 
of his own house, omits avrov a house 
to its owner or tenant is simply 77 OIKI O. 
A second house in Capernaum is now 
thrown open to Jesus and His dis 
ciples, cf. i. 29. On avrov (nearly = 
eWwv) cf. WM., pp. 183, 788. 

TroXXoi re\wvai KrX.] So Mt. ; Lc. 

TfV O^XoS 7TO\VS Tf\Q)VU>V KOI aXXo0Z>. It 

was, as Lc. Says, a fjicyaXr) So^r;, a 
reception/ which, if intended in the 
first instance to do honour to the 
Master (avroi), included many of Levi s 
friends and colleagues. Tc\avr)s occurs 
in Me. only in this context. TeXo>i>eii> 
to impose taxes is used in i Mace. 

xiii. 39 (el TI a XXo ereXaji/cTro eV lepou- 
o-aXf/jM, prjKCTi Tf\a>vL(r0a>, cf. X. 29, 30) 

of dues exacted from the Jews under 
the Syrian domination. The rf\<avijs 
or tax-farmer was a well-known 
personage at Athens in the time of 
Aristophanes, and not popular; cf. 
Ar. q. 247 f., Trait Trale TOV iravovpyov. . . 
Kai Tf^wvrjv Kai (frdpayya Kai Xapv/35ii 
dpTray^s. The Vg. renders the word 
by the title of the corresponding 
officer at Rome, piiblicanus ; but the 
Te\a>vat of the Gospel s corresponded 
more nearly to the portitores. With 

the reXcoi/ai were d/xaprcoXoi : the two 

classes are found together again in 

p. 154) is, (i) the toll (Strabo, xvi. 
I. 27, Tf\a>viov e x t Ka * T OVT ov nerpiov\ 
(2) the toU-house (Wycliffe, "tolbothe," 
Tindale, "receyte of custome"), as 
in this context. Levi was seated, 
doubtless amongst other reXaivai (v. 
15), at (ad] the office. ETTI c. 
ace. in the N. T. often answers the 
question whither ? (Blass, 6?r.,p. 136), 
cf. iv. 38, Lc. ii. 25, Acts i. 21 : the 
phrase is here common to Mt., Me., 

Kai Xeyei avrm AKoXovtfei /xoi] See 

note on i. 17. The command was 
practically a call to discipleship, in 
volving the complete abandonment of 
his work. Disciples who were fisher 
men could return to their fishing at 
pleasure (cf. Jo. xxi. 3) ; not so the 
toll-collector who forsook his post. 
Yet Levi did not hesitate: dvaaras 
yKoXovOrjaev avYo>, Mt., Me. ; Lc., 
thinking of the life which was thus 
begun, writes JKoXovdei, and adds <a- 
Ta\.ura>v TTCIVTO. The call was given 
by One Who knew that the way 
had been prepared for its accept 
ance. How the preparation had been 
made can only be conjectured: pos 
sibly, as in the case of the first four, 
through the Baptist, Lc. iii. 12. . Cf. 
Tert. 1. c., "nescio quorum fide uno 
verbo Domini suscitatus teloneum 
dereliquit." To Porphyry, who saw in 
Matthew s prompt obedience proof of 
the mental weakness of Christ s dis 
ciples, Jerome replies that it rather 
attests the magnetic power exerted 
on men by His unique personality. 

(Mt. ix. 10 13, Lc. v. 29 32). 

15. *at yivfTai ... Kai] Mt. Kai 
eyevfTo...Kal Idov : Lc. drops the 
Hebraic turn of the sentence. Kara- 



K6WTO Tto 

Tro/VAor Kai t]KO\ov6ovv 




r? 1 6 

15 ffvvaveKLVTo\ pr \6ovres AC* | /cat t]Ko\ovdovv (-drjffav ACDriI2<f>) aurw] pr 
ot D b f vg et omisso /cat a c e ff q arm 16 /cat (om /ecu BA me) ot (om 01 KW cyid ) 

yp. rujv 3>ap. (K)BL(W cvid )A 33 b me 004 ] /cat 01 yp. /cat 4?ap. ACDm$ al ot Se yp. /cat 
ot <&ap. 2 604 arm yid 

Mt. ix. 19, Lc. xv. i. Fritzsche cites 
Lucian Necyom. n, poi^ol KOI iropvo- 

iravra KVKWVTOW cv TO> /3ia>. But dp,, is 
probably used in this connexion with 
some latitude : sometimes it refers to 
the outcasts of society (Lc. vii. 37), 
but as used by the Scribes it would 
include non-Pharisees e.g. Saddu- 
cees (so frequently in the Psalms 
of Solomon, Ryle and James, pp. 
xlvi, 3 f.), Gentiles (Galatians ii. 15, 
Lightfoot s note), or even Hellenizing 
Jews (i Mace. ii. 44, 48). Many of 
the men thus branded in Capernaum 
were probably guilty of no worse 
offence than abstaining from the 
official piety of the Pharisees, or 
following proscribed occupations (Lc. 
xix. 7, 8), or were of Gentile ex 
traction, or merely consorted with 
Gentiles (Acts x. 28) : cf. Mt. xviii. 17 
6 c OviKos ical 6 T. The word dp.ap- 
reoXos belongs to the later Greek, but 
was probably a colloquialism in 
earlier times (cf. Ar. Thesm. mi); 
in the LXX. it is specially common 
in Pss. (where it mostly = V^n) and 
in Sirach. 

(TvvaveKfivro TO> l^trou *rA.] So 
Mt. SvvavaKelo-Qat (3 MaCC. V. 39) 

occurs again in vi. 22, and in Lc. vii. 
49, xiv. 10, i $ ; Jo. appears to prefer 
dvaKeivQai. crvv (xii. 2). ir^croC is the 
N. T. form of the dat. (WM., p. 77) ; 
in Deut. iii. 21, xxxi. 23, Jos. i. i, &c. 
Iijo-ol is the reading of Cod. B (in 

Jos. IV. 15 of A also). Ma&jr?;? is 
here used by Me. for the first time ; it 
occurs in Cod. A of Jer. xiii. 21, and 
again in xx. n, xxvi. (xlvi) 9, and not 

elsewhere in the LXX., but it is used 
by Plato for the adult pupil of a 
philosopher (Prot. 31 5 A). The Bib 
lical pa6r)Ti]s is the pupil (Tp?ri) of 
a religious teacher, such as a Rabbi, 
or a Prophet who assumed the office 
of 8i8ao-Ka\os. On the pupils of the 
Scribes see Schiirer n. i. p. 324 ; cf. 
the reference to them in Aboth i. i 
(Taylor, /Sayings, &c., p. 25). The 
master followed by his pupils was 
a familiar sight in Galilee; it was 
the teaching which was new. 

r)<rav yap TroXXoi] These words ap 
pear to refer to rtX. K. ap., reasserting 
the singular fact just mentioned 
an editorial note, or possibly one 
belonging to the earliest form of 
the tradition. If Kal fjKoKovQow 
at is to be connected (WH.) with 
the antecedent clause, it must be 
taken to refer to the fact that a 
number of this class had already 
begun to follow Jesus, probably in 
consequence of His words of forgive 
ness to the paralytic, as well as 
through the example of Levi. But 
see next note. 

15 16. Kal r)Ko\ov6ovi> avT<a *rX.] 

So the words should probably be 
connected and read. Jesus was fol 
lowed to Levi s house by enemies 
as well as (*ai ) disciples. AKoXovQelv 
in the Gospels usually implies moral 
attraction, and it may be to the 
rarity of the ordinary meaning that 
the disturbance of the text is due : 
D (ot Kal... Kal... Kal flSav} mediates be 
tween the two texts. Ot ypappaTels 
TO>V &apuraia>v: those of the Scribes 
who belonged to the Pharisees, cf. 
Acts XXJii. 9, rives TU>V 


TWV <Papi(raia)V KCLL ISovTes OTL ecrOieL //era TWV 
K.GLL T\wi/a)iv eXeyov TO?? jjLa6r)TaLS avTOV 

i 17 I7 /ca^ dKOva-as 6 lr](rovs XeyeL aimus oVt OJ X^etai/ 

ol i(TXVOVT6S LdTpOV, dXX OL /C0t/Cft) 

tjXOov KctX(Tc(:L oiKaiovs aXXcc 

16 Kat tdovres KBLAW C ] om Kat ACmS<i> latt vt P lv arm vld Kat etdav D | OTL ecrfltei 
B 33 565] OTL rja-etev NDL c vg O.VTOV eaOtovTO. ACWTAIIZS* al a f q go | apapr. K. 
reX. BDL* 33 565 a b c g q vg 00 1 1 ] reX. K. apapT. KACL corr W c rAIIS<i> al f ff syrr^ 5 " 01 
arm go | on] pr TL ACrAIIZ^ al dia TL XD | reX. K. a/t.] reX. K. TWV a/j,. B a/A. K. rwv 
T\. D a aeth | ccrdtet 2 (NBD minP* 110 a b c ff eo-^iere GS 124 604 syr hcl )] + /cat Trivet 
ACEFHKLrAII$> al c f vg syrrP eshhcl me go aeth + jcai Trivere GS 124 604 syr hcl + o 
Stda<TKa\os VJJLWV XC (ante evd.) LA 69 1071 al c f vg me aeth 17 om aurois D 

i 209 a b c ff g q | OTL BD 1071] om cett | ov\ ov yap CL 1071 c f ff vg | aXXa B [ 
s] + ets ^eravoiav CF al a c f g syr hier (om s /t. KABDKL AH24> al b f ff q vg 
e ae th) 

rov fj-fpovs TOOI/ 3>aprai G>i>. Mt. has 
of 3>apicraloi, Lc., combining Mt. and 

Me., of <. Kat of yp. avT&v. 

KOI l&ovres OTL *rA.] The changes of 
order (15, reX. AC. d/z., 16, dp. K. reX. 
(i), reX. AC. a/z. (2)) are singular and, 
if original, can hardly be accidental. 
Possibly Me. means to shew that in 
the thoughts of these Scribes, though 
not in their words, the charge of 
being in the company of sinners was 
foremost. Here, at least, the Master 
had, as they supposed, revealed His 
departure from the standard of the 
0. T. (Ps. i. i). For Idelv on (see 
w. 11.) cf. ix. 25. 

c\yov rot? [j,a6r)Tais AcrX.] Not yet 
daring to remonstrate with the Mas 
ter ; they have learnt caution from the 
experience related in ii. 8. "On is 
here = rt; (Mt., Lc., 6\a n ;): cf. ix. n, 
28, and for the LXX., i Chron. xvii. 6 
(5rt = H^), Jer. ii. 36 ( = HO); see 
WM., p. 208, n. 5, and Burton, 
349- To eat with Gentiles was an 
offence recognised even by Pharisaic 
Christians (Acts xi. 3, cf. Gal. ii. 1 1 f.), 
and publicans and sinners were ranked 
in the same category with Gentiles 
(i Cor. v. ii). 

After co-diet Mt. supplies 
Xoff VLLWV : Lc. includes the disciples 

(fO~6ifT KOL TTlW-re). 

17. Acai a.Kovo~as o Irjaovs] The 
remark does not escape Him : cf. 
V. 36. Ov xpetav fx ova l v <l ^X 
AcrX.: so the three Synoptists (Lc., 
vyutivovTs = lo~xyovT<i). The proverb 
in some form was not unknown to 
pagan writers, e.g. Pausanias ap. 
Plutarch, apophth. Lacon. 230 F, ovd y 
of tarpot, ffprj, Trapa TO!? vyLaivovo-iv 
OTTOV 8e ol voo-ovvres tarpt/3eiy fl<o6a- 
a-LV. Diog. Laert. Antisth. vi. i. 6, 
of tarpoi, (pT^o-t, /xera rcov voo-ovvra>v 

dalv dXX* OV 1TVpTTOV(TLV . tll6 last 

words present an application to which 
Jesus does not refer, but which is im 
plied in the use of the saying. 

OUAC rjkOov AcrX.] Lc. OVAC eX^Xv^a, 
adding els i^rdvotav a true gloss, 
but perhaps not so well in keep 
ing with the proverbial form of 
the saying as the terser ending. 
There is no need to say that the 
physician s aim is the restoration of 
the patient to health. For early 
homiletic applications see Justin M., 
apol. i. 15, ov yap TOVS SiKaiovs ovde 
rovs aaxppovas fts peTavotav r*caXc<ra 


18 Kai rjcrai/ oi jmaBrjTai Icodvov Kai ol 4 

tot 18 

vr](TT6vovT6s . Ka 

Kai \eyovarw avTw Aid 

18 oi Qapta-aioi KABCDKMII al b c e f ff q vg syrrs whcl arm me go] OL TUV 
EPGHLSUVrAHS i 33 al agl syr-* 

o Xpioroff, aAAa TOVS do-ffScls Kai aVo- 
\do-Tovs Kai ddtKovs. Ps. Clem. 2 Cor. 
2, TOVTO \eyet OTL 8el TOVS aVoAAu/ie- 
vovs o~(peiv fKelvo yap eaTiv p.eya Kai Tov^ ov TO. eoreora o~Trjpiiv aA 
Aa ra TTLTTTovTa. The contrast of dpap- 
T(O\OS and di<aios appears first in Ps. 
i. 5. The question who are the di- 
Kaioi whom Christ did not come to 
call has exercised interpreters here 
and in Lc. xv. 17. In such contexts 
the relatively righteous can hardly 
be in view, since all are a/xaprcoAoi 
in the sight of GOD and of Christ 
(Rom. iii. 23, i John i. 8). Hence 
Macarius Magnes, iv. 18, argues that 
the SiKaioi are the Angels. But since 
our Lord speaks only of those within 
the sphere of His mission, the expla 
nation is inadmissible. Rather His 
reference is to the Pharisees, on the 
assumption that they were what they 
professed to be, and the saying in 
this respect should not be pressed 
beyond its immediate application : 
cf. Jerome: "sugillat scribas et Phari- 
saeos, qui iustos se aestimantes pec- 
catorum et publicanorum consortia 
declinabant"; we need not add with 
Thpht. : /car etpcoi/etai/ -yap TOVTO (frrjo-iv. 
The point of it is that if the guests 
were a/xapro)Aot, it was in such com 
pany the physician of souls might be 
sought, and not under opposite cir 
cumstances. For this view of sin as 
a disease comp. Isa. i. 4 ff. and liii. 

5, TO) /A&)Ao)7Tl aVTOV ^fJLfls IdfltJUfV. 

Mt. inserts between the proverb and 
its application a reference to Hosea 
vi. 6 q. v. With ^\&ov cf. e^Xtfoi/, 
i. 38, and note there ; x. 45, Jo. i. n, 
iii. 2, &c. 

THE OLD AND THE NEW (Mt. ix. 14 
17, Lc.^v. 3339)- 

l8. Kai yo-av ol p.a6rjTai /crA.] Vg. et 

erant...ieiunantes, were fasting not 
(as WM., p. 438) were used to fast ; 
cf. Lc. vTjo-Tevovo-iv irvKvd ; OIL this im- 
perf. see Blass, Gr., p. 198 f., Burton, 
34. If Levi s entertainment fell on 
a Sunday or a Wednesday night, the 
disciples of Jesus were feasting after 
the disciples of stricter schools had 
begun one of their weekly fasts. The 
Law required abstinence only on the 
Day of the Atonement (77 vqarfia, 
Acts xxvii. 9), but the stricter Jews 
practised it on the second and fifth 
days of every week (Schiirer n. ii. 
1 1 9). For the practice of the disciples 
of the Pharisees (i.e. the pupils of 
Pharisaic Rabbis) see Lc. xviii. 12, 
vr)o~TfV(o o~ls TOV cra/3/3arov, Diddche 
7 = Apost. Const, vii. 23, vrjo-Tevovo-t 
yap SfVTepq <ra/3/3ara>i Kai ircpTrTTj, and 
J. Lightfoot on Mt. ix. 14. The 
disciples of John (mentioned again in 
Jo. i. 35, iii. 25, cf. Acts xix. 2 ff.) 
naturally inherited John s asceticism 
(Mt. xi. 1 8). Tatian omits this ex 
planatory note, which is peculiar to Me. 
Kai epxovTai *rA.] Not apparently 
the disciples of John or of the Phari 
sees, but the Scribes, who have now 
gathered courage from confidence in 
the goodness of their cause : cf. Lc. 
oi 8e cinav. Mt. gives another ac 
count : irpoo-cpxovTai avTO> ol fj.adrjTa.1 
leoai/ou, and alters the question ac 
cordingly (did TI 77 /ue Is KT\.\ Tatian 
ignores the difference, adopting Lc. s 
form. Later harmonists imagine the 
same question to be put in varying 
form by the disciples and the guests, 
e.g. Aug. de cons. ii. 26. 62, who is 
followed by Bede : " colligendum a 
pluribus hanc Domino objectam esse 
quaestionem et a Pharisaeis scilicet 
et a discipulis Joannis et a convivis 
vel aliis quibusdam." The uncertainty 
thus imported into the history is 



[II. 18 

TL ol jmaOrjTal luidvov KCII ol fJLadfjTai TCOV 
vrjcTTevovorii 1 ol Se crol juaBrjTai ov vrjcrTeuov cri v ; 

19 el-Trey CLVTOIS 6 lri<rovs I9 Mr) ^VVCLVTCLI ol viol TOV 
wiuKpwvos eV W 6 vvjuL<pios JUL6T avTwv 6(TTiv vr}(TTeveiv , 
ocrov yjpovov e-^ovcTLV TOV vvfj.<piov JULET avTwv ov 

20 Svvavrai vrjtrreveiv ao 6\ev<rovTai Se reai OTCLV 

1 8 01 ftae. r. $a/>. KBC*L 33 565 e aeth] OL r. 4>. C 2 DrAIIZ3> al c vg 
3?api<raioi ininP*" a f ff arm ot airo r. 3>. ot pad. r. $. 1071 om A | om fj.adr)rai, 4 B 
127 2** 19 om o Ir/o: D 28 b i q | TOV i>vfj,<f>.] nuptiarum b ff vg | om cow 

Xpovov . . . vrjffTeveiv DU i 33 604 alP*" a b e ff g i syr? 6311 aeth | fied eavruv 

runner. In the present connexion the 
title * sons of the bride-chamber had 
perhaps a further appropriateness ; it 
was in fact an answer to the cavil of 
?. 1 8, for "apparently by Rabbinic 
custom all in attendance on the bride 
groom were dispensed from certain 
religious observances in consideration 
of their duty to increase his joy" 
(Hort, Judaistic Christianity, p. 23). 
ev w 6 vvfj.(f)ios KT\.] So the Lord 
identifies Himself with the Bride 
groom of O.T. prophecy (Hos. ii. 21, 
&c.), i.e. GOD in His covenant relation 
to Israel, a metaphor in the N.T. ap 
plied to the Christ (Mt. xxv. i, Jo. 
iii. 28, 29, Eph. v. 28 ff., Apoc. xix. 7, 
&C.). Victor : TTOIOS vvu.<j)ios ; 6 /u,eX- 

\(OV VVfJL(j)V0-6ai TT]V 

eo~Tiv T) vvfj.(pevo-is ; dppaftwvos 
TovTQ-Ti irvevpciTos ayiov x<*P ts ^ v 

$ Me., Lc. = e oo Mt., cf. Me., 

infra, oo~ov %povov. For vrjaTeveiv Mt. 

substitutes Trcvtielv. Fasting was 
fitting for the house of mourning, 
not for a time of rejoicing : cf. 
Judith viii. 6, eV^oreue iracras ras 
jjfjiepas TTJS \ripfv(Ta)S O.VTTJS. With 
oo oi xpovov %ovo~iv cf. xiv. 7) e f-^ ^^ 
ov irdvroTf fX T {.^^ fovr&v] : Jo. 
xiii. 33, en fjiiKpov peS V/ZOM/ et/Ltt. 
"Oo-ov xpovov is the acc. of duration, 
WM., p. 288. Tatian again (cf. v. 18) 
omits the words which Me. adds. 
2O. \vo~ovTat de 

surely a worse evil than any doubt 
that can arise as to the precise 
accuracy of one of the reports. 

ot Se o-ot natirjTai /crX.] They still 

stop short of a direct attack upon the 
Master; cf. v. 24. 

19. /x?) dvvavrai ;] Yg. numquid 
possunt? Mij expects a negative an 
swer (WM., p. 641, Blass, Gr., p. 254); 
cf. e.g. Mt. vii. 9, 10, Jo. iii. 4, James 
ii. 14. Lc., as often, turns the sentence 
into another form with a slightly 
different sense: ^ 5ui/ao-^ 

vrjo-Tevo-ai ; in Mt. and Me. 

points to the moral impossibility ; 
they might be made to fast, but it 
would not be a fast worthy of the name. 

ot viol TOV vvfji<j)a>vos] = 
known in class. Greek as 
and in the later literary style as 

( Trao-roff, Joel ii. 1 6) cf. Tobit vi. 14, 
17, and for the idiom sons of/ &c., 
i Mace. iv.- 01 vtoi rrjs aKpas = l the 
men of the citadel ; see Trench, 
Studies, p. 170 n. The Lord per 
haps designedly adopts the Baptist s 
own metaphor (Jo. iii. 29), substi 
tuting however ot inot TOV vvp<f)a>vos 
for 6 <f>tXos TOV wptfriov : on the dis 
tinction between the two see Eders- 
heim i. 355, and Moore on Judges 
xiv. ii, 20. The role of the best 
man was over ; twelve disciples had 
taken the place of the one fore 



ajrapdrj aV avTcov 6 vvfji<pios, Kai TOTe vr}CTTv<TOV(riv 

/ / 21 >^ ^ s /o-v 

ei/ Kivri Trj rj/mepa. ovcets s eTTip/V^a pcucovs 2 1 

eTripctTTTei ejrl L/ULCCTLOV iraXaiov ei $e 

20 a7ra/)077] a/>0T7 C 13 28 64 69 124 346 | ev CKCIVCUS rats yuepais Til 2 al minP ler 
ab c e f vg me 21 ovfcts] pr /ecu EFHUVm al + 5e DGM \ eiri<rwpairTi D | 

TraXata; ArAIIS^l al | ^77] /i^e KAII*S min nonn 

the ordinance of fasting, see Victor : 

OVK avaynrj . . . aXXa yi/tu/iT/, 81 apfrrjv. 

Bede aptly compares Acts ii. 13. Cf. 
the logion : lav /AT) 1/17 ore ixrrjre TOV 
Koo~p,ov ov p.r) evprjTf rfjv flao~i\iav TOV 
Bfov (Oxyrhynchus Papyri, i. p. 3). 
21. ovdeiy eVi /SArj/ua fcrA.] The two 

parables that follow occupy the same 
position in the three Syuoptists, and 
doubtless are meant to illustrate the 
answer to the question of v. 18. ETTI- 
/SArj/za paKovs dyvdcpov, Vg. adsumen- 
tum panni rudis, is explained by 
Lc. as TTi(3\r)[jLa OTTO t/zartoi> Kaivov. 

PCLKOS is a rag, whether of old stuff 

(Jer. xlv. (xxxviii.) 1 1, TraAata /5a/C7;),or, 

as here, newly torn from the piece : e.g. 
Artemidorus (27) uses it of the strips 
of cloth wound round a mummy. In 
the present case the paws is ayvacpov 
( = a.yva7TTov, aKvanrov) torn off from 

a piece which had not gone through 
the hands of the yvacpcvs. Tvacpevs 
(Me. ix. 3) = Dn 13, Aram. N~JV, occurs 
thrice in the LXX. (4 Regn. xviii. 17, 
Isa. vii. 3, xxxvi. 2) in connexion 
with "the fuller s field "possibly a 
bleaching ground at Jerusalem ; cf. 
Joseph. B. J. V. 4. 2, TO TOV yva(pQ>s 
7rpoo~ayopv6p,vov fj.vijp.a. Comp. the 

account of the martyrdom of James 
the Just, 3 Euseb. H. E. ii. 23 : Aa- 

/3a>f...ei? TU>V Kva(pa>v TO v\ov cv a> 
aTreTTte^e TO. I/xarta AcrA. E7T//3A 77/^101, 

a patch, cf. Jos. ix. n (5), Symrn., TO. 

o~av8d)(.ia eVtjSAr^iara f%ovra : for CTTI- 

pdtrTfi (WH., Notes, p. 163, Blass, 
Gr. t p. 10) Mt., Lc. have eVt/3aAAei. 
el Se w icrA.] Et de ^ (Lc. fl 8e 
/ir)ye), Vg. alioquin, i if otherwise : 
see Blass, Gr. 9 p. 260, and c Mt. vi. 
i, Jo. xiv. 2, Apoc. ii. 5. 

There must be a limit to the joyous 
life of personal intercourse. The say 
ing as far as VIJO-TCVO-OVO-IV is reported 
in identical words in Mt., Me., Lc. 
For the phrase fXevo-ovrai rip. see 
Lc. xxi. 6, and with the whole verse 
compare Jo. xvi. 2O. "Orav dnapdfj, 
Vg. cum auferetur rather perhaps, 
cum ablatus fuerit ; orav leaves the 
moment uncertain, while of the cer 
tainty of the future occurrence there 
is no question : cf. Burton, 316. 
A-n-aipeo-Gai, here only used of Christ s 
departure; but cf. Isa. liii. 8, atperat 

OTTO rrjs yrfS TI 0)77 avrov. Kai rore 

vrja-Tfva-ova-iv : a prophecy, not a com 
mand ; the Lord anticipates that 
fasting will remain as an institution 
of the Church after the Passion, and 
regulates its use (Mt. vi. 16). Comp. 
Acts xiii. 2, 3, xiv. 23, Didache 7, 8, 

e vrja TcixrctTf rerpada Kai rrapa- 

The fast before Easter was 
from the end of the second century 
specially connected with this saying 
of Christ: Tert. ieiun. 2, "certe in 
evangelic illos dies ieiuniis deter 
minates putant in quibus ablatus est 
Sponsus, et hos esse iam solos legitimos 
ieiuniorum cetero 
indifferenter ieiunandum ex arbitrio, 
non ex imperio." Cf. Const. Ap. v. 18 

V rals rj/JLepais ovv TOV 7racr\a i/^oreuere 
...V ravrais ovv rjpdf} a(j) y ijfiwv. Even 

in regard to the Paschal fast there 
was at first no rigid uniformity; cf. 
Iren. (ap. Eus. v. 24) who remarks : 

T) dicxfravia TIJS vrja-Tfias ri]v opovotav 
Tr/s TTiWecos- <rvvL<TTr)(ri. Ei/ etceivrj rfj 
^fce pa = (Lc.) ev Kivais rais jj/iepaty, 
for which see Me. i. 9 note. On the 
change introduced by the Gospel into 

4 6 


[II. 21 

t 22 

aipei TO TrXvpto/ULa GLTT avTov TO KCLIVOV TOV TraXcuov, 


olvov veov els d&KOvs TraXaiovs el Se 
olvos TOI)S d(TKOvs 9 KCLL 6 oivos a7r6\\vTai 
da"Koi [ d\\a olvov veov els dcTKOvs 



21 apet H | TO TT\. air avrov K (om TO) AB (a0 eauT.) KAII*S 33 al mu ] om OTT 
minP 1 aeth om air avrov D 13 28 69 124 a b f ff i q vg | TOU TraXaiou] pr a?ro 
D 13 etc | om K<u...yiverai L 22 /-o?] /*^7e CLM 2 S alP*" | p-rjaeei ArAIIS^T ale eff 
q syrr 8 11 **" 111101 arm me aeth | o oti/os i] + o veos AC 2 rAII2$n e f Byr hcl go aeth | o 
ot>os aTroXXvTcu /cat oi ao-/coi BL me] o otvos /cat ot (UTKOL airo\ovi>Tai D a b e ff OL affK. 
a.7ro\\vi>Tai Kai OL oivos e^xeiTat 124 syrr arm o oiv. exxTat icai oi ao-/c. a?roXou^Tat 
N*ACrAII2$T al c f q vg me go aeth | om aXXa...Kawous D a b ff i | Kaivovs] + 
P\v)Toi> K c - a ACLrAns^l al c e f q vg (syrr) me go arm aeth + paXhovviv 
(om K*B) | ad fin vers add /cat a/j-^orepoL GwrypovvTaL minP auo e f g aeth 

aipei TO TrXijptopa OTT auroG] Mt. 
mpet...To TT\. avTov airo TOV ipaTiov. 

In each case it seems best to identify 

ro 7T\T]p(op,a with TO 7ri /3Xj;/xa, and to 

take avTov as = TOO t/xan ou. In adopt 
ing this view it is not necessary to 
give up the passive sense of 77X77- 
po>/ia for which Lightfoot contends 
(Colossians, p. 323 ff.) ; for as he 
points out, the patch may be so 
called "not because it fills the hole, 
but because it is itself fulness or 
full measure as regards the defect." 
As f7TL^\T)fjia is the piece laid on or 
applied to the rent, so TrXr/poo^ia is 
the same piece as filled in and be 
come the complement (Vg. supple- 
mentum). To KCLLVOV TOV TraXcuou, the 
new complement of the old garment ; 
the contrast of Katvos (veos), TraXeuos 1 , is 
frequent in the N.T., perhaps through 
the influence of this saying, and the 
examples are interesting : Rom. vii. 6, 
Eph. iv. 22 ff., Col. iii. 9 f., Heb. viii. 13. 
For TmXaios- as applied to a garment 
cf. Deut. viii. 4, Isa. 1. 9, li. 6. 

KOI xetpov o-^iV/za yiWrai] *And a 
worse rent is the result (Wycliffe, 
" more brekynge is maad "). Cf. Lc. s 
paraphrase, and Philo, de creat. princ. 
II, ov p,6vov r) diaffropoTTjs aKoivwvrjTov, 
aXXa KOL T) eVtKpareia SaTepov prjiv 
<nr(pya(rop.fvr) /naXXoi/ rj eva>o-iv. For 

o-xio-fj.a cf. i. 10 : elsewhere in the N. T. 
the word is used in an ethical sense 
(Jo. vii. 43, i Cor. i. 10, &c.). 

22. Kai ovoYis /3aXXei KrX.] So Lc. ; 
Mt. ovde fiaXXovviv. The worn out 
do-ic6s passed into a proverb, see Job 
xiii. 28, Ps. cxviii. (cxix.) 83 : comp. 
especially Jos. ix. 10 (4), do-<ovs OLVOV 
TraXaiovs KOI Kareppoxyoray : ib. 19(13), 
OVTOL oi ao~Kol TOV O LVOV ovs 7r\r}o~a[iev 
KO.IVOVS, Kai OVTOI fppcoyao~iv. The 
wine-skins in the parable are as yet 
whole, but thin and strained by use, 
and unable to resist the strength of 
the newly fermented wine. The con 
trast is here between veos and TraXaios-: 
veos is recens (Vg. novellus), freshly 
made, in reference to time : for olvos 
veos cf. Isa. xlix. 26, Sir. ix. 10. A 
full treatment of the synonyms /tati/dr, 
veos may be found in Trench, syn. 10, 
or in Westcott on Heb. viii. 8, xii. 24. 

et 8e M KT\.] Mt, Lc. ci 8c wye : 
see on v. 21. If any one is so unwise 
as to become an exception to the 
rule, he will lose both wine and skins. 
Mc. s brevity is noticeable ; both Mt. 
and Lc. distinguish the manner of the 

loss in the two cases o olvos fK^elrai 
(eK-^vOr^creTai) /cat ot ao Koi a.7r6\\vvTa\> 

(a7ro\ovvTai). Similarly in the next 
clause Mt. supplies /SoXAovcrw, Lc. 
Attempts have been made 

II. 24] 



^ CLVTOV ev Tols (rd/3/3aa iv SiaTropev- 23 
(r6ai Sia TWV (nropLfJuav^ Kal ol fiaOfjTal CIVTOV rip^avTO 
6$ov TTOielv T/AAo i/res TOik cTTcr^fas. * 4 Kai ol <Papi- 24 

23 eyevero] + ira\iv D 13 69 124 346 a ff q vg pr TraXiv <J> | om e? < 1071 | Sta- 
iropeve<reai BCD] irapairop. KALrAIIZ<in al latt v *P lerv 8 irop. 13 69 124 | om aurou 
D 435 ff | o8ov Troieiv ri\\ovTS fc^ACLrAn^T] oSoTroieii TL\\OVT. BGH 13 69 124 346 
D 26 ev bcefgt + effdieiv c e ff 

in the MSS. to assimilate Me. ; see 
TV. 11. The contrast between veos, 
xaivos is preserved by the three Syn- 
optists, but it has been missed in 
the Vg., vinum novum in utres no- 
vos. On the connexion of these para 
bles with the context see Hort, Jud. 
Chr., p. 24. The general teaching 
is that men "nova non accepturos 
esse nisi novi fierent" (Hilary). The 
old system was not capable of being 
patched with mere fragments of the 
new, and still less could the old man 
receive the new spirit and life. For 
some special applications of the prin 
ciple cf. Trench, Studies, p. iSoff. 

i 8, Lc. vi. i 5.) 

23. KOI cyeveTo...8tairopcvc(rdai] Et 

factum est ut... ambularet (f ) ; cf. 
it 15, and see Burton, 360. Lc. 
has the same construction, and agrees 
with Me. also in the order of events : 
Mt., who begins ev ccetj/a> ra> Kaipa) 
firopfvdr), places this incident much 
later. Ei/ Tols o-dftfiao-iv (rots 0-. Mt., 
(v <ra/3|3aro> Lc. : see note on i. 21), 
on the sabbath ; in Lc. Western 5 
and Syrian authorities add devrepo- 
TrptBro), cf. WH., Notes, p. 58. Ata- 
iropcvfa-dai, a common LXX. word 
(usually = "l?r| or 1?V)> ^ 8 rare ^ n * fte 
N. T., occurring, besides this context, 
Lc. ev - 2 > ^- * Paul x ; the construction 
varies, the verb being used absolutely, 
or followed by ace. with or without 
prep.; for Sia?r. 8td cf. Prov. ix. 12 c, 
Soph. iii. i. The fields were probably 
in the neighbourhood of Capernaum ; 
there is no charge of having exceeded 

the Sabbath day s journey (Acts i. 12, 
cf. Joseph, ant. xiii. 8. 4, OVK cc<mv 
5 ovre fv roil a-dpfiao-iv OVT tv 

rfj OpTT) [rf] 7TVTT]KOO-Tf)] 6lieiv). Ttt 

o-Tropt/xa : in the LXX., <nr6pipos=V $ 
(Gen. i. 29) or WIT (Lev. xi. 37); O-TTO- 
pt^a-"sown land," "corn-fields" (V. 
sata\ is found in a papyrus of c. A.D. 
346, and seems to have been familiar 
in colloquial Greek of cent i, for it 
belongs to the common tradition of 
the Synoptic Gospels. 

rfpavTo odbv Troiflv riXXovres] Mt. 
TJpavro T/XXeti/, Lc. ertXXof. OSoi/ 
Troiflv is properly, like oSoTroteli/, to 
make a road, or make one s way, and 
suggests that the party was pushing 
its way through the corn where there 
was no path; Euth. : Iva 7rpo/3euWii/ 
exoiv. But 68ov TTotelo-Qai is used 
(Herod., Xen., Dion. Hal., Joseph., 
&c.) of simple advance (Vg. coeperunt 
praegredi, v. 1. progredi\ and 65. 
noielv probably bears that meaning 
here ; cf. Jud. xvii. 8 roO Troifja-ai 6dov 
avrov (13") 1 :! nVl^w, but see Moore, 
Judges, p. 385 f.). As they went 
they plucked the ears and ate (KOI 
Mt.; KOL rja-Qiov Lc., who adds 
es rais ^epa-iV). Permission to 
pluck and eat ears of standing corn 
was given by the Law, provided that 
no instrument was used, Deut. xxiii. 
24 (26) : <rt>AXeei ev rais ^epcriV crov 
a-rd^vs KOL dp7ravov ov pr) eiriftdXys. 

24. KOL ol 3?api(Tcuoi /crX.] See 
notes on ii. 16, 18. The Master is 
again attacked through the disciples. 
Mt. supplies ol fjiadrjTai o-ov before 
TTOLova-iv, Lc. represents the question 
as addressed to the disciples (rt 


eXe yov avTw J/ /e TL TTOLOVO LV TCHS <rd{3/3a(rLv b 

4 8 

25 OVK efe&TW, ^Kal eXeyev avTois OuSeVoTe 

TL eTToirjo ev AaveiS OT -^peiav ecr^ei/ Kai e7reiva(rev 

26 CIVTOS Kai oi ]meT avTOv , a6 eicrrjXOev ek TOV OLKOV 
TOV Oeov 67ri A/3ia6ap dpxiepetos, Kai TOI)S apTOVs 

24 TTOiova-iv] + oi fiaOriTai aov DMS i 13 28 69 124 346 al lat vt < *) S yrr sin;icl arm 
go aeth + oi /m#. 1071 | rots <ra(3j3a.<rii>] pr e/ EGHLSUVrS 25 e\eyej> ABrAII] 

\eyei. KCL 33 604 1071 al (nroKpi0eis enrev D apr avTos AFAH al 26 eurq\0cv ] pr 

TTOJS KACLrAIIZ<l>n latt syrr arm al (om TT. BD t) | om eiri A0. apx. D27iabeffit 
ACA (T. up.) IIS$n i 33 69 al 

31, i Regn. i 7, 24. It was at this 
time in Nob (No/*/3a, No/i/xa (B), No/3a 
(A), No/3 (N)), a town of Benjamin (Neh. 
xi. 32) near Jerusalem (Isa. x. 32 
Heb.). Mt. TraJs elo-fjXOev (cf. w. 1L 
here), Lc. oo? ciV. 

eVl A/3ta^ap ap^iepecos] Vg. 5^& ^4. 

principe sacerdotum : cf. i Mace. xiii. 


Lc. iii. 2, eVl ap^iepe cos "Avva Kai 
Kaidfpa. Polyc. mart. 21, CTTI ap^iepecos 
^tXiTrTrov TpaXXtai/o. E7r/= in the 
time of, as in Acts xi. 28 e-yevcTo eVl 
KXavfiiov : when an anarthrous title 
is added to the personal name, the 
period is limited to the term of 
office : * in the days when A. was 
highpriest. 5 ToG ap^. (AC) is perhaps 
a correction. The clause is peculiar 
to Me., and may be an editorial 
note. It is in conflict with the ac 
count in i Sam. I.e. where the high- 
priest at the time of David s visit 
to Nob is Ahimelech ( > n?D l) n^ ) LXX., 
codd. BA, A/3(e)i/ieXex but in i Regn. 
xxx. 7, 2 Regn. viii. 17, A^et^ieXe^), 
not Abiathar, Ahimelech s son and 
successor (i Sam. xxii. 20). The con 
fusion between Ahimelech and Abia 
thar seems to have begun in the text 
of the O. T., where (both in M.T. and 
LXX.) we read of Ahimelech the son 
of Abiathar as high-priest in the time 
of David (2 Sam. viii. 17, cf. Driver, 
ad I., i Chron. xviii. 16, xxiv. 6). The 
clause is omitted by Mt, Lc., see 
Hawkins, H., p. 99.^ 

"iSe (= nX"}) ; not tSou (= 

; cf. iii. 34, xi. 21, xiii. i, 21, xv. 
4, 35, xvi. 6. The offence was being 
openly committed under the very eyes 
of the Master. Plucking corn was 
considered as equivalent to reaping, 
the hand taking the place of the 
sickle, and reaping on the Sabbath 
was forbidden (Exod. xxxiv. 21, ro> 
dfjLrjTG) KaraTravo-Ls ; cf. J. Lightfoot on 
Mt. xii. 2). T/ irotoixriv rots- tm/3/3. o 
OVK eecrriv ; SC. iroieiv rots crafiftcuriv. 
Mt. simplifies the construction by 

writing TTOIOVCTLV o OVK e^ecrnv Troielv iv 
o-a/3/3ar<, and similarly Lc. The act 
was not unlawful in itself, but only in 
regard to the occasion. 

25. Kai e\eycv avTols OvdeTrore 
dveyvo)T KT\.] The Lord concedes 
the principle for the moment, content 
with pointing out that rules of this 
kind admit of exceptions. Ovd. avtyv., 
an appeal to an authority which they 
recognised and of which they were pro 
fessed students. The formula is fre 
quently used by our Lord, cf. xii. 10, 
26, Mt. xii. 5, xix. 4, xxi. 16 (ovdeVorc, 

ovSe, or OVK dveyv. ;). 

TI eiroirjcrcv Aavei S KrX.] The 
reference is to i Sam. xxi. i 6, but 
the words %pfiav eo~%v KOL eircivcurev 
are an inference from the facts, added 
to bring out the parallel. David and 
his men find their counterpart in the 
Son of David and His disciples. 

26. flO~fj\8fV IS TOV OLKOV TOV $eo{;] 

I.e., the Tabernacle: cf. Jud. xviii. 

II. 27] 


etyayev oi/s 
eScoKev Kai 


fyayeiv ei JJLYI TOI)S 


epes, Ka ecoKev Kai TO?? crw avTa) 
eXeyev avToTs To (rd/3/3aTOv Sea TOV avdpwTrov 





16 irpoffdefffws D (cf. Nestle Intr. p. 237) | ovs...ovffiv] KO.L eSwKev rots per O.VTOV 
ovffiv of? OIAC ei-ecmv <f>ayeiv ei /J.T) rots tepevaiv D | rous tepets NBL] rots lepevcriv 
ACDrAII al roij apxi-epevcrt & + /j,ovots A< 13 33 69 alP auc lai ytmu + /J.OVQV 1071 
27 28 Kai \yv...wffTe ] \ey(,) 5e V/JLIV Daceffit 27 eyevero] e/crr0?7 i 131 

209 604 

rot 1 ? aprovs TTJS irpo6fo~f(os\ Vg. panes 
propositionis (Wycliffe, "loues of pro- 
posicioun"); cf. Heb. ix. 2, T; -rrpofccris 
T&V apTwv, propositio panum. The 
shewbread as set before GOD is 

Called D OQn DPI?, aprot evnirioi (Exod. 

xxv. 29), TrpoKeipcvoi (Exod. xxxix. 18 

(S^)), TOV TTpOO-toTTOV (l RcgH. XXl. 6), 

TTJS -rrpoo-cfropas (3 Regn. vii. 34 = 48). 
(Ot) aprot (rr/s) Trpodeo-ftas occurs also in 

i Regn. I.e., but as a paraphrase for 
Hp, and in 2 Chron. iv. 19 it stands 
for D^Qil DH^; but elsewhere it = 
(Exod. xl. 21 (23), &c.) or in 
Dn.l^rrDnS (i Chr.ix.32);i.e., 
it points to the ordered rows upon the 
table rather than to their ceremonial 
import. See however Deissmann, 
Bibdstudien, p. 155 f. (E. Tr., p. 157). 
It was one of the glories of Judas 
Maccabaeus that he restored the use 
of the shewbread (2 Mace. x. 3, rS>v 

apruv rr)V irpo9ecriv eVotr/o-avro). 

ovs OVK e. (foayelv el pr} TOVS iepe is] 

Which it was not lawful that any 
should eat except the priests : so Lc.; 
Mt. has the more usual construction 

^f(TTtv. . .rot? Ifpevcriv. On the law of 

the shewbread see Lev. xxiv. 5, 
Joseph, ant. iii. IO. 7, 01 Se rots lepevcriv 
irpos rpo<f)r)v dtdovrai. But the prohi 
bition does not seem to have been 
absolute ; cf. i Sam. xxi. 4. OVK fgeo-rtv 
is taken out of the mouth of the 
Scribes, and used in their sense (v. 24) : 
it was at least as unlawful to eat 
the shewbread as to pluck and eat 
corn on the Sabbath. 

Kai eSa>Kfj/ Kai rot? trvv avr<p ov(Tiv\ 
Cf. v. 2 5, ot per avrov. An O. T. phrase 

S. M. 2 

(see Gen. iii. 6) 

Delitzsch renders: 
DrB*!. The com 

panions were in David s 
D^IW, i.e. personal followers, the 
nucleus of the crowd who gathered 
round him in the cave of Adullam 
(i Sam. xxii. 2). The contrast be 
tween these men and the peaceful 
disciples of Jesus is great, but it only 
serves to add force to the argument. 

27. Mt. gives another argument : 
the priests in the temple were com 
pelled to violate the strict law of the 
Sabbath, their duties being in fact 
doubled on that day (Numb, xxviii. 9) ; 
if the exigencies of the temple justi 
fied their conduct, a greater than 
the temple was here to justify the 
disciples. He adds a quotation from 
Hos vi. 6, which he had previously 
cited in connexion with the saying of 
v. 17 (Mt. ix. 13). 

ro o"d/3/3aroi/. ..8ta ro cra$3aroi ] Me. 
only; cf. Hawkins, H.S. p. 99. Comp. 
2 Mace. v. 19, ov 8ia rov TOTTOV TO 
eQvos, a XXa 5ta ro tOvos TOV TOTTOV 6 
Kvpios e eAe aro. The Rabbis them 
selves occasionally admitted the prin 
ciple ; see Schottgen ad L and the 
passage cited by Meyer from Mechilta 
in Exod. xxxi. 13: "the Sabbath is 
delivered unto you, and ye are not 
delivered to the Sabbath." Our Lord s 
words rise higher, and reach further; 
at the root of the Sabbath-law was 
the love of God for mankind, and not 
for Israel only. Cf. Ephrem : * the 
Sabbath was appointed not for God s 
sake, but for the sake of man." Ben- 
gel : " origo et finis rerum spectanda ; 
benedictio sabbati (Gen. ii. 3) hominem 


1Tt28fcat ov% 6 avdpcoTTOs Sia TO cra/3/3aTOV. 


III. i * Kat el(rrj\6ev TraXiv ek a-vvaywyrjv, Kai r\v e/cel 


27 om Kat ovx o tu>8p. d. TO <r. syr 8 | om KO.I 2 AC 3 m al? 1 
ycoyr]i>] pr rrjv ACDLSI>T al (om KB) | e^pafjtftevijv } rjpat> D 
AC*DAST mini*" 10 

Ill i (rvva- 
2 iraperrjpovvTO 

spectat." For a similar antithesis cf. 
i Cor. xi. 9. O avdptoTros, man, i.e. 
humanity ; cf. Eccl. i. 3, iii. 19. 

28. too-re Kuptor eVrii/ KT\.] Wycliffe, 
"and so mannes sone is also lord of the 
sabath." Rvpios yap eo-riv, Mt. ; K. eVru , 
Lc. In Me. the sequence of the thought 
is clear. The Sabbath, being made for 
man s benefit, is subject to the con 
trol of the ideal and representative 
Man, to whom it belongs. On wore 
with the indie, mood see WM., p. 377, 
Burton 237, and cf. Me. x. 8. Kvptos 
is here perhaps rather owner than 
master ns^n ^3, cf. Gen. xlix. 
23, Jud. xix. 22. On 6 vl r. av6p. see 
v. ion. Tatian, followed by the 0. L. 
cod. a, places after this verse c. iii. 21 
(q.v.), as if it was His doctrine of the 
Sabbath which led our Lord s relatives 
to suspect insanity. 

14, Lc. vi. 6 n). 

I. KCU flcrfi\6fv TraXiv els crvvaya)- 
Another 1 scene in a synagogue, 
points back to i. 21 (cf. ii. i, 
13; iii. 20, iv. i) unless, with Bengel, 
we interpret "alio sabbato." Ets 

crvvaytoyriv, not els rrjv o\, as in i. 

21, (vi. 2), where the synagogue is 
localised ; here the reader s thought 
is limited to the fact that the event 
took place in a synagogue. Cf. Jo. 
vi. 59, xviii. 20, James ii. 2 ; simi 
larly we speak of going to church 
or being in church when no par 
ticular building is in view. Me. 
suggests, and Mt. seems distinctly 

to State (/zera/3aff fKeWev rjXQev}, that 

this visit to the synagogue followed 

immediately after the cornfield inci 
dent; Lc. places it on another Sab 
bath (ev T(p(0 o-a/3/3aro>). St AugUS- 
tine s reply (de cons. ev. 81, "post 
quot dies in synagogam eorum ve- 
nerit...non expressum est") is not 
wholly satisfactory ; the two tradi 
tions if not absolutely inconsistent 
are clearly distinct, Lc. perhaps pos 
sessing information unknown to Me. 
and Mt. Cod. D meets the difficulty 
by omitting erepw in Lc. 

KCU TIV Kl av6p(airos *rA.] For 77- 
paivo/jLcu ( = by see 3 Regn. xiii. 4, 
Zach. xi. 17. Jo. (v. 3) mentions grj- 
poi as a class of chronic invalids ; in 
the present instance the paralysis of 
the hand was not congenital, but as 
Bengel says "morbo aut verbere," as 
the past participle implies a point 
which Mt. s grjpdv overlooks. T?)J/ 
Xelpa, his hand, cf. v. 3, w. 11.; 
for exx. of the predicative use of the 
art. see Blass, Gr. p. 158. Lc. adds 
that the hand was 77 Segid. Jerome 
says that the Gospel according to 
the Hebrews represented the man 
as pleading his case with the Lord: 
" caementarius eram, manibus victum 
quaeritans ; precor te, lesu, ut mihi 
restituas sanitatem ne turpiter mendi- 
cam cibos." 

2. KCU jraper^povv avt6v\ Cf. Ps. 
xxxyi. (xxxvii.) 12, TrapaTrjp^a-fTat 
(D?3T) o a/iaprcoXo? TOV dlicaiov Dan. 
vi. ii, Sus. 12, 16 (Th.). The middle 
is more frequent, but Traparrjpe iv occurs 
in Susanna and in Lc. xx. 20. Polybius 

(xvii. 3. 2) couples Traparrjpf iv with 

evedpeveiv. This hostile sense is not 
however inherent in the word, which 


povv avTOv el TO?S (rd/3/3a(riv BepcnrevcreL CLVTOV, iva 
avTOv. *Kai heyei TCO dvvpwTrw TO) 3 


4 in 10 

(rd/3/3a(Tiv d f ya6o7roifjo ai 

2 rot? <r.] pr ev KCDHM min 1 me | depairevet. KDS j KaT-r)yopi)<rov<nv DS 
TW X- X- &P av B L 565 a me aeth] rw TIJV . x- % KC*A 33 T 
T. %. A corr (D)rnS$T al go | eyeipai Ur$> | ets ro /WTO-OP (e? /*ecrw D c)] pr /cat <rn)dt 
D c aeth 4 ee(mv] pr rt E* i 118 131 arm | rots o-a/3/3.] pr ev ADE al 2? me 

go | a.ya.doTroirjo a.i] aya6ov Tronr)<ra.i X rt ay. TT. D 6 arm 

merely means (Lightfoot on GaL iv. 
10) to observe minutely, going along 
as it were with the object for the 
purpose of watching its movements. 
Lc. uses the middle here and in xiv. 
I. Haparrjpfljf el, to watch whether; 
f. Blass, Gr. p. 211. 

ft rots o-dpftaa-iv Oepaircixrfi] Ac 
cording to the Rabbinical rule relief 
might be given to a sufferer on the 
Sabbath only when life was in dan 
ger (Schiirer n. ii. 104). Since in 
the present case postponement was 
clearly possible, a charge might lie 
against Jesus before the Sanhedrin 
if He restored the hand; and they 
watched Him closely in the hope that 
this opportunity might be given (tva 
Kcrrr)yopr)O (i)criv avroi/). According to 
Mt. they even challenged Him by 
asking Ei c ^eori rols a-dpftao-iv Qepa- 
irevfiv ; The question afterwards put 
to them by Jesus (Me.) does not 
exclude this account of the matter 
(Victor, CIKOS fie dpcpoTcpa yeyfv^- 
<r6ai) , but Lc. s comment (j^Sei TOVS 
8ia\oyicriJLovs avratv) seems to be in 
consistent with it, and the additional 
matter in Mt. clearly belongs to an 
other occasion (Mt. xii. n, i2 = Lc. 
xiii. 15, xiv. 5). 

3. KOI Ae-yei r<5 czj/$pa)7ra) KrA.] His 
knowledge of their purpose (Lc.) did 
not deter Him: comp. Dan. vi. 10. 
His first step was to bring the man 
out into the body of the synagogue 
where he could be seen by all (Me., 
Lc.) ; there should be no secrecy and 

no need for Traparrjprjo-is in the mat 
ter, since a principle was involved: 
comp. Jo. xviii. 20. "Eyfipe fls TO pe- 
<roV) a pregnant construction : arise 
[and come] into the midst ; c ex 
amples in Blass, Gr. p. 122. Lc. in 
terpolates Kal OT7/01, and adds KOI dva- 
a-ras ecrrrj details which Me. leaves 
to be imagined. The purpose of the 
command is clear. The miracle was 
intended to be a public and decisive 
answer to the question * Will He work 
His cures on the Sabbath ? 

4. KOI \fyei avrois lerA.] The Lord 
anticipates their question (cf. ii. 8). 
Lc. prefixes Vepo>ro> v^as. His ques 
tioning of the Rabbis began in child 
hood (Lc. ii. 46) : in the method there 
was nothing unusual, still less disre 
spectful ; see J. Lightfoot on Lc. I. c. 
The present question puts a new 
colour on that which was in their 
minds ; for depcnrevfiv He substi 
tutes dyaQoTTotrjo-ai, which raises the 
principle. AyaOoTroielv (formed on 
the analogy of the class. Kaicoiroieiv) 
is a word of the LXX. (=n^n), for 

which class. Gk. used cv iroutv or 
fvepyerelv. In Tob. xii. 13, i Mace. 
xi. 33 dyadov Troteii/ has been substi 
tuted by some of the scribes, and the 
same tendency appears here ; but the 
compound is well supported in the 
N.T., especially in i Peter, where, 
besides dyaOonoiflv (quater\ we find 
dyaOoiroua and dyadonoios. *H KO.KO- 
Troifja-ai raises the startling alterna 
tive : if good may not be done on 

4 2 


[III. 4. 




4 77] pr yiiaXXov 28 124 | cnroKTeivai ] aTroXecrai LA i 124 209 2** latt syrP 6 " 11 arm | 
eaitinrriaav (L)Z<I> agq 5 eiri r. irwpwcrei] e-rn r. irrjpwo-ei 17 20 arm super caeci- 

tate(m) cordis a b e f q vg eiri r. ve/cpwo-ei D syr sin super emortua cor da c ff i r 

the Sabbath, are you prepared to 
justify evildoing on that day? I.e., 
Was it unlawful on the Sabbath to 
rescue a life from incipient death 
(tyvxqv o-oSo-ai), and yet lawful to 
watch for the life of another, as 
they were doing at the moment? 
Was the Sabbath a day for malefi 
cent and not for beneficent action ? 
ATroKremu is used of a judicial sen 
tence, Jo. xviii. 31 ; Lc. substitutes 
here the more usual an-oXe crai. 

ot Se eVtcuTra)!/ : whether from policy, 
or shame (ix. 34), or simply because 
they had no answer ready (Lc. xx. 

5- Kai 7rep^3Xe i v|/ > d/u>os avrovs] 
Except in Lc. vi. 10 (the parallel to 
this context) Trepi/SXtVeo-tfai is used by 
Me. only (iii. 5, 34, v. 32, ix. 8, x. 23, 
xi. n), and five times out of six in 
reference to the quick searching 
glance round the circle of His friends 
or enemies, which St Peter remem 
bered as characteristic of the Lord : 
see Ellicott, Lectures, pp. 25, 176. 
Bengel: "vultus Christi multa nos 
docuit." For the use of ?repi/3X. in 
the LXX. cf. Exod. ii. 12, 3 Regn. xxi. 
(xx.) 40, Tob. xi. 5. Mer opyTjs: there 
was anger in the look or attending it 

(cf. pera SctKpvW Acts XX. 31, Heb. 

xii. 17). Anger is attributed to the 
Lamb, Apoc. vi. 16, 17: it is "legiti 
mate in the absence of the personal 
element" (Gould), i.e. if not vindictive, 
and not inconsistent with a gentle 
character (Mt. xi. 29). 

o-vv\virovfjLvos eVt KT\.] Me. only. 
The anger was tempered by grief: 
comp. i Esdr. ix. 2, TrwOw virep v 

TWV pryaXuv rov 7r\Tjdovs. 

"2vv\v7rel<r6ai, Vg. contristari, implies 
sorrow arising from sympathy, either 
with the sorrow of another (cf. Ps. 
Ixviii. (Ixix.) 21, where the o o-vv- 
\VTTOV fjLevos answers to 6 TrapaKaXeoi/),, 
or, as here, with his unconscious 
misery. With this sorrow of Christ 
for sinners comp. Eph. iv. 30. Sorrow 
is predicated of Jesus again in Mt. 
xxvi. 37. ^vvXvTrovfifvos pres., in con 
trast with TTfpi^\^afj.vos aor., points- 
to the abiding nature of this grief: 
the look was momentary, the sorrow 
habitual. Cf. Oxyrhynch. log. 3 

firi rols vlois TO>V 
ooo-i? rfjs <ap8ias occurs again 
in Eph. iv. 18, where it is a character 
istic of pagan life: in this respect 
unbelieving Israel was on a level with 
untaught heathendom (Rom. xi. 25) ; 
even the Apostles suffered at times- 
from this same malady (Me. viii. 17). 
is to grow callous, and 
in medical language is the 
formation of the hard substance 
(Trojpor, callus) which unites the frac 
tured ends of a broken bone ; trans 
ferred to things spiritual, it is the 
process of moral ossification, which 
renders men insensible to spiritual 
truth. Cod. D and the Sin. Syriac 
express the result by substituting 
veKpcMTts : so some O.L. texts, super 
emortua ittorum corda. The idea 
seems to be derived from Isa. vi. io r 
where the LXX. has 7raxvv6rj...^ Kapdia 
TOV Xaov TOVTOV, but Jo. (xii. 40) para 
phrases eVeopoxrey avru>v rrjv Kapdiav. 
The Vg. renders super caecitate(m} 
cordis eorum (WycliflTe, " on the blynd- 
nesse of her harte," followed by 
Tindale and Cranmer), reading appa- f | 

III. 6] 



Kai aTreKaTea-Tar] Y\ 

ol tpapicraioi evdvs juteTa TCOV 
<rviu/3ov\iov $i$ovv KCLT avTov OTTCOS CLVTOV aTroA.6- 

O COO ll/. 

i 6 

5 om crov BEMSU Vr<l>l min nonn | 
(KABLPrAII 2 al) airoic. (DH*3> mm* ) ] aTre/carecrr?? C 565 | 77 xet/> aur. (om 
syr hier )] + ev6e(i)$ D ff i + vyiys cos 77 aXX^ C 3 LF al + a>s 77 a. syr sin hier 6 om evdvs 

DL al bcffgiq aeth | edidovv BL 13 28 69 124 346 604] eiroiTjffav KCA 238 736 
1071 2P" alp CTTOIOVV APrnZ* al latt vt P lv s arm go Troiovvres D | om /car avrou syr sin | 

are o*. Xa/ij3aye4i/ (Mt. 6 ) or Troiflv 
(Me. xv. i, with a variant eYoi/iaeti/). 
Efii Sow (eVotovi/) perhaps implies that 
the consultation held that day was 
but one of many ; the last is described 
in xv. i. "OTTOOS avrov diro\o~a><Tiv re 
presents the purpose and ultimate 
issue of their counsels (cf. Burton, 
207) not however without refer 
ence to the means to be employed. 
Lc. gives the immediate subject of 
debate rt av 7roiijo~aiev TQ> y lrjo~ov t and 
Mc. s form implies the question Hois 
CLVTOV ex7roXe<ra>/Ltej>; (WM., p. 374). 

/xera ratv HpepStai/aJi ] Me. only. 
Tindale, "with them that belonged 
to Herode." The HpwSiai/ot appear 
again in the same company c. xii. 
i3 = Mt. xxii. 16, and some under 
standing between the two parties is 
implied also in Me. viii. 1 5. Josephus 
(ant. xiv. 15. 10) speaks of TOVS TO, 
HpoiSou (ppovovvras, but the term 
Hpvdiavos occurs only in Mt., Me. 
Adjectives in -avos denote partisan 
ship (Blass on Acts xi. 26). An Hero- 
dian party, so far as it found a place 
in Jewish life, would be actuated by 
mixed motives; some would join it 
from sympathy with the Hellenising 
policy of the Herod family, others 
because they " saw in the power " of 
that family "the pledge of the pre 
servation of their national existence" 
(Westcott in Smith s -B.Z>. 2 , s.v.). The 
latter would have certain interests in 
common with the Pharisees, and 

rently Trrjpvcrei : cf. Job xvii. 7, B, 

irf7T(&pa>vTa.i...oi o0$aX/zoi fiou, where 
^ aa A have the variant TreTr^pooimu. 
See however J. Th. St. iii. i, p. 81 flf., 
where Dr J. Armitage Robinson main 
tains that TTcopeoo-tff acquired by use 
the sense of Tnjpaxris. 

\eyei rco aj>0po)7ra>] As He had 
turned to the paralytic, ii. 10, 1 1. A 
command in each case precedes the 
healing ; recovery comes through faith 
and obedience. With the whole 
scene comp. 3 Regn. xiii. 6. 

aTrfKarta-raQr) 77 X et p] Mt. adds 
vytrjs cos ;; a\\T). For this US6 of 

careK.. cf. Me. viii. 25. The verb is 
frequent in the later Gk. and in the 
Lxx.; in the N.T. (exc. Heb. xiii. 19) 
its use is always more or less dis 
tinctly Messianic, and based perhaps 
on Mai. iv. 5 (see on Me. ix. 12). 
Each miracle of healing was an earnest 
in an individual case of the aTro/cara- 
vrao-is TrdvTcov (Acts iii. 21). For the 
double augment see WH., Notes, 
p. 162, and Blass, Gr., p. 39. 

6. Kai ge\66vrcs ol &. evdvs] The 

Pharisees left the synagogue mad 
with rage (cTrXTJcrdrjo-av dvoias, Lc.) 
and lost no time (cvQvs, Me. only) in 
plotting revenge. Lc. speaks only 
of an informal discussion (SteAoAoui/ 
irpos aXXr/Xou?), Me., Mt. of a council 
or consultation (o-vuftovXiov in Prov. 
xv. 22 it is Th. s word for liD, LXX. 
tnvfopia). Sw/nj8. SiSoi/cu occurs here 
only in the N.T. ; the usual phrases 


7 7 Kai 6 lrj(rovs //era TCOV 



[III. 7 


i 7TO\V 7T\fj6oS CL7TO Trj? 

8 FaXeiXaias ^KO\ov6rj(rev Kai OLTTO Trjs lovSaias 8 Kai 

7 Ii)ffovs] + yj ovs 1071 | 7iy>oj] eis DHP min nonn irapa. 13 28 69 124 1071 | iro\v 
TTO\VS o^Xos D latt | rjKoXovdijffev] om D 28 124 a (be) eff i q syr Bin post Iou5. 
transp KBA 238 1071 f vg + aurw <J> 

might have readily joined them in 
an effort to suppress a teacher who 
threatened the status quo ; although, 
as Bengel quaintly suggests, "for- 
tasse non magnopere curabant Sab- 
batum." The Pharisees on their 
part, without any great affection for 
the Herods, could acquiesce in their 
rule as the less of two evils. H. 
the Great had made bids for their 
support (Schurer i. i. pp. 419, 444 f.), 
and Lc. shews (xiii. 31 f., xxiii. 10) 
that they were not unwilling to use 
Antipas as an ally against Jesus, or 
even to act as emissaries of the 

BY THE SEA (Mt. xii. 1521, Lc. vi. 

1719)- ( 

7. KCU 6 *Ir](rovs...dvfx<opT]o-v] Ara- 
xotpelv is used, esp. by Mt., of with 
drawal from danger, Mt. ii. 12 ff., iv. 12, 
xiv. 13; in the present context Mt. 
makes this meaning clear by adding 
yvovs. Jesus withdrew from the town 
to the seaside because He was aware of 
the plot. He and His would be safer 
on the open beach, surrounded by 
crowds of followers, than in the narrow 
streets of Capernaum. His friends 
would prevent an arrest ; in case of 
danger, a boat was at hand. Ets is 
the usual preposition after avaxwpflv 
(Mt. ii. 14, &c.) : irpos gives the direc 
tion or locality of the retreat (cf. ii. 2). 
On the policy of this retreat see Bede: 
" neque adhuc venerat hora passionis 
eius, neque extra lerusalem fuit locus 

Kai TroXv ir\fjdos *rX.] Cf. i. 28, 37, 
45 J " 13- nX^os is frequent in Lc. ; 

for TroXu TT\. cf. Lc. xxiii. 27, Acts xiv. 
i, xvii. 4. On the prominence given to 
the adj. see WM., p. 657 ; the normal 
order occurs when the words are re 
peated in v. 8. The punctuation of 
this paragraph is open to some doubt ; 
we may either keep JKo\ov6r)(rev for 
the Galileans, assigning the other fac 
tors in the crowd to ^\6ov (v. 8), or we 
may begin a new sentence at 7r\fj6os 
iro\v, or at oKovovres. WH. and R.V. 
adopt the former view, but the re 
peated diro seems to point to the con 
tinuity of the words from KOI TTO\V to 
y l8ovfj.aias, and probably to 2tS<3i/a: 
COmp. Lc. 7T\r)dos iro\v...oi rjXQav. 

7 8. Kai drro r. lovSaia? /crX.] The 
Galilean following is now supple 
mented by others from south, east, 
and north. Judaea had already sent 
Pharisees and Scribes (Lc. v. 17), and 
now, perhaps as a result of the syna 
gogue preaching mentioned in Lc. iv. 
45, adds its contribution to the Lord s- 
willing hearers. Jerusalem is named 
separately, as in Isa. i. i, Jer. iv. 3,. 
Joel iii. 20; cf. i. 5. H iSov 
named here only in the N.T. = 
in the LXX. (Isa. xxxiv. 5, 6, &c.). 
The victories of Judas Maccabaeus 
(i Mace. v. 3) and John Hyrcanua 
(Joseph, ant. xiii. 9. i) had gone- 
far to remove the barrier between 
Edom and Israel, and the Edomite 
extraction of the Herods brought the 
two peoples nearer: "in our Lord s 
time Idumaea was practically a part 
of Judaea with a Jewish [circumcised] 
population" (G. A. Smith, Hist. Geogr. 
p. 240; cf. Joseph, ant. xiii. 9. i). More 
over in Roman times Idumaea was . 


0.7TO lepO(TO\VIUL(x)V KO.L OLTTO Tf/S /SofjUOC/a? K.OL 7TpaV 

TOV lop^dvov Kai Trepi Tvpov Kai QSwi/a, TrXijBos 
i/j a/coi/oi/Tes aero. TToie?, r]\6ov TTjOos avTOv. 9 Kai 9 
avTov *lva TrXoidpiov TrpocrKapTeprj 

&L7rev Tots 

8 om /cat euro TTJS Idovp. N* i 118 131 209 258 c ff syr sin arm | irepav] pr 01 
D f | Trepi] pr 01 ADPmS<J> rell a vg Byr hel go arm | StSwi a] pr 01 ire/at D | om 
Tr\r)0. 7roXu a b c syr 8 " 1 | a/couopres KBA f 1 3 69 al latt (exc a) me go aeth] a/coucrcu/res 
ACDLPmZ<I> al | o<ra] a CD min 2 a i r vg me | -n-otei BLsyrr vid ] eiroiet KACDPrAIIS< 
al latt me | fj\6av D y\6ev U 9 TrXoiapia B 

used loosely for the south border 
land of Judaea; cf. Joseph, c. Ap. 
ii. 9 T) /u.ez> iSou/zata T^S J^iere pas ^a>pas 
eVrty op,opos Kara Ta^av Keip-einj : ant. 
V. I. 22 77 /Liei/ Iov5a Xa^ovo-a 
aipeirai r^f\nrfp6t 
Tfivovcrav fjitv a-XP 1 T 
ro 6 eupos- ecos- r^s SoSo/xiriSo? Xipvrjs 
Kadr/Kovo-av. Thus Judaea and Idu- 
maea together represent the South. 
The East too sent its contribution 
from Peraea (nepav TOV lopdavov, i.e. 
OTTO TOV nepav T. *L). H Uepaia 
(Joseph. B. J. iii. 3. 3) is both in 
LXX. and N.T. simply 77 ircpav TOV 

> iopaa J /ou = n < i?n~i:iy, cf. Isa, ix. i 

(viii. 23), Mt. iv. 25, Me. x. i. Accord 
ing to Josephus I.e. Peraea extended 
on the East of Jordan from Machaerus 
to Pella, i.e. it lay chiefly between the 
Jabbok and the Arnon ; but, like 
Idumaea, the name seems to have 
been somewhat loosely applied (G. A. 
Smith, p. 539); Mt. in a similar list 
(iv. 25) substitutes Decapolis for 
Peraea : see note on Me. v. 20. From 
the North-West came inhabitants of 
the Phoenician sea-coast (TT^PI Tvpov 
Kai 2i8a>va = TTJs irapaXiov Tvpov Kai 
Si&wi/os, Lc.); the district is called 
&OIVLKTJ in Acts xi. 19, xv. 3, xxi. 2, 
and in the LXX. (i Esdr. ii. 16 ff., 
2 Mace. iii. 5, &c.), but not in the 
Gospels, where it is simply TO. pepr) 
or TO opta Tvpov AC. SiStovos (Mt. XV. 
21, Me. vii. 24). The network of 
roads which covered Galilee facilitated 

such gatherings; see G. A. Smith, 
p. 425 ff. 

v. 7, note; the emphasis is no longer 
on the magnitude of the concourse, 
but on its cause. The fame of the 
miracles (c i. 28, 45) had brought 
them together, and also, as Lc. adds, 
the fame of the teaching (rj\6av aKovo~ai 
avTov Kai laBrjvat). AKOVOVTCS o<ra 
Trotet, $\6ov. for aKovovres we expect 
aKovo~avTcs (see vv. 11.), but the pres. 
part, may denote that the rumour on 
the strength of which they started 
continued and increased in strength 
(WM., p. 429 ; Burton 59, who calls 
it " the present of past action still in 
progress"); in xroteZ we hear the re 
port as it is passed from one to another 
in the crowd. "Oo-a, how many things 
rather than how great, = all that ; 
cf. Me. iii. 28, v. 19, vi. 30, x. 21; 
Lc. viii. 39; Acts xiv. 27, xv. 4, 12. 

9. Kai iTrev... iva KrX.] On flnelv 
Iva see WM., p. 422. nXotoptoi/, Vg. 
navicula, probably here a light boat 
in contrast with a fishing smack 
(TrXoZoi/), as in Jo. vi. 22, 24, xxi. 8 

(cf. WestCOtt). Upoo-KapTCpelv (Acts 6 , 

Paul 3 , here only in the Gospels) is 
rendered in the Vg. by perseverare, 
perdurare, instare, adhaerere, pa- 
rere, servire, and here by deservire : 
in Me. the English versions from 
Tindale have had the happy rendering 
wait on. The boat was to keep 
close to the shore, moving when He 


10 avTW Sid rov o^Xov, iva JJLYI 6\i(3a)(Tiv avToV IO TTO\- 
Xovs yap eOepaTrevcrev, wcrre 

avrw va 

W 1 1 avTOV 


" Kal 


TO. aKaOapra, orav avTov edewpovv, TTpocre- 

7T17TTOV aVTU) Kal 6Kpa%OV XejOVTO, OTL Cv 1 6 VIOS 

9 avroj>] + 7roXXoi D a ff + oi 0^X01 13 28 69 124 346 10 edepairevev KIT min 2 

me I aurw] pr ev D latt n KO.I irv. aKad. D | oravj + ow D | edewpovv 

(KBCDGLAS 13 33 69 1071 al)] eOewpei APm<i> | TrpoaeirnrTav B TrpoaeimrTev EHSUV 
al | eKpafrv EHMSUV al | \eyovres KDK minP auc | av ei] + o xp<-<rs CMPI> 16121 syr hcl * 

moved, so as to be ready at any 00-01 ti^oi/ pao-Tiyas] For this use 

moment to receive Him ; comp. Lc. of /zao-rtyes see Me. v. 29, 34, Lc. 

v. 3. On the present occasion He vii. 21 v6ao>v Kal ^aa-Tiyatv. 

does not seem to have used it; the 

work of healing kept Him on the 

land as long as it was possible to 

remain there. There was no shrinking 

from contact with the crowd, but only 

a provision against a real danger Iva 

pr) 6\ift(0(Tiv avTov. For the literal 

sense of 6\lfia> cf. Mt. vii. 14 Tc6\ip,nevr) 

f) oSoy : both in LXX. and N.T. it is used 

with few exceptions metaphorically. 

IO. TroXXous yap edepdrrevcrev KrX.J 
On Qepaireveiv see note on i. 34. For 
TroXXovs, Mt. has TrdvTas : see note on 
i. 34 : all were healed who touched 
Him or on whom He laid hands. 

(Bore fTrtTTiTrreiv avr&i] The enthu 
siasm grew till it became dangerous : 
the sufferers threw themselves on 
Him in their eagerness, or impelled 
by the crowd. For ciruriirTftv rwl 
(more usually eV/ nva or nvi) see 
2 Regn. xvii. 9, Job vi. 16, Judith xv. 6. 
The action is not always hostile (cf. 
Acts xx. 10), but it implies suddenness, 
and usually some degree of passion ; 
Field (Notes, p. 25) adduces Thuc. vii. 
84, eTTfTri fTTov re aXXj^Xot? Kal /careTra- 
row. In the present case it was 
natural enough, yet perilous, "iva 
avTov atyuvrai : contact was thought 
to be a condition, since it was often 
the concomitant, of healing (Me. i. 41, 
V. 27 flf., vi. 56, viii. 22 ; cf. Lc. e ^row 
aiTTfcroai avroC, ort $vvauis Trap* avrov 

represents disease or suflfering as a 
Divine scourge used for chastisement ; 
comp. Prov. iii. 12, cited in Heb. xii. 6 ; 
the idea is frequent in the O.T. and 
Apocrypha, cf. e.g. Ps. Ixxiii. 4, 5, 
Jer. v. 3, Tob. xiii. 14 (18), 2 Mace. 
iii. 34, ix. n, Ps. Sol. x. i, but the 
noun does not appear in the LXX. as 
interchangeable with voa-os: possibly 
even in the N.T. it carries with it the 
thought of greater suflfering, as well 
as of a more direct visitation of 

II. Kal TO. Trvevpara ret a.Ka6. *rX.] 
For Trvfvfjia dKadaprov^dai^oviov see 
i. 23 note. "Orav avrbv c6ewpovv = 
the class, ore or onore 6ta>polcv (Madv. 
134 5); see Burton, 290, 315, and 
cf. WM., p." 388, Blass, Gr. p. 207: 
* whenever, as often as, they caught 
sight of Him. npoo-ri7rroi> an act 
of homage (Acts xvi 29) akin to 
adoration (cf. Ps. xciv. (xcv.) 6, 

now, as it seems, for the first time 
offered to Jesus since the commence 
ment of His ministry ; subsequently 
such prostrations were frequent (Me. 
v. 6, 33, vii. 25). The contrast between 
firiiritrrcw (v. lo) and Trpoo-Tr /TIT-CIV is 
striking and perhaps not accidental. 

KOI Kpaov *rX.] Kpaa> is used of 
the wild cry of the demoniacs also in 
i. 23, v. 5, 7, ix. 26. The words of 
the cry go beyond the confession of 

III. 13] 


i 7ro\\a 67TT//ua avTois IVOL \JLY\ avTOV 12 

V 6eov. 

13 Kai dvaftaivei ek TO opos Kai TTpocTKaXelTai oi/s 13 

12 TTOl7)<Ta)<Tlv] TTOltofflV B 2 DKLII* 1 3 69 alP* uc + OTt 

2 pe corr w 801 " 00 " a + ort yd. avrov b ff g q t 


avrov etvat 

i. 24, for o vlbs TOV 0fov, however inter 
preted, is more definite than 6 dyios. 
Comp. Mt. IV. 6, 6 Sia/3oAos \cyfi avrqt 
Et vfoy et rov 6eov KT\. The earliest 
confession of the Sonship seems to 
have come from evil spirits, who knew 
Jesus better than he was known by 
His own disciples ra daipovia TTIO~~ 
revovo-iv (James ii. 19). 

12. Kai TroXXa cTTfTifia avTois KT\.] 
Cf. i. 25, 43. The purpose of the 
censure was to prevent a premature 
divulgence of His true character : cf. 

PhiL ii. 6, ov% yytfo~aTO TO 
flvai icra ra) den. Mt. reminds his 
readers of Isa. xlii. i 4, which he 
sees fulfilled in our Lord s freedom 
from personal ambition. HoXXa 
circri/ia, Vg. vehementer commina- 
batur : TroXXa as an adverb is charac 
teristic of Me., cf. v. 10, 23, 43, ix. 26. 
Mt. has the less vivid tirfri^a-ev 
avrols: Lc. omits the circumstance. 
&avfpbv iroLftv = ^>avfpovv occurs only 
here and in Mt. s parallel. The <f>ave- 
poxris was postponed only; cf. iv. 22, 
Rom. xvi. 26; it was not yet the 
time for a general manifestation (Jo. 
vii. 6 f., xvii. 6), and the daipovia were 
possibly aware that their revelations 
could only work mischief at this 
stage. " Nee tempus erat, neque hi 
praecones " (Bengel). Bede compares 
Ps. xlix. (1.) 16. 

THE TWELVE (Mt. x. i 4, Lc. vi. 

12 16). 

13. Kai avaftaivfi rX.] Lc. fyfVfro de 
V rats Tjnepais ravrats et-cXddv, again 
implying an interval where Mc. s 
narrative seems to be continuous 
(comp. Me. iii. i); in Mt. the order 

is. entirely different. Avapaivei, the 
historical present, frequent in Me. 
(e.g. i. 21, 40, ii. 15, 1 8, iii. 4, 8; cf. 
Hawkins, p. 113 ff.); TO opos as in vi. 
46 the hills above the Lake (ra op?/, 
V. 5), cf. 77 BaXacra-a (ii. 13, iii. 7) : 
any other mountain is specified, e.g. 
ix. 2, xi. i. Similarly in Gen. xix. 17 
TO opoff pHH) is the heights above the 
Jordan valley, and in Jud. i. 19, the 
hill country of Judah (17 opivrf, Lc. i. 39, 

65). With the phrase avafiaivciv els 

rb o. compare Mt. v. i, xiv. 23, xv. 29. 

The purpose of this retreat to the 

hills is stated by Lc. : eycpero...ccX- 

6fiv ai}TOJ>...7rpoo-euao-$ai, Kai rjv 8ia- 
vvKTfpevav cv TT; 7rpoo-ev^ TOV 6fov. 
A crisis had been reached, for which 
special preparation must be made. 
"A way was prepared in that night of 
prayer upon the hills whereby an 
organic life was imparted to the little 
community... Our Lord takes counsel 
of the Father alone,.. .when the morn 
ing comes [Lc. 6Vf eyeveTO\ His 
resolve is distinct, and it is forth 
with carried out" (Latham, Pastor 
pastorum, p. 238). It was the first 
Ember night; Victor: TOVS rjyovpevovs 
8idao~K(i)v TTJS KK\r)o-ias npb r>v yivo- 

fJifVCOV V7T* OVTtoV ^etpOTOI lCOI/ diaVVKTf- 

Kai TrpoovcaXemu ovs rfdfXev avTos 
KT\.} The King chooses His ministers : 
the selection is His act and not 
theirs : Jo. vi. 70, xv. 16, Acts i. 2. 
For other instances of the exer 
cise of our Lord s human will, see 
i. 41, vii. 24, ix. 30, Jo. xvii. 24, 
xxi. 22 ; and for its renunciation, 
xiv. 36, Jo. v. 30. Bengel : " vole- 
bat, ex voluntate Patris." Two steps 
(Me., Lc. ; the point is not noticed by 


14 fideXev oaJros, KCLI a7rri\6ov Trpos avTOv. 14 /ccu eVo/- 
Sw Se/ca, oi)s /ca* a7roo"To\oi/s wvojuiacrev^ face 
/xer* avTOv, Kai iva aTrocrTeXXrj avTOvs Krjpv&creii/ 

14 5wSe/ca post iva <a<riv Daci Vg | ovs /cat cnr. wvo/j-acrev KBC* vid A 13 28 69 124 
238 346 syr 1101 ^) me (aeth)] om AC 2 DLP2(<I>) minP 1 latt S yrr 8in P e8hhcl < t * t > go arm j 
om iva 2 B | aTrooreAet !> | Kypvcrffeiv] pr /cat aTrocrroXous (avop-acrev TOV <$> + TO evayye- 
\ioj> D befffgiq 

instance of Western non-interpola 
tion 5 ; but the external evidence is 
too strong in their favour to permit 
their ejection from the text of Me., 
even if Me. vi. 30 does not presuppose 
their presence here. The name was 
not perhaps given at the time, but it 
was given by the Lord ; He not only 
created the office but also (/cat) im 
posed the title. ATroo-roXos is used 
by the LXX. only in 3 Regn. xiv. 6 (A), 
where it n-17^ } cf. Isa. xviii. 2 Symm. 
oVoerreXXcoj/ aVoo-roXous ( = D^"VV, Aq. 
7rpecr/3evras). For the history and 
N.T. use of the word see Lightfoot, 
Galatians, p. 92 ff. ; Hort, Ecclesia, 
p. 22 ff. 

Iva Gxrti/ /zer* avTov KrX.] Two im 
mediate purposes of the creation of 
an Apostolate : (i) such closer associa 
tion with the Master as was impos 
sible for the general body of /xa^rai , 
(2) a mission based on the special 
training thus imparted. Association 
with Christ was at once the training 
of the Twelve, and if they were faith 
ful, their reward (Jo. xvii. 24). For 
its effects see Acts iv. 13. On irotflv 
iva cf. Blass, Gr. p. 226. 

14 15* ^ va onwreXAg KT\."] Hence 
the name of their office. On aTroo-re X- 
Xa> as distinguished from Tre /zTrco see 
Westcott on Jo. xx. 21 (add. note) ; for 
KT)pva-(ra> cf. i. 4, 14, and w. 11. here; 
the substance of the original Apos 
tolic Krjpvypa was (Mt. X. 7), "HyyiKf v rj 
/Sao- tX eta T&V ovpavu>v. A second part 
of their commission was to exorcise and 
to heal ; Me. mentions only exorcism, 
but cf. Mt. (x. i). For this work au- 

Mt.) appear in this e ^Xoyij: (i) the 
summoning of an inner circle of 
disciples; (2) the appointment of 
twelve of their number to a special 
office. Upoo-KaXflcrOai (vocare ad se, 
Vg.), first in Gen. xxviii. i, is from 
this time forth frequently used of 
the summons of Christ whether to 
the padrjTai or the oxXos (Me. 8 ). 
Those who were summoned in this 
instance anffKOov irpos avrov more 
perhaps than venerunt (Vg.) : in 
coming they finally parted with the 
surroundings of their previous life. 

14. Kal ejToiijo-ev 6\oSe*a] Out of 
those who answered His summons 
He again selected twelve : Lc. e*Xea- 
/xe i/os oV avToii/ daJfiexa ; Victor : rj(rav 
yap TrXeiovs 01 irapovres. These He ap 
pointed (eVoi j/o-ei/, Me.). For iroielv in 
this sense see i Regn. xii. 6 (6 Troiijo-as 
TOV Meovo^i/ Kai r. Aapcui/), Acts ii. 36, 
Heb. iii. 2 (Westcott), Apoc. v. 10; 
the Vg.fecitut essent, &c. presupposes 
the Western reading eVoujo-ei/ Iva <oa-iv 
iff /ner CIVTOV. The number (i) seems 
to have reference to the tribes of Israel, 
to whom the Twelve were originally 
sent (Mt. x. 6, 23) ; (2) it suggests their 
relation to the larger Israel as patri 
archs and princes of the new Kingdom 
(Mt. xix. 28, Lc. xxii. 30, Apoc. xxi. 
12, 14).^ Cf.^Barn. 8. 3, of? ?&<, T oO 
evayyeXtov TTJV egovo-iav, ovviv deKadvo 
els iwprupiov T>V (pv\a>v. 

ovs Kai a.7ro<rTo\ovs (ov6fj.aa-fv] See 
w. 11. : the words look like an inter 
polation from Lc., and it has been 
suggested that their omission by D 
and other Western ; authorities is an 



* 5 Kai 

l6 Kai 

ef~ov<riav K/3a\\eiv TO, 
eTroirjcrev TOVS ScJSe/ca* Kai 67re6rjKev wopa TW 

^ Kai laK(jo/3ov TOV TOV Ze/3e$aiov KCU /w- 17 

15 exeiv] edwitev avrots Db cf ff i t vgaeth | eov<nai ] + depaireveiv ras voffovs KCU 
AC 2 DPrnS3> min fereomn latt syrr arm go 16 /ecu eiroi^ev T. 5co5. KBC*A3> 

aeth cd ] om AC 2 DLPPIIS minP 1 latt syrr arm me go aeth edd irpurov Si//,o;j>a 13 69 
124 346 | eiredrjKev aurots ovoftaTO. 1071 | r(a S. ovoytta APriI2<i> al minP ler S. o^o/ia D 

thority was necessary (fx fiv fovo~iav 
eK/3aAAeii , cf. Mt. edoxev avTols eov- 
o-iav KT\.); authority delegated from 
Christ was to be the note of their 
ministry, as authority delegated from 
the Father had been the note of the 
Master s (see i. 22, ii. 10). Their 
mission was identical in its purposes 
with His, but secondary, and depen 
dent on His gifts. 

1 6. KOI ciroirjtrev TOVS ScoSexa] The 
thread of v. 14 is picked up after the 
parenthesis Iva. (ocriv. . .TO. Sat/ioi/ta and 
so He created the Twelve. Aco Sexa 
now has the article, cf. iv. 10, vi. 7, &c. : 

SO Lc. X. I a.ve8eiev...fl38ofj.r]KOVTa Svo, 
,ib. 17 oi epdofj.r)KovTa 8vo, Acts vi. 3 
a.vdpas...7rra.j xxi. 8 ovros CK TO>V eTrra. 
For Troielv cf. v. 14, note. 

Kai 7re0r)<V ovofj,a TW 2t /iaw Herpov] 

For e-rndflvai ovona cf. 4 Regn. xxiv. 
17, and on the practice of imposing 
characteristic names on scholars, see 
Schottgen, ad 1. ; Bengel : " domini 
nota est dare cognomen." The con 
struction thus begun is broken off by 
the intervention of another train of 
thought. Me. is (as it seems) about to 

continue /ecu ro> Iaco>/3a>. . .Kai Icodvrj ene- 
6r)Ki> ovofj-a Boaw;pyey, when it occurs 

to him that a list of the twelve will 
naturally follow eiroirjo-fv TOVS 8a>Se/ca. 
Hence he proceeds as if he had written 

St/zoopa a> eiTfdrjKev ovofj.a HfTpov. WH. 

regard Kal... Sip,<ovi as a parenthesis, 
but a parenthesis in such a context is 
almost intolerable. Such added names 
are common in the N.T., cf. Acts i. 

23 BapcrafBfiav os eTre/cX^T/ lovo-ros, 
iv. 36 Icoo-?;^ 6 eTriKXrjQels Bapj/aj3as, 

Xli. 12 icoayov roG eiriKoXovfievov Map- 

KOV : in Acts a similar formula is used 
in Simon s case (x. 5, 18, 32, xi. 
13), but only when that Apostle is 
mentioned by or to persons outside 
the Church ; elsewhere in the Acts 
and in the Gospels he is hence 
forth Herpes or 2i/j,eov Ile rpos 1 , the 
latter especially in St John. Ile rpos- 
= Kr)(pas (Jo. i. 42), i.e. NB3 (cf. 
D" 1 ??, Job xxx. 6, Jer. iv. 29), Syr. 
*2ns>, a rock, or usually a de 
tached piece of rock, a stone (cf. 
Hort, First Epistle o/St Peter, p. 1 52). 
"The title appears to mark not so 
much the natural character of the 
Apostle as the spiritual office to which 
he was called" (Westcott) : cf. Victor, 

iva TrpoXdftr] TO epyov 77 K\rjo~is 7rpo(prj- 

TIKU>S. The name was actually given 
at the first call of Simon (Jo. l.-c.}, but 
apparently not appropriated till he 
became an Apostle. Mc. s eneB^tv 
leaves the time undetermined, so that 
Augustine (de cons. 109) may be right : 
"hoc recolendo dixit, non quod turn 
factum sit." Justin appears to refer 
to this verse, dial. 106 : [j.eTa>vofj.aKevai 

O.VTOV HeTpov eva ratv d-rrooroXcov, KOI ye- 
ypdcpdai ev rols airo^.vr]\iov^\)\ia<TLV avrov 
yyvrjp.fvov KOI TOVTO (cf. Intr. p. xxx). 
17. KOL *LzKCDj3by...iea2 iwai^i/] Sc. 
iroir]o-fv. For these Apostles see 
note on i 19. They follow next after 
Peter (irpa>Tos ^ifj-otv, Mt), either be 
cause they shared with him the 
prerogative of a title imposed by the 
Lord, or because with him they were 
afterwards singled out for special 




TOV d$e\(f)6v TOV 

ovojjia * Boavrjpyes* : , o ecrTiv Yioi 
1 8 l8 Kai AvSpeav Kat <t>L\.L7T7rov Kai BapGoXojJLalov Kai 

17 TOV Ia/tw/3ou] avrov Ia/c. AFS al avrov G rninP*" Syr 810 om TOV CKSA 
BD min 3 syrP esh ] ovo^ara KACLrAIIS< al min? 1 latt syr hcl arm me go aeth | poavrjp- 
yes tf ABCKLMA 2 !!* i 33 69 alP auc ] poavepyrjs D poavepyes EFGHUVm 2 <i> min? 1 
poavapyes A* pavypeyef 604 pavr/peyes ^ e \ om o <rrn> vioi pp. syr sin 

privileges (Me. v. 37, ix. 2, xiv. 32; 
Acts i. 13, where the titles are not 
mentioned, has the same order). 

Kai Tredr)KV avTois ovopa Boavrjpye? 

KT\.] Dalman, Gr. pp. 112 n., 158 n., 
suggested that Boai^pye s is a corrup 
tion of Vavypoyes (TJT^.5), and similar 
forms occur in two important cursives 
(see vv. 11.), and in the Syriac versions, 
which have the meaningless 9 \ \ 
i~\2 1 and the Armenian (Bane- 
reges). More recently ( Worte Jesu, 
p. 39, n. 4) he has proposed to regard 
either o or a as an intrusion into 
the text. Others have justified the 
prevalent form by such partial ana 
logies as 2oSo/za = Dlp ? Pooo/Scotf = 
The second factor in Boav- 
is hardly less perplexing. The 
Syriac root x^i is never used of 
thunder, and the ordinary Heb. for 
thunder is Din (Syr. *&yx*J\). 
Jerome (on Dan. i. 7) proposed Bene- 
reem orBaneraem (DJH"M?), but with 
out Greek authority. In Job xxxvii. 2 
t .p appears to be used for the rumbling 
of the storm, and this seems to point 
to the quarter where a solution may 
be found. The vioi ppovrfjs ( = ol 
ftpovT&vres, Euth.) were probably go 
called not merely from the impetuo 
sity of their natural character (cf. e.g. 
Me. ix. 38, Lc. ix. 54), but, as Simon 
was called Peter, from their place in 
the new order. In the case of James 
nothing remains to justify the title 
beyond the fact of his early martyr 
dom, probably due to the force of his 

denunciations (Acts xii. 2) : John s 
vorjrrj /Spozmj (Orig. Philoc. XV. 1 8) 18 
heard in Gospel, Epistles, and Apoca 
lypse; see esp. Trench, Studies, p. 
144 f., Westcott, St John, p. xxxiii ; 
and for the patristic explanations cf. 
Suicer s. v. Bpovrj. Victor: dia TO 
peya KOI 8ta.Trpvcriov ijxfjcrat rrj otKov- 
fievrj TTJS 0fo\oyias rot fioy^ara. 

1 8. icai Avftpeav Kai 3>tXt7nroi>J As 
Simon Peter s brother, Andrew follows 
the first three, although irpbs TOVS Tpeis 
OVK rjXBfv (2 Regn. xxiii. 23) ; cf. Me. 
xiii. 3, Acts i. 13; Mt. and Lc. place 
him second. He appears again in 
connexion with Philip in Jo. xii. 22. 
Both Ai/Speas- and QiXiTrnos are purely 
Greek names, whilst Si/xcoj/ is Sv/iecoi/ 
Hellenised (note on i. 16) : the three 
men came from the same town, Beth- 
saida (Jo. i. 44), where Hellenising in 
fluences were at work; see note on 
viii. 22. 

icat Bap0oAo/ucuoj/J 
(only in the Apostolic lists) 
Syr.sin.pe8h. ^Aoit-to, the son of 
Talmai or Tolomai : cf. Baptcom Mt. 
XVL I7 = [vios] y la>avov Jo. xxi. 15, Bap- 
Ti/naioff=6 vtbs Tt/aatov (Me. X. 46). The 
name "wn (M.T. ftyty occurs in Num. 
xiii. 22, Josh. xv. 14, Judg. i. 10, 
2 Sam. iii. 3, xiii. 37, i Chrou. iii 2, 
and among its Greek equivalents in 
codd. BA are eoaA/net, eaA/tm, eoA/ue/, 
QoXapai Josephus has GoAo/iaTos- (ant. 
xx. i. i). Only the patronymic of 
this Apostle appears in the lists, but 
he is probably identical with the 

of Jo. i. 46 ff., Xxi. 2 (see 


MaddaTov^ Kai OoojULav Kai laKO)/3ov TOV TOV *A\(f)aiov H fc 

1 8 Ma6datov B*D] Mardatov K (sed alibi plerumque Ma00.) AB 2 CLrAIIS<l> al 
13 69 124 209 604 1071 syr hcl ( m s> arm 

Westcott ad II.}. If so, he was from 
Cana, and his introduction to the 
Lord was due to Philip, whom he 
follows in the lists of Mt. Me. Lc. 
Tradition (Eus. H. E. v. 10) gave him 
India as his field of Apostolic work. 

Kai MadOalov KOI Qafjiav] The two 

names are associated, in varying or 
der (M. AC. G., Me. Lc. ; 0. K. M., Mt.), 
by the three Synoptists ; in Acts 
they are separated by Bartholomew. 
Mt. adds 6 reXcoi^s- to his own name. 
Ma^aToff, Syrr. 8in - cu -P esh - ^ivm, is 
either like Manias an abbreviated 
form of -liTriniO (i Chron. xxv. 21 Mar- 
6ias, A) so Dalman, Gr. p. 142, Worte 
J., p. 40 f. or connected with np 5 vir. 
That Matthew is identical with Levi 
seems to follow from Mt. ix. 9 ff. 
compared with the parallels in Me., 
Lc. But some expositors ancient as 
well as modern have distinguished 
the two, e.g. Heracleon (ap. Clem. 
Al. Strom. IV. 9, e <av Mar&nor, *t- 
XITTTTOS, QatfjLas, AfvtS) Kai aXXot), and 

perhaps Origen (Gels. i. 62). No dif 
ficulty need be felt as to the double 
name, of which the Apostolic list has 
already yielded examples. eo>/zar= 
ND-1KJ? ( = D-1KFI Gen. xxxviii. 27), c 
Dalman, p. 112, is interpreted by Jo. 

XL 1 6, XX. 24, xxi. 2 (o Xf-yo/if i/off 
Ai Su^or, the twin). According to the 
Acta Thomae (cf. Eus. H.E. i. 13) 
his personal name was Judas (eXa^ei/ 
77 y lv8ia lovSa Gto/xa ra> /cat AtSu/ia)). 
In Jo. xiv. 22 Syr. cu - has Judas 
Thomas and Syr. 8in - Thomas for 
lovftas ovx o lo-KapuoTTjs : see Light- 
foot, Galatians, p. 263 n. If there 
were three Apostles of the name of 
Judas, the substitution of a secondary 
name in the case of one of them was 
natural enough. 

Kat la/c<u/3oi TOV TOV AX0aiov] So 
Mt. : Lc. ev - act - laK<B/3os AX^atou : SO 
called no doubt to distinguish him 
from laKtoftos 6 TOV Zefiedaiov. AX- 
</>atoy ( = > Q?n j cf. XaX</>et, i Mace. xi. 
70) is perhaps identical with KX ca 
n-as, Jo. xix. 25 : if he is the KXeo7ras = 
KXeoTrarpos of Lc. xxiv. 1 8, the latter 
name must be simply a Greek sub 
stitute for the Aramaic name (cf. 
Lightfoot, Galatians, p. 267 n., Dal 
man, p. 142 n.). If the identification 
of AX<paios with KXeoTras is correct, 
this James was also known in the 
Apostolic Church as o piKpos: his 
mother was a Mary, and he had a bro 
ther Joses ( Joseph); cf. Me. xv. 40. 
There is no reason for regarding him 
as a brother of Levi, or as one of the 
brothers of the Lord (see notes on 
ii. 14, vi. 3). 

eaddalov] Aram, ton, ^Fl (Dalman, 
Gr., p. 143 ; Worte J., p. 41). Both 
in Mt. and Me. the Western text 
gives Ae/3/3aIoff (WH., Notes, pp. 11, 
24), either an attempt to identify this 
Apostle with Levi (H.), or another 
rendering of his name (from D?, cor f 
as GafiSaToff is from *1$ t Syr. ^-n^x 
mamma). In Lc. 6 ^ 8 * 4 - his name is 
given as lovdas la/cco/Sou : cf. Orig. 
praef. ad Rom.: "eundem quern... 
Marcus Thaddaeum dixit, Lucas lu- 
dam lacobi scripsit...quia moris erat 
binis vel ternis nominibus uti He- 
braeos." This Judas is apparently 
referred to in Jo. xiv. 22 as ovx 
laKapKOTTjs. For fuller particulars 
see Nestle, in Hastings, D. B. iv. 
p. 741 f. 

2i /Acora TOV Kavavaiov] So Mt. ; Lc. ev - 
Si/icoi a TOV KO\OV pevov ^Xtor^i/, Lc. act> 
Sifjuovo r)\a>TT)s. Karai/aTos-likeGaSSatos 1 

is a descriptive name, not a native of 



Kcti OaSScuov Kat CifJiiava TOV Kavavaiov I9 /ccu 
oB, os KCLI 7rape$a)KV O.VTOV. 

[III. 18 

18 Qaddaiov] Aefipaiov Dabffiq | Kavavaiov KBCDLA 33 565 latt syrr 8in P C8hrid 
arm me aeth] Kavavirrjv AriI2f> al min fereomn gy^ci go ^ l ffKa p iW e XBCLA 

33 2P al 2 ] S/capiwfl D a vid bffiqvg IffKapiwT-rjv AHI2* al minP ler (syr^P 6811 arm) 

Cana (Karaios), nor a Canaanite (Xara- 
vaios, ^W?), but, as Lc. interprets it, a 
zealot (&$% Syr. 8 ^ 811 - ^ A ^ n), 
cf. Exod. xx. 5, Deut iv. 24 M\> ^K, 
LXX. 6eos 77X0^77$, and in reference to 
devout Israelites i Esdr. viii. 69, A, 
2 Mace. iv. 2 ; the model of a true 
frXarris was Phinehas, 4 Mace, xviii. 
12. The later Zealots were a fanatical 
party originating among the Pharisees 
(Schiirer I. ii. 80 n., 229 ). This 
Simon cannot have belonged to the 
more advanced Zealots who were 
associated with sedition and outrage 
(cf. Joseph, ant. xviii. i, B. J. iv. 
3. 9, &c.), but he may have been 
before (GaL i. 14) and even after 
(Acts xxi. 20) his call a scrupulous 
adherent to the forms of the Law. 
Yet it is difficult to suppose this of 
one who belonged to the inner circle 
of our Lord s disciples, and the analogy 
of other secondary names in the list 
leads us to regard the name as descrip 
tive of personal character only. As 
the first Simon was rocklike/ so the 
second was characterized by jealousy 
for what he conceived to be right or 
true. Possibly he was a man who 
under other teaching might have de 
veloped into the fanatic or bigot, but 
who learnt from the Master to cherish 
only the fire of love. 

19. lovdav itTKapieotf] So xiv. IO, 
Lc. vi. 16; elsewhere o lo-KaptooYq? 
(Mt^x. 4, xx vi. 14, Lc. xxii. 3 (<$ 
KaXovpevos), Jo. xii. 4, xiii. 2, 26, xiv. 
22). lo-KapiaQ appears to = ninj? S^K : 
for the form la-Kapimrrjs comp. Joseph. 
ant. vii. 6. i, "lo-ropos = HID S^X. 
There is some difficulty in identifying 

Kerioth; in Josh. xv. 25, to which 
reference is usually made, the word is 
but part of the name Kerioth-Hezron ; 
in Jer. xlviil 24, 41 Kerioth (LXX., 
Kapia>0) is a town of Moab distinct 
apparently from Kiriathaim, one or 
the other of which Tristram (Land of 
Moab, p. 275) is disposed to identify 
with Kureiyat, S.E. of Ataroth on the 
east side of the Dead Sea. In Jo. vi. 
71 the name of the town is given as 
Kapvwros by K* and some good cur 
sives (OTTO Kapveorov), and the same 
reading appears in D at Jo. xii. 4, 
xiv. 22 ; cf. Lightfoot, Bibl. Essays, 
p. 143 f. If this Judas came from a 
town east of the Dead Sea, he was 
possibly one of the newly arrived dis 
ciples (Me. iii. 8) a circumstance 
which would perhaps account for his 
position at the end of the list. His 
father Simon ( lovdas 2i /u.a>i>or Jo. 4 ) was 
also of the same town (Jo. vi. 71, W- 
8av Sipuvos icTKaptwrov, N*BCGL). 
See Zahn, Einl. ii. p. 561, and the artt. 
in Hastings and Encycl. Bibl. 

os KOL TrapefttoKfV CLVTOV] Mt. 6 Kal 
7rapa8ovs CLVTOV, Lc. os eyiveTO Trpodorrjs 
(cf. Acts i. l6 3 rov ycvopevov o^rjyov 
rols o~v\\a(Sovcriv y lrja~ovv) t Jo. xii. 4 o 
p,f\\o)V avTov Trapadidovat, xviii. 2, 5 o 

avrov. In one form or an 
other the terrible indictment is rarely 
absent where the name of this Apostle 
is mentioned. For Trapadidovai comp. 
note on i. 14, and on the use of the 
aor., Blass, Gr. p. 198. Kat calls 
attention to the identity of the 
traitor with the Apostle, and con 
trasts the treachery of Judas with the 
choice of Christ. 


IX \ >l * f 2O t "\ 

20 Kai p%eTai ets OLKOV Kai (rvvepxcTai TraXiv 
6 6 yAos wcrTe UT) SJi/aa*6ai CIVTOVS fULrjSe apTov (bayeiv. 


21 ai /ca^ a/coJo"a^T5 ot TTotjO* avTOV efj\6ov KpaTrjcrai 

19 cpxeru K*Br alP auc b e i E syr 81 "] epxovrcu K c - a CLAIIZ< al minP ler e q vg 
gyn-peshhci arm g O . eKrepxovTcu D | ot/cov] pr TOP 2P 20 o-wepxercu] epxerai. M c 

syr sin arm o-uj/e^xovrai II* mm? syrP 6811 | o o^Xos (K c - a ABDL corr min nonn )] om o 
K*CEFGKL*TIIS3> alP ler | om avrovs D go j wde ABKLUAH* min nonn ] ^re 
KCDEFGS<I> al pler | aprous D 21 aKouo-aj/res ot Trap avrov (cue. OL a5e\0ot auroi; 

ore tjKOva-av irepi avrov ot 7/ja^i/Aarets Acai 01 Xot?roi D lat^P 161 " go 


8aip.6via (Mt. xii. 22 32, Lc. xi. 14 

26 ; cf. Mt. ix. 32 34, Lc. xii. 10). 

19. Km ep^erat els OIKOJ/] Com 
pared with v. 13 the words imply an 
interval during which the Lord 
descends from the mountain and 
returns to Capernaum (Lc. vii. i). 
Lc. introduces here the discourse 
V! TOTTOU TTfSivov which corresponds 
on the whole to Mt. s Sermon on 
the Mount, and the harmonists from 
Tatian onwards place it rightly as 
it seems in this position. Me., to 
whom the Sermon is unknown, passes 
without notice to his next fact, and 
the English reader s sense of the 
relation of the sequel to what has 
gone bfefore is further confused by the 
verse division. The house entered 
is probably Simon s (i. 29); for the 
omission of the article cf. ii. i. 

20. Kai <rvvepxfTai iraXiv rX.] 
Apparently in the house and at the 
house-door ; cf. i. 32, ii. 2. For 7rd\iv 
see note on ii. i. "Go-re /^.../iTjSe , 
Vg. ita ut non possent neque panem 
manducare, so that they could not 
even, &c. ; the reading wore /z^... 
pyre could only = " ita ut n. p. neque 
panem manducarent" (WM., p. 614, 
Blass, Gr. p. 265). "Aproi/ (payeli/, to 

take food (of any kind)=Drfe b$, 
as in Gen. iii. 19, xliii. 16, Exod. ii. 
20, &c. The difficulty must often 
have arisen during the height of the 
Lord s popularity; for another in 

stance see Me. vi 31. Bede exclaims, 
" Quam beata frequentia turbae con- 
fluentis, cui tantum studii ad audi- 
endum verbum Dei." 

21. /ecu aKova-avTcs ol Trap* avrov 
KT\.] Cf. Prov. xxix. 39 (xxxi. 21) ol 
irap avT77s = niV3. In Sus. 33 (cf. 30) 
01 Trap* avTTjs are Susanna s parents, 
children, and other relatives (Th.), 
or her parents and dependents (LXX.) ; 
in i Mace. ix. 44 (KV, but TOIS dSeA- 
(polff, A), xi. 73, xii. 27, xiii. 52, 
xv. 15, xvi. 1 6, 2 Mace. xi. 20, the 
phrase is used in a wider sense of 
adherents, followers, &c., cf. Joseph. 
ant. i. II, Treptre /zverai KOL rravres ol 
trap avTov. Thus the Syr. silL His 
brethren or the Vg. sui fairly repre 
sents its general sense ; " his kynnes- 
men" (Wycliffe), or " kynesfolkes " 
(Geneva) is too definite ; the context, 
however, shews that this is practi 
cally what is meant. Clearly ol Trap 
avrov cannot be the Scribes and 
Pharisees, as D, which substitutes 
ot ypa/j./iaret? /cat oi XOITTOI, and Victor : 
vofjLi^(i>...7rpl TQJV <&api(raia)V <al ypap- 
H.a.Tea>v \cyeiv TOV fvayyeXiO Trjv. Either 

disciples or relatives are intended, 
and as the former were on the spot, 
aKovo-avres fgyXtiov could hardly apply 
to them. We are thus led to think 
of His family at Nazareth, whose 
coming is announced in v. 31. The 
incident of vv. 2230 fills the inter 
val between their departure and 
arrival. For Kpareiv in this sense, 
cf. xii. 12, xiv. i, 46. 



22 avTOv, e/Veyoj/ yap OTI 
ol OLTTO lepocroXv/uicoi 
(3ov\ e^t, Kal OTI Gv TM ap^ovTi TCOV 

[III. 21 


21 ee0-rctTat avrovs D* (ee<rrcu D 2 ) exentiat eos abdffiq e^ea-rarai 13 69. 
346 escort minP auc 22 01 OTTO I.] pr /cat H all* 5 a | BeefoSotA B 


see Burton, 47 ; as to the meaning 
cf. Euth., 7rapf(jC>poi/77o-e, and the Vg. 
here, "in furorem versus est." The 
same charge was brought against St 
Paul, Acts xxvi. 24, cf. 2 Cor. v. 13, 

ei re yap e^O~TT]p,ev } 6eq>. For et-corrjv 

in this sense see Isa. xxviii. 7, Hos. 
ix. 7. The family of Jesus were 
doubtless inspired by a desire for His 
safety, but their interpretation of 
His enthusiasm implied want of 
faith in Him, cf. Jo. vii. 5 ; the 
Mother perhaps was overpersuaded 
by the brethren. Tatian strangely 
places this verse in connexion with the 
narrative of Me. ii. 23 28 (Hill, 
Diatess., p. 71 ; see above, p. 50). 

22. Kal ol ypappaTels KrX.] Mt. ol 
$apt(nuot, Lc. ni/ey e avreoi/. The 
Pharisaic Scribes from Jerusalem 
had been from the first the insti 
gators of the opposition (Lc. v. 17 ; cf. 
Me. ii. 6, vii. i). The present attack 
arose out of the healing of a pos 
sessed man who recovered sight and 
speech (Mt. Lc.); voices were heard 
in the crowd asking M^rt ovros eo-rw 6 
vios Aaue/8; (Mt. xii. 23), and the 
Jerusalem Scribes were thus tempted 
to suggest another explanation. For 
Karapfjvai OTTO lep. cf. Lc. ii. 51, X. 
30 f., Acts viii. 26. 

BeAe/3ouA e ^et] The form Beelze- 
bub, which occurs in Syrr. sin - cu - P esh - and 
in most MSS. of the Vulg., but in no 
Greek MS., comes from 2 Kings i. 2, 6 
]Vij$ ^K 3J ^35, where the LXX. 
render eV T< (TT;) BaaX pvlav Qeov A/c/ea- 

On the aor. ??T, whence 7-13T, a Talmudic word 

6eov Expo)!/. The derivation of BeeA- 
eftov\ is obscure : some connect 
the second factor of the name with 

for dung (so Dalman, p. 105 n.) r 

others with 72J, habitation: cf. 

Kautzsch, p. 9, Dalman, I.e. Neu- 
bauer (Stud. Bibl. i. p. 55) suggests. 

that 712T is a dialectal form of "V)lT r 

a bee, SO that BeeXe/3ouA = BeeXe- 

/3ovp : but the conjecture has not 
much to recommend it. We have then 
to choose between Lord of dung* 
and * Lord of the habitation ; to the 

latter the apparent play upon 
in Mt. x. 25 (rov olKodecnrorrjv B. 
eVe/caXeo-ai/) lends some support; if 
the former is adopted, dung 7 is 
used as an opprobrious name for 
idols (J. Lightfoot on Mt. xii. 24),. 
and the application of the word to 
the prince of the unclean spirits 
points to the old belief in the con 
nexion of idols with ba^ovia : see 
note on Me. i. 34. The form Bee^- 
/SovA, given by B here and by KB in 
Mt. x. 25, xii. 24, Lc. xi. 15, 18, 19, 
is admitted by WH. into the text 
(Notes, p. 1 66); but it is difficult to 
regard it as anything but a phonetic 
corruption, perhaps a softening of th& 
original word. With BeeX e^et cfl 
Jo. vii. 20, where a similar charge 
comes from the o ^Xos at Jerusalem. 
Even of the Baptist some had said 
Aaifjioviov e ^ei (Mt. xi. 1 8). The charge 
brought against our Lord was per 
haps equivalent to that of using 
magic : see Hastings, iii. p. 21 1 a. 

eV TW ap%ovTt rX.] In the power 
and name of the chief of the un 
clean spirits : cf. Mt. xii. 28 ev Trvev- 
HCITI $6ou, Lc. xi. 2O eV 8aKTv\a> Qeov. 
With 6 ap\a)v TG>V b. cf. 6 rov KOCT/ZOU 
ap^o)i/ (Jo. xiv. 30), 6 ap^a)i/ rov 



6K@d\\ei TO. Sai/uLOi/ia. * 3 Kai TrpocrKaXea-dfjievos CIVTOVS 23 
ev 7rapa/3o\cus e\eyev avTots /7o)9 SvvctTai CaTavas 

6K/3d\\etv ; * 4 Kai eav (3aa"i\eia e<p eavTrjv 24 

23 O.VTOLS] + O Kvpios 1 170-0115 Daff gr + o Irjvovs U 1071 b C (al) 

TOVTOV (Jo. xvi. n), 6 apxcov rfjs 
f^ova-Las TOV depos (Epb. ii. 2). The 
authority is not denied, but limited 
to its proper sphere : ev epol OVK e^et 
ovSeV (Jo. xiv. 30). 

23. Kai TrpocrKa\o~a.fjLvos O.VTOVS~\ 
See on iii. 13. The remark of the 
Scribes, if made openly, was not 
audible to Jesus, but He knew their 
thoughts (Mt. Lc.): cf. ii. 8. He 
beckoned them to Him, and they 
came, little suspecting His purpose. 

v 7rapa/3oXaIff eAeyei/ : in half-veiled, 
proverb - like teaching. napaftoXy, 
which occurs here for the first time, 
is the usual LXX. rendering of ?^p, 
cf. Num. xxiii. 7 ff. (dvaXafifiv irapa- 
?;!/), 3 Regn. iv. 28 =v. 12 (eXaXrjo-cv 
rpicr^tXiay 7rapa/3oXas), Ps. 
Ixxvii. (Ixxviii.) 2 (dvoign ev irapafio- 
\ais TO 0-rop.a pov, cited in Mt. xiii. 
35) ; the other rendering being napoi- 
fiia, which gives its Greek title to 
the Book \!?pp. The Synoptists use 
the former in reference to the teach 
ing of Jesus, St John (x. 6, xvi. 25, 
29) the latter. A 7rapa/3oX?7 is pro 
perly a comparison (Me. iv. 30), and 
a kind of 7rapadeiy/*a (Arist. Rhet. ii 
20), an illustration drawn from life 
or nature. This meaning prevails in 
the Gospels, but the sense suggested 
by the Hebrew equivalent, a gnomic 
saying (cf. Prov. i. 6), shews itself oc 
casionally, e.g. Lc. iv. 23 ; the present 
instance may be regarded as inter 
mediate. A distinction between Trap- 
oip.ia and TrapajBoXij appears perhaps 
first in Sir. xlvii. 1 7, eV adals ical irapoi- 
KOL irapafto\als (Heb. fett "W? 
jpl JlTn, cf. Prov. i. 6). Parable 7 
comes to us through the European 
S. M. 2 

O.L. and Vg., and appears in Wycliffe : 
Tindale substituted similitude (cf. 
similitudo of the * African O.L.), but 
the familiar word re-appears in Cran- 
mer and A.V. 

7T<ff bvvaTm Saravas *rX.] The Lord 

does not use BeeXej8ovX, but the or 
dinary name for the Chief of the evil 
spirits; the occasion was too grave 
for banter. Only Me. reports this 
saying, which goes to the heart of 
the matter. The Scribes explana 
tion was morally impossible : the 8ai- 
/zoi/ia could not be expelled through 
collusion with their Chief. For 2a- 
ravas cf. note on i. 13. 2arai/az/, i.e. 
TO. 8aifioi>ta regarded as Satan s re 
presentatives and instruments. The 
identification is instructive as throw 
ing light on the manifoldness of Sa 
tanic agency. For the form of the 
question cf. Mt. xii. 29, 34, Lc. vi. 42, 
Jo. vi. 52. 

24 25. jcai ecuf a<rcXc/a xrX.] The 
first Kai seems to be merely a con 
necting link with v. 23 : the two 
that follow (w. 25, 26) coordinate 
the three cases of the divided king 
dom, the divided house, and the di 
vided Satan (WM., pp. 543, 547). For 
c0* tavrrp, in relation to itself, Mt. 
substitutes the explanatory <aff eav- 
rrjsj returning however to just 
afterwards (f<f> eavrov). Ov dvvarai 
<TTa6f]vcu = epr//LioCrat, Mt., Lc. ; simi 
larly for ov o vvija eTai o"rf)vat Lc. has 
iriirrei both probably interpretat 
ions: cf. Burton, 260, 262. For 
the phrase which Me. uses cf. Ps. 
xvii. (xviii.) 39, xxxv. (xxxvi.) 13 : 
the corresponding Heb. is D-1p ^ K^ 
If the difference between o-Tadrjvat. 
and arrival is to be pressed in this 




25 juipi(r6ri, ov SvvaTai (TTadfjvai r\ (3a<ri\eia e 

edv OLKLa e(f) eavrriv mepia-Brj, ov SwrtcreTcu r\ 

26 eKeivrj (TTrjvai. a6 Kai el 6 craTavds dvea-Trj e(f> y eavTov 
KCLI e/mepio-Bri, ov SvvctTai (TTfjvaL d\\d T\O9 

27 a7 aAA ov SvvaTai ovdeis ek TY\V oiKiav TOV 
eicre\8cov TCL cncevn avTOv ^LapTrdcrai iav /mrj 

25 ovvrjfferaL NBCLA 1071 a i vg] dwarai ADriI24> albcefffq syrr | 
BKLH] earavai D ffrad-qvaL KAEFGHMSUVrAZ* al 26 ei] ecu/ D | aveffTT] e0 

eavrov] caravav e/c/3a\Xet DabceffgiqrJKai c/Aepiffdr) ov K c - a BL] /cat /ie/xepto-rat 
ou AC 2 mS<l> al syrr vid arm me go al cptpiady /cat ou K*C* vid A f vg /ie/xepta-rat (-^at D*) 
e< eaurov ou D | (rryvai KBCL] ora^at ADrAII* al min omnTid + i7 /SacrtXeta auroi; 
D a b g i q r | reXos] pr TO D 27 a\X] /tat C 2vid G om ADrn2l> al latt vt P lv syrr 

go | ou dvv. ovdeis tsBC*A] ouSets Swarat ADLmS4> al latt syrr arm go | ets rt]v OLK. 
TOV iax- ei<J"e\^. ra <TK. (^)BCLA 33 1071 syrr Bin P esh me aeth] TO. <TK. TOV t<r 
eis r. OLK. ADrns<*l al latt syr hcl arm go TO. <TK. TOV to-%. G 

place, it must lie in the fact that 
the body politic takes up and keeps 
a position (cf. Lc. xviii. n, 40, xix. 
8) whilst the building stands as an 
inert mass ; but the use of a-Tijvat 
in the third clause is against this 
distinction. Jerome: " quomodo con- 
cordia parvae res crescunt, ita dis- 
cordia maximae dilabuntur." 

26. KOI i 6 (raravas dv(TTrj.>.fjLe- 
pio-Br) ] This clause might have run 
on the same lines as the other two 
(KCU av 6 2. dvcurTf)...Kal p,fpi(rdfj KrX.), 
i.e., as involving a supposition which 
will probably be fulfilled (Burton, 
p. 250, cf. JBlass, Gr. p. 214); but 
the three Synoptists agree in repre 
senting the action of Satan as a matter 
of fact : t suppose Satan to have actu 
ally risen against himself... then he is 
at this moment in an unstable con 
dition, his end has come. E/zept o-tf?/, 
i.e. Satan in his corporate capacity, as 
representing the Kingdom of evil ; cf. 
I Cor. i. 12, /xe/^ieprrat 6 ^pioros. 

dXXa Te Xos- e xft] Cf. Lc. xxii. 37. 
A phrase frequent in class. Gk. (cf. 
e.g. Plat. Legg. 71711, T&V jjdrj TfXos 
x6vra>v=Ta>v vfKpmv). Mt., Lc. add 
here in almost identical words d Se 

eyco ev 

r) /Sao-tXet a TOV Qeov. 
27. aXX ov dvvaTai ovfteis KT\.] 
Another Trapa/SoX?;. Mt. gives it in 
a form almost exactly the same as 
this; Lc. resets the picture. The 
connexion of thought is : so far from 
being in league with Satan, I am 
his conqueror, for he is too strong 
an oiKoSeo-TroTrjs to witness with equa 
nimity the spoiling of his goods. O 
lo-xvpos possibly hints at the claims 
of Satan as a usurper of Divine au 
thority (cf. e.g. Mt. iv. 9, 2 Cor. iv. 
4), since lo-xvpos or 6 iV^. in the 
LXX. frequently represents ?K or 
"fain. The parable itself is based 
on Isa. xlix. 24, 25. 

T<Z o~Kfvrj avVovJ Lc. Ta virapxovTO, 
avTov. Cf. Gen. XXXI. 37 (navTa. TO. 
(TKevrj TOV o iKOv /AOV), Lc. XVli. 31 ( r ^ 
<TK.. avToC ev TTJ ot/aa), 2 Tim. ii. 20 f. ; 
how inclusive the word can be is seen 
from Acts x. n, o-Kevos TI o5s odovrjv. 
For diapTrdaai . . . diapTrdo-ci Mt. has 
dp7rao-at...Stap7ra(7ei, as if the result 

were to be even more thorough than 
could have been anticipated ; for Stap- 
Trd&iv cf. Gen. xxxiv. 27. Lc., who 
describes the Strong One as armed to 




* s 

TOT6 TT\V oiciav avTOV t.ap- 
dimr]i/ Xeyw v/uuv OTL TTCLVTCL d<pe6ti<T6Tai 28 
viols TWV dvOpcoTTtov, TO. dfjiapTYifJiaTa al 
{3\cur(f)riiuiiai ocra eav /3\acr<prjiuL^(ra)(ni/ ^ * 9 os o av 29 if i 

27 TTJV otK. 2] Ta o-/ceu?7 syr sinvid j diapiraffet] diapirafa D diapTrwrj AEFGKUV 
riP2n 28 at Xa<70.] om at DKMSUVrn al | off a. KBDE*GHAII* al] ocras 

ACE 1 FKLMSUVrn 2 2l ^ \ om OCT. av /3Xa<r0. a Vc e ff g i q r Cypr 2 Ambrtr 

the teeth (Ka0o>7rXto>ieW), and keep-,- 
ing guard, mentions his Trai/oTrXta^nd 
<TKvXa among his goods (ra ^^owa 
auroO) : the picture seems to 10e ampli 
fied from Isa. I.e. (LXX.)./ l n this 
fuller form of the parable / three stages 
can be distinguished, ; nfthe vanquish 
ing of Satanj^ ( < personal victory 
(170-77 Me., vutfar] Lc., cf. Jo. xvi. 33, 
Apoc. iii. {Ql ^ ( 2 ) tne disarming of the 
defeate^ ol KO 6(nr< 5 T ^5 } (3) the spoiling 
(&ap7r<gior ft ) and distribution 
" ll/ ) c wf his ill-gotten gains 
^ Y- ictor : eVetS^ (r/cev?; rcoy 
7 ?0bj/aa-t^ ot av6p(07roi...d&v 
a( lt>aipf6f)vai rovs Saiftovas ryv 
KT ^(TLV aXX 17 TTporepov avr&v 

G^.-av. The initial victory was won 

at j the Temptation. 
>f Both Mt. and Lc. add here o w 

P&er e>oG, KT\. ; see the complementary 

^canon in Me. ix. 40. 

28. a^v Xe -yw vfuv occurs here for 
the first time in Me. (Mt. 30 Me. 13 
Lc. 6 Jo. 26 ); in Jo. drfv is constantly 
doubled, cf. Num. v. 22 (Heb.), I 
Esdr. ix. 47 (B), 2 Esdr. xviii. 6 (Heb.). 
The adv. )E>K is rendered by yevoiro 
in Deut. xxvii. 1 5 ff. : the translitera 
tion a/urp appears first in i Chron. 
xvi. 36. On the different uses of 
Amen in the 0. and N. T., see an 
article in J. Q. R., Oct. 1896. The 
Amen of the Gospels is what the 
writer in J. Q. R. calls "introduc 
tory," i.e. it opens a sentence, as in 
i Kings i. 36, Jer. xi. 5, xxviii. 6 
(Heb.); but it is sharply distinguished 
from the 0. T. exx. inasmuch as it 
affirms what is to follow, not what 

has just been said. The form a^v 
Xe yeo v/xTi/ is characteristic of Him 
who is o A^irp (Apoc. iii. 14). Here 
Mt. has merely X<ryo> vptv, but the 
occasion suits the graver style. The 
logical victory is followed by the most 
solemn of His warnings. 

7rai/ra d(pc6^(TfTai. KrX.] See ii. 5 ff. 

There is one exception to the e^ova-ia 
of the Son of Man in the forgiveness 
of sins, which He proceeds to state. 

TotS VIOLS TO>V dvdfKOTWV = Mt. TOlff 

dvQptoTTois : for the phrase ( = D1S" I) ^) 
see Dan. ii. 38 Th. (cf. LXX.), Eph. iii. 
5 ; Log. 3 ; cf. Hawkins, Hor. Syn. 
p. 56. Ta dpapTi] fj,ara } Mt. 7rao~a 
dfjiapria : a/zapT77/j,a, which is fairly 
common in the LXX., is limited in the 
N. T. to this context and Paul 2 (Rom. 
iii. 25, i Cor. vi. 18); as distinguished 
from djuapria it is an act of sin, 
whilst a/iapria is strictly the principle 
(SH., Romans, p. 90); but the dis 
tinction is in the case of d^aprLa 
repeatedly overlooked. See note on 
next verse. 

Km at @\a<r(pr)fj,Lai] They had charg 
ed Him with blasphemy (ii. 7), and 
were themselves grievous offenders 
in this way. But blasphemies against 
the Son of Man (Mt, Lc. xii. 10) 
formed no exception to His mission 
of forgiveness. "Oo-a eav ^Xaa-^rjfj.^- 
vayo-iv a construct ad sensum 
( = oa-as KrX.); cf. Deut. IV. 2, V. 28 
(WM., p. 176 n.) ; on eav=3i/ see 
Burton, 304. 

29. 6s av J3\acr<pr)fjiii(r7] *rX.] 
Mt. T) de TOV TTvevfjiaTos /SXao-c^/ua, 
Lc. TCO 5e els TO aytov Trvevfia /3Xao~- 




e - K ^ov aivva, d\\a evo^o* IfTTiV aiMLOV 
3Xn-f f\wov HvevfJLa aK(i6apTOV e 

D minP- c a b e f ff q vg Cypr* | ewv ABCTII*n al i 69 al b 
29 om ets TQV euwva-x upLAS a alP auc a e f ff q vg arm Cypr te8t | a^apTTj/xaros 
syrr me go Ath Gypr*] ""^^ * 6 Ath) latt p. w syi ,m me go Cyprf] xpureuc 
fcsBLA 28 33 565 (a.u.aoTias C ., /^ TvoX/iof-Pfwri 

f tol 


auToj/ D a b c e f ff g q 

For TrvcvfjLO. ayiov See A/l ^ 

Me. i. 8, and for TO 7rj/eO/za, i. 10, 12 ; 
TO Try. rb ayiov occurs again in Me. 
xiii. n, Lc, ii. 26, iii. 22, Jo. xiv. 26, 
Acts i. 1 6, v. 32, &c., and in the LXX. 
Ps. 1. (H.) 13, Isa - km. n (TflS 0-1-1, 
iKHi?). The repeated article brings 
the holiness of the Spirit into pro 
minence (cf. Eph. iv. 30, i Thess. iv. 8, 
where see Lightfoot), contrasting it 
with the aKadapo-ia of the evil spirits. 
The charge BeeX>/3ouX ex l was 
directed in fact against the Trvevfj-a 
IT/O-OV (Acts xvi. 7) not the human 
spirit of the Son of Man, but the 
Tn/eC/io 6fov (Mt. iii. 16) which per 
vaded and controlled it. For an 
early extension of this saying cf. 
Didache n. 

OVK. fx et ^4 )(TIV KT X.] To identify 
the Source of good with the im 
personation of evil implies a moral 
disease for which the Incarnation 
itself provides no remedy ; afaa-is 
avails only where the possibility of 
life remains. Ets rov alaiva in the 

D?y?, in perpetuity (Exod. 
xxi. 6, xL 13), or with a negative, 
1 never more 3 (2 Regn. xii. 10, Prov. 
vi- 33) 5 m tne N. T. it gains a wider 
meaning in view of the eternal relations 
which the Gospel reveals. C O al<ov is 
indeed the present world ( = o alo>v 
OVTOS, 6 eWcrrwy) in Me. iv. 19, the 
future life being distinguished from 
it as ala>v 6 epxo/jievos (Me. x. 30) ; and 
fls rov al&va in Me. xi. 14 is used in 
the narrower sense. In this place 
however it is interpreted by Mt. as 
inclusive of both alwves (ovre ev 

rovro) TO> atom t . 

is interpretation is supported 
context in Me. 


,x. x ,,fVX OS 

aAAa * - But lies un( i er the conse- 

or of that against which 
offence is committed (rov 

^ <in act of sin which belongs- 
quences ot I iu of t he world to come : 
to the sphere^ <rni delicti (WjcW), 
Vg. reus erit aete ^oas 3 ). v Ei/o- 

"gilti of euerlastynge tre. 4 - t h a dative 
X os is used in the N. T. wi, . om one ia 
of the person or body to wn? L - Vve 8pt<o, 
responsible (rfj /c/atcret, TOJ o , f the 
Mt. v. 22), and a genitive -t 
penalty (e.g. Qavdrov Me. xiv. 
Xemff Heb. ii. 15), or of the 
(cf. 2 Mace. xiii. 6, rov Ifpoo-vXias e.j 

rov aip,aros rov Kvpiov, I Cor. xi. ^ ^ 
The man is in the grasp of his s? 1 a, 
which will not let him go without . it 
Divine afao-ts, and to this sin, since ^ 
belongs to the eternal order, the pc 
exercised by the Son of Man on e* 
does not apply. Aluvios in the IT 
seems never to be limited to , 
present order, as it often is in the LXX. 
(cf. e.g. Gen. ix. 12, Lev. vi. 18 (n)), 
always reaching forward into the life 
beyond (as in the frequent phrase 
0077 atcoi/toy) or running back into a 
measureless past (Rom. xvi. 25, 2 Tim. 
i. 9). On the alwviov dfj.dprrjp.a see the 
interesting remarks of Origen, de orat. 
27, in Jo. t. xix. 14, and comp. Heb. 
vi. 4 ff., i Jo. v. 1 6, with Bp Westcott s 
notes. Bengel: "peccatahumanasunt, 
sed blasphemia in Spiritum sanctum 
est peccatum satanicum. 3 

30. on e\tyov KrX.] I.e., it was 
this suggestion which called forth the 



31 Kai ep^ovTcti Y\ /ULr/T^p avTOV KOI ol d$6\<poi 31 

Kai e^o) (TTrjKOVTes aTreaTetXav Trpos ai>Tov 
K.a\ovvT<2 avTOV. z *Kal eKadrjTo Trepi CLVTOV^ 0^X09, 32 
Kai \eyovcrLV avrco ISov r\ /uLr]Tr]p <rov Kai ol d$6\<poi 
(Tov e^o) fyiTOV(riv <re. 33 /cca aTTOKpidels avTots Xeyei 33 

77s <TTIV Y\ fJLYlTY)p fJLOV Kai OL d<$6\(poi } 34 /Ca* TTEpL- 34 

31 Kai epX KBCDGLA I 13 69 1071 alP* uc latt syr? 6811 me go aeth] epx- ovv 
AmSSn al syr hcl (epxerai KDG lat vt6 ) [ OL ad. (avr.) Kai i\ wryp avrov Am al minP ler 
gyr hcl arm | <TTT)KOVTS BC*A 28] o-ravres ^ eo-r^/cores C corr GL minP auc eo-rwres ADmS^T 
al | Ka\ovvTe$ fc^BCL I 13 28 69 al] (puvovvres DrnS^T al ^rjrovvres A 32 7re/>t 

airr. o%Xos] irpos avr. o. X* TT/JOS TOV ox\ov D \ o%Xos] + TTO\VS 1071 /cat Xe7oua - ti ] enrov 
Se AmS<l>"T al syr hcl go | <rou 2] + /cat at a5eX0at <rou ADEFHMSUVr min mu 
a b c f ff q syr hcl m 8) go (om NBCGKLAII i 13 33 69 al nonn e vg syr? 6 ^ arm me aeth) 

33 airc K pie-r)...\eyw ADriIS<l> al | /cat 2] 97 A(D)EFHKMSrnS$1 c e f qr zyr* ta arm 

34 om Kai i B 

Lord s utterance on the Eternal Sin. 
Me. only; perhaps an editorial note. 
Jerome : " [Marcus] caussas tantae 
irae manifestius expressit." 

UPON IT (Mt. xii. 46 50, Lc. viii. 
1921). ^ 

31. KCU fp^ovrai TJ prjTTjp KT\.~] See 

note on v. 21. Mt. explicitly con 
nects this incident with the fore 
going (ert avrov AaAoOiros). The 
mother of Jesus does not appear 
again in Me., but is mentioned in vi. 3 
(6 vtos TTJS Maptay) in company with 
the brothers; see notes on vi. 3 and 
comp. Acts i. 14. 

eco oTJ/Koi/res] On crrr/KM see WH., 
Notes, p. 169. Mt. io-Tr)Ki(rav e o>. 

They were crowded out, as in the 
case of the paralytic, ii. 4; cf. Lc. 

OVK ^bvvavro vvvrvxeiv avra 8ia TOV 
ox^ov. Naturally they were unwilling 
to disclose their errand (iii. 21), and 
therefore contented themselves with 
asking for an interview. KaXovvres : 
on the reading see Nestle, T. C., p. 263. 

32. Kai fKadrjro Trepi avrbv 0^X0$-] 

The scene is similar to that in c. ii. 
i ff., but the Scribes seem to have 
left, and the Lord is surrounded by a 

crowd of friends (not o o^Xos), amongst 
whom the Apostles and other ^adrjTai 
form an inner circle (v. 34). The 
message is passed from one to 
another till it reaches Jesus. 

I8ov 17 fji^Trjp KT\.] The addition 
Kai al d8cX<J)ai crov is "Western and 
probably Syrian" (WH., Notes, p. 24). 
The sisters of Jesus are mentioned 
in vi. 3 as living at Nazareth (<w$e 
npos Tj/uas). But they would scarcely 
have taken part in a mission of this 
nature, and the addition was probably 
suggested by vi. 3 or by dde\(f>^ in 

* 35- 

33. Kai dfroKpiOels avrols \eyei] 
Not to His relatives who are still 
without, but T<5 Xeyoi/n avrw (Mt.), 
and through His informant to the 
audience. The interruption affords, 
as so often, an opportunity for fresh 
teaching ; it is instruction and not 
censure which is the purpose of the 
Lord s answer. ATroKpiQeis is the 
later Gk. for oVoKpii/a/iei/o? (Blass, 
6?r., pp. 44, 177) ; so LXX. and N. T. ; 
direKpivaro appears however in Me. 
xiv. 61, and a few other passages. 

The phrase oVo/cpttfeiy Ae yei or einev 

is a LXX. equivalent for "ttpK1 |y>1 
(Gen. xviii. 27, &c.). 

ris eoriv rj fjirJTrjp pov AcrA.] This 


[in. 34 

JJLOV Kai ol d$e\(J)oi IULOV. 35 os av 7roirj(rrf 


TO 6e\rjjULa TOV 6eov, OVTOS a 

JULOV Kai dSe\(pri 


34 -rrepipX. KVK\W T. ir. avrov Ams<l alP ler syr hcl (arm) go TreptjSX. TOVS KVK\W D j 
om /cwcXw 16 61 S yrr 8in P esh < vid > | t5ou ADGKMAHS I 13 al | /AOU 2] + oim)i ei<n> 1071 
35 os av B b c me] os 70/3 aj> KACDLAIIS^T al min onmvid f ff q vg syrr arm go | TO. 
B | ade\(f)Tr)] + /j,ov CII&1 minP auc a vg syrr me aeth | fj.tjr np] + t">v H* al mu 
syrr 8in P e8h meal 

relative renunciation of kinship ap 
pears at the outset of the Ministry 
(Jo. ii. 4) and continues to the end 
(Jo. xix. 26), and a similar attitude is 
urged upon the disciples (Me. x. 29). 
But it is a relative attitude only (Mt. 
x. 37), and is perfectly consistent 
with tender care for kinsmen, as the 
saying on the Cross shews : cf. i Tim. 
T. 4, 8. Victor: IKVV<TIV on Traa-rjs 
Trpori/ia (rvyyewas rovs Kara rr\v irio-riv 
oiKeiovS" ravra de e(f)rj OVK a7rodo/a/Liaa>i/ 
Trdi/rwff rrjv p.r)Tcpa KCU TOVS d8e\(f)ovs. 

Ambrose : " neque tamen iniuriose 
refutantur parentes, sed religiosiores 
copulae mentium docentur esse quam 
corporimi." At the present moment 
the relatives of Jesus were forfeiting 
their claim to consideration by op 
posing His work (Mt. x. 35). Here 
again His knowledge of the unspoken 
purposes of men appears ; for He 
could hardly have been informed of 
the nature of their errand. 

34. 7repi/3Xe\^a/iei/os TOVS Trepi avrov] 

For 7repi/3X. cf. note on iii. 5. Who 
those round Him were appears from 

Mt., KTiVttS TT]V X ^P a &VTOV tVi 

TOVS padr/Tas avTov. Stretching forth 
the hand was another characteristic 
movement (Me. i. 41), which may well 
have accompanied the searching and 
inclusive glance. Of fia6r]Tai need 
not be limited to the Apostles : cf. 
Lc. vi. 17. 

i Se 77 fj-JTrjp] Cf. V. 32, I Sou 77 p. 
On the difference between Idov and 
tSe see WM., p. 319. Both are re 

garded as interjections (en, ecce\ and 
not as verbs. 

35. os av 71-0177077 TO 6f\rjfj.a TOV 
$eo9] Mt. ToC Trarpos /iov TOV ev 
ovpavols (perhaps a reminiscence of 
the Lord s Prayer) ; Lc. interprets 
the phrase 01 TOV \6yov TOV Qcov 
aKovovTes Kai TroiovvTes the particu 
lar fulfilment of the Father s Will in 
which those who were present were 
then engaged. The bond which 
unites the family of GOD is obedience 
to the Divine Will. This was the end 
of the life of the Incarnate Son (Jo. 
v. 30, &c., Mt. xxvi. 42), and is the 
aim of the adopted children (Mt. vi. 
10, vii. 21). To BtXrjua became a 
recognised term (SH. on Rom. ii. 18); 
ra QeXr/paTa (B) is an 0. T. equivalent 
(Chase, Lord s Prayer, p. 39 f.). 

KOI d8eX<pr7] So Mt. also. See v. 31. 
The word would have its fitness in 
the teaching even if the sisters were 
not among the relatives without ; 
doubtless the o^Xos contained women 
as well as men who were attached 
followers: cf. Lc. viii. 2, 3, Me. xv. 40. 
Our Lord, however, characteristically 
lays stress on the works which reveal 
faith and are the truest note of His 
next of kin. 

KOI MT^O] Jerome : "isti sunt mater 
mea qui me quotidie in credentium 
animis generant." But the form of 
the sentence (os av 7roi^o-jj...ovTos 
do~\(pos...Kal pTJTT)p) seems to forbid 
this mysticism in details. Hilary s 
interpretation is truer to the text: 


*Kal TraXiv rip^aTO SifidcTKeiv Trapd TY\V OdXacrvav. i 

\ f > \ ,r -^ ^ -, </ 

Kai crvva<y6TaL Trpos avTov o^Aos 7r\eicrTOs, CO(TT 
avTov ek TrXolov fJL/3dvra KadfjcrBai ev Trj daXdfrcrri, 

\ ~ < */ -V A \ /) /x j \ ~ t-s 

/cca Tras o o^Aos Trpos Tr]V ua\a(rcrai/ eTTi Trjs yrjs 
ri<Tav. z Kat eS/Sacr/cei/ ai/TOik ev 7rapa/3o\dis 7roX\d, 2 
Kai eXeyev avTols ev Trj SiSa^rj avTOv z AicoveTe. 3 


IV i ?rapa] irpos D \ (rvvayercu KBCLA 13 ?8 69 124 604] 
minP ler latt syrr 8inhcl <rwrjxQri<rav A ^ e a l satmu syr** 811 go arm aeth 

Tr\eiffTos KBCLA] iro\vs 

] o Xaos D | 

i 33 al go] 

pr TO AB 2 DA al minP ler me | ev rrj 6a\. ] irepav rrjs ddXaa-a-rjs D irapa r-rjv 6a\. 131 
circa mare d circa litus (maris), ad Z., a b c proxime Z. c ff | irpos TTJV daXaacrav] irepav 
TTJS daXawrjs D | om eiri TTJS 7775 D lat vt syr sin | rjv eiri T?;S 7175 1071 2 TroXXats D 

3 a/coi/o-are C 2? e alP auc 

"respondit.-.quicunque voluntati pa- 
ternae obsecutus est, eum esse et 
patrem et sororem et 
pinquitatum omnium ius atque nomen 
iam non de conditione nascendi sed de 
ecclesiae communione retinendum." 
He justly adds: "ceterum non fas- 
tidiose de matre sua sensisse existi- 
mandus est, cui in passione positus 
maximae sollicitudinis tribuerit affec- 
tum. ;; 

xiii. i 9, Lc. viii. 4 8.) 

I. <al ird\iv KrX.] IlaXii (see On 

ii. i) looks back to ii. 13, iii. 7. Mt. 
places this new teaching by the sea 
immediately after the indoor scene of 

lit 31 3S (xiii. I, ev rrj r}fj,epa eKeivrj 
ee\6a>v 6 I. rrjs oiKtas) ; in Lc. this 
order is inverted. For irapa r??i/ 0aX. 
see ii. 1 3. 

icat o-vvdyerai] The pres. (Burton, 
14) places the scene before us, the 
crowds flocking together as the Lord 
begins to speak. The gathering was 
even greater than on former occa 
sions o^Xos TrXeicrros : cf. TroXu irXfjdos 
iii. 7, 8. Mt. and Lc. are less precise 

(o^Xoi TToXXoi, O^XoV TToXXoO), but Lc. 

adds KOI TeSj> Kara iroXiv eTrnropevope- 
va>v, i.e. the audience came from the 
other towns as well as from Caper 

avrov KrX.] He was seated at 
first on the beach (Mt. xiii. i), but 
when He saw the crowd hurrying 
down, He took refuge in a boat (cf. 
iii. 9) possibly Simon s (Lc. v. 3), but 
if so, no stress is laid upon the fact, 
for TrXotoi/ is anarthrous in the best 
text of Me. and Mt. "The whole 
multitude" (all were by this time 
assembled) stood (rjo-av = IO-T^KCI, Mt.) 
on the land facing (Trpoy, WM., p. 504) 
the sea, the sloping beach (Me.) form 
ing a theatre from which He could 
be seen and heard by all. Thpht. 

iva Kara Trpocratrrov %(ov iravras ev 
7rr)Koa> Travrav Xeyot. Cf. Victor : 
Kadrjrai ev r<5 TrXoico d\ieva>v <al crayrj- 
vevtov rovs ev rfj yfj. 

2. Kal e didao-Kev KrX.] He began 
a series of parables ; eV irapaftoXdis 
TroXXa, i.e. as D rightly interprets, Trapa- 

(SoXals TroXXats. Mt. s aor. (e\d\T)(rev) 

is less exact, while Lc., who limits 
himself here to the Parable of the 
Sower, has nothing to mark the com 
mencement of a new course of teaching 
(eiTrev dia 7rapaj3o\rjs). On TrapajSoX?; 

see iii. 23 note. Ei/ rfj 818. avVoO, in 
the course of His teaching, =cv r<5 
diddo-Keiv avrov (cf. Xli. 38). 

3. aKovcre] A characteristic sum 
mons to attend "ad sedandum populi 
strepitum" (Bengel); cf. Mt xv. 10, 
xxi. 33, Me. vii. 14. It finds its 


[IV. 3 


IT I 10 

v 6 crTreipwv cnreipac 4 /cou eyeveTO ev 
(nreipeiv^ o jj.ev eirecrev Trapd TVJV dSoV, Kai rj\6ev TO. 
5 TTeTeivd Kai KaTefyayev avTO. $ S KCU aAAo eVecrej/ ETTL 
TO TreTpcoSes [fca/] OTTOV OVK el^ev <yrjv T 

3 ffireipat, X*B1 seminars ab cd e E g] pr TOV N c - a ACLAII2<l> ad seminandum f vg 
+ TOV ffiropov avrov F min nonn go om o-rreipai D 4 om eyevero DJ? minP suc latt 

(exc a) gyrr ain P esh | o~ireipai D | ra Treretra] + TOV ovpavov DGM min nonn aiq 5 aXXa 
D 33 21* alP uc | ra TrerpwSr} X* (TO irerpwdes K c - a ) D i 33 i^ alP auc lattP ler [ K ai oirov 
B a vid ] >cat on D b c ff OTTOU rell 

prototype in the famous yft$ of Deut. 
vi. 4 (Me. xii. 29) : but see also Gen. 
xxiii. 5, 13, Jud. v. 3, I Regn. xxii. 7, 
12, &c. Mt., Lc., omit it here; Lc. 
omits also the ldoi> which follows and 
strengthens the call (cf. iii. 32). 

^rj\6ev 6 (nreipwv (TTretpat] O CTTT. 

(so also Mt., Lc.), the sower (see on 
i. 4), i.e. the particular sower contem 
plated in the parable, the representa 
tive of his class ( WM., p. 1 32). STmpat 
= TOV a-Treipfiv (Mt.),ToO o-Treipat (Lc.), 
the inf. of purpose which may be used 
with or without the article (Burton, 
3^6, 397) : both uses occur together 
in Lc. ii. 23, 24: 7rapao-r^a-tu.../<ai TOV 
6 oOi/at. 

4. Kai tyevcro rX.] The pleonastic 
Kai eyev. (cf. i. 9) is abandoned by Mt., 
Lc. Ev ro> a-TTfipeiv, in the process of 
sowing: the article points back to 
o-Tretpat, whilst the change of tense 
brings into view the succession of 
acts which constitutes the sowing. 
In o-Trelpat the whole is gathered up 
in a single purpose; it is ev r&> 
a-TTfipf iv, as the sower carries out his 
purpose, that the things happen 
which are about to be related. This 
delicate train of thought is lost 
in Mt. 

4 ff. o pev...Kal aXXo...Kcu aXXo... 
Kai aXXa] Mt. a / LteV...a XXa Se ...ctXXa 
Se ...aXXa del Lc. o pev...Kai erepoi/... 

KOt TpOV...KCU CTfpOV. Cf. WM., p. 

130. Some part of the seed (6 /ieV), 
i.e. some seeds (a /*/), fell by the side 
of the road (^apa, Mt. Me. Lc.; WM., 

p. 502); not of course that the sower 
deliberately sowed the pathway, but 
that he partly missed his aim, as in 
such rapid work must needs happen ; 
or he had not time to distinguish 
nicely between the pathway and the 
rest of the field, C Victor: OVK 
ciirev OTI avros eppi^ev, aXX. on fne~ 

Kai r[\6fv KrX.] Lc. Kai KaT7ra.Trj0rj 
Kai...KaTc(payov avro. But in the in 
terpretation he adds nothing to cor 
respond to this new feature, which 
has possibly been suggested by the 
mention of 6d6s. The birds would 
be on the spot immediately and leave 
little for the passers by to spoil; 
moreover the point of the illustration 
is that the seed, if unable to penetrate 
the soil, will presently be stolen away. 
For KarcKpayelv, comedere, used in 
reference to the clean sweep which 
birds make of food, see Gen. xl. 17, 
3 Regn. xii. 24, xiv. 1 1 (cod. A), xvl 4, 
xx. 24 (cod. A). 

5. And another (portion) fell upon 
the rocky (part of the field) : TO 
TrerpcoSe? = Mt. ra 7rerpa>&7, Lc. (less 
precisely) TTJV neTpav. Ilerpw&js does 
not occur in the LXX., or in the N.T. 
except in this context (Mt., Me.), but 
it is used in good Greek (Soph., Plat., 
Arist.); the word implies not a stone- 
strewn surface, as the English versions 
except R. V. suggest, but rock thinly 
coated with soil and here and there 
cropping up through the earth a 
characteristic feature in the cornlands 


ev6vs e^aveTeiXev Sid TO ^rj e^eiv /3d6os yfjs- 6 Kai 6 
OT6 dvereiXev 6 yXios eKav/uLaTicrdti, Kai Sid TO JJLYI 
e xeLV pityv erjpdv6rj. 7 Kai d\\o 7re<rev ek ras 7 
aK.dv6as y Kal dveflrjorav ai aKavOai Kal arvvGTTV&av 

5 efavereiXev] efe^Xcw^crev I 13 28 118 124 346 604 | 7775] 7-775 7775 B rrjv 777? D 
6 KO.I ore aver, o 77X105 KBCDLA 1071 E i q vg me] 77X101; Se afaretXavros AIIS<I> al 

min f 

a c f | Kavfj.aTia6r] &ACLAIIZ<I>] eKa.vfjt,a.Tio-6r)<rav BD a e 

D (604) e 7 aXXos K* aXXa K c -* 28 33 alP e | ets KABLAnS<l> al min? 1 lattP 1 ] 

CTTC CDM 2 33 604 2P al nonn b me | aireirv^av 33 604 al nonn 

of Galilee, still to be noted by the 
traveller among the hills which slope 

down to the Lake. Kai OTTOU *rX. Kai 

if genuine is probably epexegetic 
(WM., p. 545 f.); Mt. omits it without 
detriment to the sense. The ncTpw- 
des was that part of the ground where 
the earth was shallow. 

Kal evQvs faveT( iXf v KT\.~\ Mt. here 
agrees with Me. almost verbatim ; Lc. 
compresses greatly (KOI (pvev). *Ea- 
z/art XXa) in the LXX. is trans., see Gen. 
ii. 9, Ps. cxlvi. (cxlvii.) 8, but drareXXco 
is used intransitively of vegetable 
growth (Gen. iii. 18, cf. Is. Ixi. n). 
Nearness to the warm surface in 
duced rapid growth, but it also led to 
the shortening of the young plant s 
life. BdQos yfjs: Syr. sin - adds below 
its root. The reading of D, because 
the earth had no depth, 3 does not suit 
the context so well ; both in OVK flx fv 
(v. 5) and dia TO ^ X eu> (2, v. 6) it is 
the seed which is the subject of the 

6. Kai ore dveTei\fv *rX.] In Mc. s 
simpler style *ai merely adds a fresh 
particular, without regard to the 
logical connexion. Here there is in 
fact a contrast (cf. Mt. TjXt ou de dva- 
Tt\avTos). The plant grew rapidly 
in the warm Eastern night (comp. 

Jon. iv. IO, eycvrjOrj vnb VVKTO), but 

as soon as the sun grew hot it lan 
guished and withered. E/cau/zarurtf?/ 
is a word of the later Greek (Plu 
tarch, &c.), not used in the LXX., but 
occurring again in Apoc. xvl 8, 9: 

it felt the burning heat 

was scorched ; Latt., aestuavit, ex- 

aestuavit. The same illustration 

Occurs in James i. II, dvcreiXev yap 
6 tfXios vvv TO) Kavcrwvi Kal ft-rjpavev 

rbv xoprov. See also Me. xi. 20, 21, 
Jo. xv. 6, i Pet. i. 24 (Isa. xl. 7). In 
this case the withering is due to the 
very cause which led to rapid growth 
the shallowness of the soil which 
did not permit the plant to develop 
its roots. For 8ia TO ^ e^ ft j/ pifav 
Lc. has the remarkable variant 8ia TO 
M e. iKfidda. Cf. Jer. xvii. 8, eVt 
iKfj-dda fta\fi piav avTov* ov (po(3r]6r)- 
o-fTai orav f\6y Kav^a a passage 
which may have suggested the Lucan 
gloss, if it be such. 

7. Kai aXXo (ireo-fv fls Tag aKavQas] 

And another (portion) fell into the 

thorns. 3 Mt. TTI TCLS CZAC., Lc. ev peaa 

T>V dicavQuv : when the clause is re 
peated in the interpretation (Mt. xiii. 
22, Lc. viii. 14), both agree with Me. 
Cf. Lc. X. 36, TOV euTTfO ovTOf els TOVS 
\jja-Tas (30, \7jo-Talf irepie-Trea-fv). 

dveftrjo-av al aKavdai] Lc. <rvv(pvio-ai. 

Mc. s word, retained by Mt., is more 
fully descriptive of the process : the 
thorns not only grew with the wheat, 
but grew faster and higher. For 
dvafiaivciv ( = ITO) to mount up, used 
of vegetation, see Gen. xli. 5, Deut. 
xxix. 23 (22), especially Isa. v. 6, 
xxxii. 13. 

mn>irviav\ Mt., Lc. dneTrvi^av : in 
the interpretation all have ovvirviycuf, 
the Latin versions use suffocare with- 


[IV. 7 

He 8 avTO, Kai KapTrov OVK e^a3Kev. *Kai a\\a eTrecrev^ ei? 

A x ^ ^ ^ /3 / 

nv TTIV Ka\nv : Kat eoLOOV KapTrov, avapaivovTa, 
c av^avofJieva* Kal efyepev ek TpiaKOVTa Kai eis 

out distinction. "Swirv. suits Mc. s 
context best, for he adds KOL KapTrov 
OVK eduKev, which Mt., Lc. omit. The 
thorns, crowding round the wheat and 
keeping off light and air, effectively 
prevented the yielding of fruit, and 
ultimately (but this is not the point 
on which Me. dwells) killed it off. 
For the distinction between airoTrv., 
o-vvirv., comp. Lc. viii. 33, 42 ; and for 
the use of awirv. in reference to 
plants, Theophrast. plant, vi. n. 6, 
devdpa a-vp.irviyofj.fva. Kapnov OVK eSeu- 
Kfv : Kapirov cpepeiv, Troieu/ are more 
usual phrases ; but cf. Mt. xiii. 8, and 
see next note. 

8 a\\a K* c - b BCL 28 33 124 e] a\\o K c - a ADAIIS<i> al min? 1 latt? 1 | eis i] eiri 
OS I -28 118 124 a b | avfrvofteva KB 1071] avfrvo^vov ACDLA 238 avfrvovra II2<1 
al min fereomn | fepei. D 124 604 2? | ets 2, 3, 4 KC*A 28 604 tf" alp*" ] eis...ei/...eK 
BL(efc, ev bis L) as... /ecu... /ecu iv 1071 e> ter AC 2 DEFGHKMUVII2<I> minP ermu & 
ter lattP le 

paiveiv, now applied to the wheat, see on 
#. 7 and reff. there ; the Vg., following 
the reading avt-avopevov, wrongly inter 
prets it of the ear (fructum ascen- 
dentem et crescentem) and so the 
English versions except R.V. "With 
av^av6fj,cva compare Col. i. 6, 10, and 
for $e peu> (KapTTov) see Jo. xii. 24^ 

XV. 2fL 

els TpiaKovra KrX.] The text here 
is embarrassing. Of the possible 
readings (tb...cfc...cfr: tV...eV...eV: 
ei/. .Jv...v: els. . .eV. . .cV) the last is per 
haps the best supported, and has been 
adopted by WH.; but the change of pre 
position is meaningless and intolerably 
harsh, and it has the appearance of 
being due to a partial assimilation of 
v. 8 to v. 20. Efc (eV) answers to |1 *at 
the rate of/ cf. BDB., p. 90; Hard, 
represents it by _=. If we read GN 
ter, there is something to be said for 
printing it ev : the triple els occurs in 
i Regn. x. 3, and elsewhere, and ev 
will accord here with Mt. s 6 /ieV, o 
&T...O 8e . The Vg. has unum both 
here and in v. 20; hence Wycliffe, 
"oon thritty fold/ &c. 

rptaKOVTa, . .e^KOvra.. JKCITOV] Even 
the highest rate of increase named 
here is not extravagant : cf. Gen. 
xxvi. 12,vpv...eKaTO(TTVov<rav KpiQijv, 
and see Wetstein and J. Lightfoot 
ad I. The fertility of Esdraelon and 
of the volcanic soil of the Hauran 
was prodigious, and there were rich 
cornfields about the Lake which may 
have justified these figures : cf. G. A. 
Smith, H. G. pp. 83, 439 ff., 612; 
Merrill, Galilee, p. 20 ff. 

8. Kai oXXa eTTco ev els TTJV yrjv rrjv 
Ka\rjv] And other (seeds) fell into 
the good soil. Wycliffe, " in to good 
lond. j; Mt. eVi r. y. T. KaXijv, Lc. els 
T. y. T. ayaOrjv. Kakrjv calls attention 
to that which met the eye; dyaBrfv 
to the nature and condition of the 
soil. The repetition of the article 
(TTJV y. TTJV AC., not rrjv K. y.) gives 
prominence to the adjective: the 
seeds now in view not merely fell 
into the ground (in contrast with 
those which fell els aKavOas or eVt 
TO TrerpcuSer), but into ground specifi 
cally good : cf. Jo. x. n, 14, 6 TTOL^V 
6 KO\OS. Blass, Gr. p. 158. ES/Sov... 
efapev, a continuous process, con 
trasted with firfvfv. AiSovat Kapirov 
p5> |Di, Ps. i. 3) includes the forma 
tion of the wheat ear, which under the 
circumstances would be concurrent 
with the growth of the young wheat 
(avafiaivovra KOI avgavo/Jieva). For ova- 


Kat ek 6/caroV. 9 Kat eXeyev ^Os e^e: WTO. 9 

10 Kai ore eye^eTO Kara //oi/as, riparraw CIVTOV ol 10 
i/Toy cn)y TO?? ScJSe/ca Tas 7rapa/3oXas. KCLI II 
eXeyev avToTs * Yfjuv TO jJivcrTripiov Sedorca Trjs fiacri- 

9 os e%a KBC*DA] o ex w;/ K c - a AC 2 LlIZ<l> al min forteomn | a/couerw] + /cat o <TVVIWV 
D a b ff i syr 1101 ^) 10 rjpwruv (vel -TOW) ^ABCLA<J> 33] ypwrrjaav IIS 

al min pl c f ff vg eirr)pw<jw D cTr^pwrrja av 604 | 01 TT. a. <r. r. SwSe/ca] ot 
avrov D 13 28 69 124 346 2P abcffgiq syr 8in Or 1 " | ras 7ra/>a/3o\as] TT;V 
^SoXT?!/ AlIS al minP 1 syrP esh go aeth rts t\ 7rapa^o\Tj avrrj D 13 28 69 124 346 2? e 
abcfffgilq Or infc <f>pa.ffov yfjuv Tt]v trapa^oh^v <J> 1 1 TO f^vffTrjpiov Sedorai 

KBC* vid L] 5e5. ro /A. AKH al minP* 110 (syr 810 ) 5. yvwcu TO jj,. C 2 DA al min? 1 latt vt P lv K 

min nonn syr hcl arm 

PARABLES (Mt. xiii. 10 15, Lc. viii. 
9 10). ^ 

10. ore eyevfTo Kara povas] Pro 
bably when the public teaching of the 
day was over. Kara p6vas (frequently 
used in LXX. for "I? 1 ?), Vg. singularis, 
is relative only : He was apart from 
the multitude, but the Twelve and 
Other disciples (ol irepi avrbv <rvv rot? 
6\) shared His solitude ; cf. Lc. ix. 
1 8, ev rco fivat avrov Trpoo-cv^o/iei oj/ 
Kara novas o-vvfjo-av aurco ot /^ac^r/rat. 
The Succinct r;pcorcoi/ CLVTOV. . .ray Trapa- 

/3oXas (WM., p. 284) is expanded by 
Mt. (5ta rt fv 7rapa(3o\cus \a\els av- 
rols;) and Lc. (TIS UVTTJ CLTJ r) irapa- 
/SoXr;;): the latter narrows the en 
quiry to the particular parable, but, 
as the answer shews, it raised the 
whole question of parabolic teaching. 

11. TO pvo~TJpiov dedoTai] The 
variations in the other Synoptists are 
instructive ( 8. yvatvai TO. pv<r- 

Mt. Lc.). Ti/coi/at interprets 
t, but like other interpretations 
of Christ s words, does not exhaust its 
sense. The mystery was given to the 
disciples, and the knowledge of it 
followed in due time; but the gift was 
more than knowledge, and even inde 
pendent of it. Muo-rr/ptoi/ occurs here 
only in the Gospels ; its later use in. 

9. 09 e ^ei Jra /crX.] The parable 
ends as it began with a solemn call to 
attention ; the picture might easily 
be regarded as a pleasant picture and 
no more. With one exception (Apoc. 
xiii. 9) the present formula is found 
only in contexts ascribed to our 
Lord (Mt. xi. 15, xiii. 9 [=Mc. iv. 9], 
43, Me. iv. 23, Lc. xiv. 35, Apoc. ii. 
7, ii, 17, 29, iii 6, 13, 22). The 
forms vary slightly; besides that 
which is given in the text we have 
et TIS *X i G> Ta aKovetv d<ovT(o (Me. 
iv. 23), o e xav cora d/coue ro> (Mt.), o 
e^tai/ cora dicovfiv aKOueVco (Lc.), o e^ow 
ovs aKov<rara> (Apoc. ii., iii.) and e i TIS 
e;(<ri ovs duovo-ara) (Apoc. xiii. 9). For 
the inf. after e^ei see Blass, Gr., p. 
226. For the idea cf. Deut. xxix. 
3 (LXX., 4), Isa. vi. 10, Ezek. iii. 27. 
Wetstein (on Mt. xi. 15) quotes from 
Philo the phrase d/coay (or cora) f\ flv 
cv TT) tyvxy- Cf. Euth., cora vorjrd. 
Some Gnostic sects saw in these 
words an encouragement to find in 
the Parable of the Sower mysteries 
which the Church did not recognise ; 
cf. Hippol. Jiaer. V. 8, roure cm, (frrjo-iv, 
ovdels TovTtov rcoi/ /zto"n;piW aKpoarrjs 
yeyovev el /AT) fj,6voi ot yva)o~Ti<ol re Xetoi. 
Cf. viii. 9, Sia rovro e ipr)K... O e^coi/ 
KrX., on raura OVK ecrrt Trai/rcov aKovo~- 

7 6 


[IV. ii 

TOV 6eov : eKeivois Se TO?? e^a) ev 7rapa/3o\als 

12 TO 

Kai aKOVovTes aKOvwcri Kai 


/3\7rovTes /3\7ro)(n Kai 
i d<pe6fj 

crvvicocriv ULt 

II r. efaQev B | ra Trcwra] om ra KDKII 28 124 2 pe alP* 110 | 7tj/ercu] Xe7erat DS 
28 64 124 2P e abcfgiq 12 p\<-iru<nv (/3\ei//. 1071)] pr ^17 E*FGHA minP auc 

syr sin Or | om />; tSwcrw A syr sin Or bis | aKovuffiv (-<r<i><nt> CM 33 69 124 alP* 110 )] pr 
\it] A | 


D*L al minP auc Or 00 5 | eTri<rTpa<t>w<n 604 
AKII minP* uc a<pe0r)<rofMu D 

(dimittam d (f) g i q r) | 
me (syrr sin P esh ) + ra irapa- 

the N.T. is limited to PauK 21 ) and 
Apoc.W. The LXX. employ it in 
DanieK 8 ) (for H, a secret of state), 
Tob.W, JuditW 1 ), Sap.( 4 ), Sir.( 4 ), 2 Macc.W; 
in Daniel ii. 28 ff., 47, Sap. ii. 22 
the word passes into the theological 
sense which it exclusively has in the 
N.T. ; see Hatch, Essays, p. 58. 
The mystery of the Kingdom of 
GOD is the content of the Gospel 
(TO p.. TOV ^pioroi), Eph. iii. 4, Col. 
IV. 3, TOV OfQVy CoL ii. 2, roO tu ayye- 
Xiou, Eph. vi. 19, T^y TT/oTecoy, i Tim. 
iii. 9, TTJS cvo-efteias, i Tim. iii. 16), i.e. 
Christ Himself as revealing the Father, 
and fulfilling His counsels. As given 
to the Apostles it was still a secret, 
not yet to be divulged, nor even except 
in a small degree intelligible to them 
selves. On the Pauline sense of /xu- 
Lightfoot on Col. i. 26. Ta 
(Mt. Lc.) loses sight of the 
unity of the gift, and belongs to a 
somewhat later form of the common 

CKeivois Se roTy eo>] Vg. "illis autem 
qui foris sunt"; but to those, the men 
who are outside, i.e. the o^Aoy as 
contrasted with the /^a^rcu, cf. xii. 7, 

Lc. xii. 38. Lc. Tols 8e AOITTOIS, Mt. 
simply CKCLVOIS de. The words must 
not be understood as a reproach ; 
they merely state the fact, of e|o) 
are non-disciples, who are as yet 
outside the pale a Rabbinical phrase 
for Gentiles or unorthodox 

Jews (see J. Lightfoot ad h. I., Bp 
Lightfoot on CoL iv. 5); of e/cros is 
similarly used in Sir. prol. L 4 : of 
et-a)6ev, which has some support here, 
is used by St Paul (i Tim. iii. 7). To 
such, while they remained outside, 
the mystery was not committed in 
our Lord s lifetime; nevertheless, they 
received what they could. On exoteric 
teaching among Greek philosophers 
cf. A. Gellius N. A. xx. 4, and for 
the practical application of the prin 
ciple by the later Church see Cyril 
Hier. catech. vi. 29. 

cv TrapapoXais ra iravra yiWrai] Vg. 
inpardbolis omniafiunt: the whole 
is transacted in parables/ i.e. the 
mystery takes the form of a series of 
illustrative similitudes. Euth. : TO IT. 
y., TO, TTJS 8ida<TKa\ias O~T)\OVOTI. 

12. Iva (3\7TovTs *rX.] An adap 
tation of Isa. vi. 9, 10, LXX., aKofj 

O.KOV(TT KOI OV (T\)Vr]Tf Kai (3\e7TOVTS 
fB\\lfTe KOi OV flT)l8r}T...fJi^ 7TOT...f7Tl- 

o~Tpf\lra>o-iv KOI tao-o/zai avrovs : the 
whole passage is quoted by Mt. with 
the preface avairXrjpovrai avrols rj rrpo- 
(prjTeia Ho-aiov ^ Xe -yowo-a: cf. John xii. 

39 f., Acts xxviii. 256. "iva, which is 
not part of the quotation, explains 
the purpose of the parabolic teaching 
in regard to those who, after long 
attendance on Christ s Ministry, were 
still without ; it was intended to fulfil 
the sentence of judicial blindness pro 
nounced on those who will not see. 



13 Kal Xeyei avTols OVK o l$aT6 TY\V 7rapafio\r]V 13 

Kal TTWS Tracras Tcts TrapafioXas Y*/axrecr06; 
I4 d cTTreipwv TOV \oyov crTreipei. ^OVTOL Se eicriv ol J* 

14 cTTrepei 

Bengel : " iam ante non videbant ; 
nunc accedit iudicium divinum." Mt 
substitutes on for iva t I speak in 
parables, because they cannot see the 
sentence is already working itself out 
in their incapacity to understand. 7 
The result, however, is due to them 
selves: cf. Thpht. fi\e-roi>TS TOVTOTOV 
Bfov- p.T] /SXeTTGMTf rovro rrjs KaKtas 
avTcov. Cf. Iren. iv. 29. i : "unus et 
idem Deus his quidem qui non cre- 
dunt...infert caecitatem, quemadmo- 
dum sol in his qui propter aliquam 
infirmitatem oculorum non possunt 
contemplari lumen eius." 

The distinction between (SkeTretv and 
I8flv corresponds here to that between 
aKoveiv and o-vvieiv. The Syriac versions 
and the Vg. (ut videntes videant et non 
videant} fail to notice this. Kal afaBrj 
avTols (impers.)is preferred by Me. to /cat avTovs which Mt., Jo. and Acts 
borrow from the LXX. ; in form at 
least it is nearer to the original 
(b NQ}] : see Delitzsch ad I.) ; for 
a<p. impers. cf. Mt. xii. 31, 32, Lc. xii. 
10, James v. 15. On the reading 
d(f)6ijo~o/ see WM., p. 630 f. 

18 23, Lc. viii. ii 15). 

13 ff. The disciples question had 
implied that they needed to have the 
parable of the Sower explained to 
them. To this point the Lord now 
addresses Himself. Me. alone pre 
faces the interpretation with a re 
buke OVK ot Sare KT\. Ye know not 
(or, " Know ye not ? "so all the English 
versions) what this first parable means : 
how then will you come to understand 
the parables which are to follow ? 
Otfia is used in reference to a know- 

ledge which comes from intuition or 
insight, yivocxTKo* of that which is gained 
by experience or acquaintance (see 
Lightfoot on i Cor. ii. n). An initial 
want of spiritual insight boded ill for 
their prospect of becoming apt inter 
preters of parabolic teaching. Cf. 
Sir. iii. 29, <ap8ia a-vverov fitai/ojy^o-erat 
TrapaftoXTJv. Kat TTCOS- ; how then ? 
cf. Lc. XX. 44, Jo. xii. 34. Ilao-as ras- 
7rapa/3oXa?, not parables in general 
(Trao-as-Tj-apa^oAasXbut all the parables 
which you are to hear from Me. 

14. 6 o-ireipcov TOV \oyov a-rreipci] 
That which the sower sows is the 
word. Lc. more explicitly, 6 <nropo? 
VT\V o \6yos. The sower is not inter 
preted. Theophylact s view (rts ovv 
fo-nv 6 o-TTfipav; avros 6 ^ptoros) is 
correct (cf. Mt. xiii. 37), if it be borne 
in mind that Christ acts through His 
Spirit in the Church. For the sense 
of 6 \oyos see note on ii 2. Mt 
adds rfjs fiaa-iXeias, Lc. TOV 0ov ; 
in the phraseology of Me. it is 
usually unqualified (ii. 2, iv. 14 20, 
33, viii. 32 [xvi. 20]). For the com 
parison of teaching to sowing see 
Philo, de agr. 2, 6 VOVS...TUS OTTO TWV 

e itode Kap7rovo~6ai...ev diavoiq Rapiroiis 
oJ^eXt/LicDrarouff oi tret [sc. ra o~nap4vra\ 
KaXas Kal CTraiveTas irpa^fis. *O o-ireipuv 

here is not simply, as in v. 2, the 
sower, whoever he may be, but the 
sower to whom the parable refers ; 
the same remark applies to TTJV 6dov 

(v. 15), ra TreTpccidrj (v. l6), ray aKavOas 
(, 1 8), T^V yffv (V. 20). 

15. ovrot fie KrX.] A compressed 
note which it is difficult to disentangle. 
Lc. gives the general sense, of fie n-apa 

TT)V ofioi> 1<TIV 01 ttKOVO-aVTfS. As the 

words stand in Me. we must either 


6 Aoyos, KO.L OTCLV 

Trapd TY\V 6$6v OTTOV 

aKOvcrwcriv evOvs ep^eTai 6 (raTavas KO.L 
1 6 \oyov TOV ecnrapjjievov ek CIVTOVS. * 6 

opo icos ol 7Ti TCC 7TTp(joSrj (TTTeLpOjUievoLj di OTCLV O.KOV- 
\6<yov 6v6vs fJieTci X.apa^ \aiui/3dvov(riv 


Kai ovToi eicriv 


15 OTTOI/I ois D 69 2 ff g syrP esh | OTT. o-ireip. o XOYOS] qui ne gleg enter verbum suscipiunt 
ab (c) p qr ot aKovovres TOV \oyov syr sinvid | KO.I crew] ot or. B | om evOvs i 118 syr sin 
arm | cupei] a^epet D apTrafei KG A | ets avrovs B j 13 28 69 alP* uc ] ev avrois KCLA 
c me edd syr hcl m s> ev rats /capStais avrwv DIIS> al min? 1 ]att vt P lv ? syrr" 11 ^ 8111101 ^) 
go arm airo TT^S /ca/>5taj avruv A 1 aeth 16 om o/xotws D i 13 28 69 al pauc 

a bcff gi q | (nreLpo[j,evoL\ + \oyoi M | OL orav] om ot B* (hab B 3? ) | om eu(9us D i 28 
gjpauc c ff i q syr sin | Aayu./Scwoww ] Sexoirat I 131 209 al?* 110 

translate "these are they by the 
wayside where," &c., leaving the con 
struction incomplete, or "these are 
they by the wayside, (namely those who 
are) where," &c. The analogy of v. 16 
points rather to the former rendering ; 
the Evangelist has written KOI orav for 
ot orai/, forgetting that a relative clause 

OUght to follow OVTOI. Ol Trapa TTJV 
odov, sc. TTfffovrcs or (as in Mt.) cnra- 
pevTfs: the hearers are identified with 
the seed, and not, as we might ex 
pect, with the soil Since this iden 
tification is common to Mt., Me., Lc., 
it probably belongs to the essence of 
Christ s teaching, and represents a 
"truth both of nature and of grace; 
the seed sown... becomes the plant 
and bears the fruit, or fails of bearing 
it ; it is therefore the representative, 
when sown, of the individuals of 
whom the discourse is" (Alford, on 
Mt. xiii. 19). 

orav aKovcroxTiv] On each occasion, 
as soon as their hearing of the 
message, or of any part of it, is 

cvflvs ep^erat 6 crarai/as KrX.] Mt. 
e p^ercu o irovqpos (cf. Mt. V. 37, VL 13, 
xiii. 38, I Jo. iL 13, &C.). Lc. etra 
(pXfTai 6 Sta/3oXos. For 6 o-. see note 
on Me. i. 13. -EvOvs retains its proper 
sense; the birds lose no time, nor 
does Satan. With this interpretation 

of TO, TTfTfivd comp. Eph. ii. 2, vi, 12. 
Tov o~7rapp.vov els civTovs leaves the 
region to which the word had pene 
trated undetermined; Mt. s ev rfj 
Kapbia (cf. Lc.) represents it as having 
entered the intellectual life, which 
is less in accord with this part of the 
parable. Lc. adds Satan s purpose, 
iva fj.rj iri(TTvo-avTS cra>$a>cm> : cf. Me. 
xvi. 1 6. The perf. part, fairap^vov 
(Mt. Me.) indicates that the sowing 
was completed, and the seed not yet 
disturbed when Satan arrived (Burton, 


1 6. KCU OVTOI flaiv KT\.] * On the 
same principle of interpretation (6- 
/xoiW) those who are sown on the rocky 
places are, &c. Oi o-Treipo/zeyoi, qui 
seminantur, the class of persons to 
whom belongs TO o-neipfo-Qai cirl TO. TT. 
Cf. Burton, 123, and contrast 01 
o-rrapfVTes in v. 20, where the notion 
of time comes in. In one sense * the 
word is sown, in another the hearers 
are the seed ; see above on v. 1 5. 

evdvs fj-cra ^apas \ap.(Sdvovo~iv avrov] 

Cf. v. 5, evdvs fgaveTeiXev. The joy 
of the enthusiastic hearer corresponds 
to the bursting through the soil of the 
fresh green blade a visible response 
to the sower s work. Lc. substitutes 
for Xa/tj3. the warmer St ^oi/rai (cf. Acts 
xi. i, xvil n, i Thess. i. 6, iL 13, 
James i 21). 


l7 ev eavTols a AAct Trpocr- 17 

Kat OVK e^ovcnv 
Kcupoi ei<riv eiTa <yevofjLevn<z 


a\Xoi eltrlv 18 

17 pifav] u5o>/> V | -rrpOKdipoi F | 77] /cat D c f f i C[ vg | <ncai>5aAicr077<roi Tcu D 
1 8 aXXot] ovroi AC 2 n2<i> al 33 min? 1 f q go aeth om a\\. eiffiv I 13 28 124 604 al m 

S y r peoh arm 

17. OVK exov<nv pi.av\ The seed 
of the word has not driven its way 
into the soil With this use of pifa 
cf. 4 Regn. xix. 30, Job xix. 28, Sap. 
iii. 15, iv. 3, Sir. i. 6, 20, Isa. xL 24; 
and contrast Deut. xxix. 18 (Heb. 
xii. 15), i Mace. i. 10. 

So Mt. ; Lc. omits the 

words. The hearer of the Gospel is 
at once plant (6 o-Tretpo/uf vos or a-jrapfis) 
and soil ; the roots which the seed 
under normal conditions throws out 
are within, in his heart, the seat of 
the personal life. In the case now 
contemplated the heart is TTCT prides ; 
there has been a irupwo-is within (iii. 5) 
which stops the development of the 

dXXa TTpoo-Kcupoi i<rtv] Vg. sed tem- 
porales sunt : but (so far from being 
well rooted) they are short-lived ; 
Lc. irpos Kaipbv 7ri(TTvov(riv. Nearly 
all the English versions paraphrase 
Trpoo-K. da-iv, e.g. Wycliffe, "thei ben 
temporal, that is lasten a lytil tyme "; 
Tindale, Cranmer, Geneva, A. V. 
"endure but a time" or "for a time": 
"for a season" (Heb. xi. 25) has per 
haps been avoided as ambiguous in 
this connexion. Ilpoo-Kaipos, though 
common in the later Gk., is rare in 
the Greek of the Bible, occurring 
only in 4 Mace. xv. 2, 2 Cor. iv. 
1 8, Heb. I.e., besides the present 

ciTa yevofjLevTjs KT\.] Eira, then, 
as the next step consequent upon the 
non-development of the roots; cf. 

iTfv (v. 28). eXtyecos 17 dinyfjiov (Lc. 
TretpaoyioG), crushing sorrow of any 
kind, or in the particular form of 

persecution. Q\fyis (on the accentua 
tion see WM., p. 56 n.), though rarely 
used in non-Biblical Greek and only 
in its literal sense, is common both in 
LXX. and N.T. ; in the former it is 
usually an equivalent of "IV or one of 
its cognates. It is coupled with cXey- 
(j.6s (4 Regn. xix. 3), orew^copia (Esth. 
A 7 (xi. 8), Is. viii. 22, Rom. ii. 9, viii. 
35), odvitrj (Ps. cxiv. (cxvi.) 3), avayKt] 
(Ps. cxviii. (cxix.) 143, Zeph. i. 15, 
2 Cor. VL 4, i Th. iii. 7), oveidurpos (Is. 
xxxvii. 3), diuyfjios (2 Thess. i. 4); its 
opposites are TrXarvo-pos (cf. Ps. iv. i), 
dvairava-is (cf. Hab. iii. 1 6), eipijvrj (Zach. 
viii. 10), ava-is (2 Th. i. 7). See Light- 
foot on i Th. iii. 7, 2 Th. i. 7. For 
Siwy/zos-, another too familiar word in 
Apostolic times, see x. 30, 2 Mace, 
xii. 23, Acts viii. i, xiii. 50. The two 
words correspond here to the fierce 
heat which withers the rootless plant 
(v. 6) : cf. Ps. cxx. (cxxi.) 6, Is. xxv. 4, 
xlix. 10, Jer. xvii. 8. Aia rbv \6yov is 
a new point, which is not represented 
in the parable: cf. xiiL 13, dia TO 

6vop.a pov. 

<rKavda\iovrcu] ^KavdaXifciv occurs 
in Dan. xi. 41, LXX. (^^Op), Sir. ix. 5, 
xxiii. 8, xxxv. 1 5, Pss. Sol xvi. 7, and 
in Aq., Symm., but perhaps not else 
where except in the N.T. and Church 
writers; and whereas arKavdaXov is 
used occasionally in its literal sense 
(Judith v. i, Isa. viii. 14, Aq., i Pet. 
ii. 8), the verb seems to be limited to 
the sphere of ethics. Lc. interprets 
it here of apostasy (a<pL<rravrai), but 
there may be moral stumbling which 
falls short of that : see Me. xiv. 27. 

1 8. Kal aXXot flcrlv /<rX.] Another 


01 ek ras aKciv6as o-TreipojuievoL OVTOL euriv ol TOV 
19 \ojov aKOvcravTes, * 9 Kai al jULepiimvai TOV aicovos Kai n 
TOV 7T\ovTOV Kai al Trepi TCL \OLTTO. eTTiBvimiai 

(rvvTrviyovcriv TOV \6yov, Kai 
20 ryiveTai. ^Kai eKelvoi eicriv ol ITTI TY\V <yfjv 

aKOiiovcriv TOV \6yov Kai iraoa- 

18 ets ABDLIIS<I> al min forteomn ] em KG A me | om OVTOL euriv AC 2 IIS (non <3?) 
al 33 alP 1 f q go aeth a/coutrcwres (K)BCDLA 13 69 124 346 1071 alP auc me] aKovovres 
AII2<I> al min? 1 latt syr hcl go aeth 19 cuwi/os] /3iou D 604 latt 7 * + TOVTOV AIIS< al 

minP 1 f syrP 68 * 1 arm me go aeth | t\ aTrart] (ayaTri) A) TOV TrXoirrov] aTrarai TOV KOCT^OV 
D (b) g i q ydovai TOV KOG^OV c e ff | om /cat at TT. T. X. eirtdv/Mai D i 28 604 a b c e ff i q 
arm | aKapiroi yivovTai D 124 bceffgiq 20 e/cewoi NBCLA] ouroi ADIIS^> al 

m i n f 

class consists of those who are sown 
upon the thorns : cf. v. 16, OVTOL 6V 
elo-iv ol KT\. The construction is 
broken after duovo-avres (Mt. Me.) ; 
we expect, what Lc. gives, Kut...<rvi>- 

19. al KT\.] The thorns 
of the spiritual soil At /z. TOV al&vos : 
the cares of the age (usually 6 atcoi/ 
euros), the present course of events 
wider than Lc. s pepifj-vai TOV /St ou (or 
jStomKdi Lc. xxi. 34). For other N.T. 
warnings against worldly care see Mt. 
yi. 25 ff. ( = Lc. xii. 22 ff.), Lc. x. 41, 
xxi. 34; Phil. iv. 6, i Pet. v. 7. With 

airarr] TOV TrXourou COOap. dnaTrf ddiKias 
(2 Th. ii. 10), TT/S dpapTias (Heb. iii. 13) ; 
the confusion of AH^TH with <ifAnH 
in some MSS. finds an interesting paral 
lel in 2 Pet. ii. 13. At Trept ra XotTra 
emdvfjiiai is peculiar to Me. ; Lc. s 
equivalent is jdoval TOV /3tov, but Me. 
is again more comprehensive; cf. 

Euth. : o-vp.7rept\a^<av irao-av /3Xo^Se- 
pav eirtOvfuav, where however /3Xa/3. 
narrows the reference unduly if it 
suggests only such desires as are 
vicious in themselves (see i Jo. ii. 
15 ff. with Westcott s notes). On this 
interpretation of the a<av0ai see Herm. 
sim. ix. 20; for the phrase al 
*crX., see WM., p. 240. 

crvvir. r. \6yov] The 
enter the heart together 
with the Xoyos and in greater strength, 
gathering round it (for a~uvirv. see 
v. 7) and excluding from it the action 
of the understanding and the affec 
tions which are as light and warmth, 
to the spiritual plant. 

UKapiTos yivTai\ = Kapirbv OVK. eScoxei 
(v. 7) I^c. ov Te\o~cpopovo~iv. The 
fruit does not mature itself, and so 
the word proves in their case fruitless. 
For the metaphorical use of aKapTro? 
see Sap. XV. 4? o~Ktaypdcp(CV TTOVOS aicap- 
iros: Eph. v. n, Tit. iii. 14, 2 Pet 
i. 8. 

2O. eKcivoi . . . oiTives] l Those who- 
are such as, &c. Ef ivoi contrasts this 
last class with ovrot (ov. 15, 16) and 
aXXot (v. 18) : cf. Jo. ix. 9, aXXot. . .aXXot 
...Ke!vos. For oo-rtff as distinguished 
from 6$- see Lightfoot on Gal. iv. 24 
and 2 Th. i. 9. The timeless o-Tretpo- 
IJLfvot (vo. 1 6, 1 8) is now exchanged 
for o-7rapevTs those who in the 
parable were represented as sown, 
&c. : those of this type (i) hear the 
word (Lc. adds eV Kapdia <a\fj Kai 
dyaQrj), (2) accept it, (3) yield fruit. 
Uapadexovrai (Exod. xxiii. I, 3 Mace, 
vii. 12, Acts xvi. 21, xxil 18, Heb. 
xii. 6) goes beyond Xapfidvovo-iv (v. i6\ 



10 ev...ev...ev KDEFGHKMUVII (ev latt me go arm)] om ev 1 BC* vid et 3 B 
m i n per P auc 2I QTt g^j om KACDAII2<I> al minP 1 | epxerat] aTrrerat D 13 69 124 

al c e ff g i r adfertur b (aeth) 


Kai Kap7ro<popova LV ev TpiaKovTa Kai ev 
Kai ev eKaTov. 
Kai e\e<yev avrols OTI MYITI egxercu 6 

cf. Mt. <rvvieis (probably in contrast 
to the dovveroi of Isa. vi. 10), Lc. 

Kai KapTTocpopovaiv KrX.] For KapTro- 
(Xen., Theophr. &c.) see Hab. 
iii 17 (=niS) ) Sap. x. 7, Me. iv. 28; 
and in the metaphorical sense Rom. 
vii. 4, 5, Col. i. 6 (middle, see Light- 
foot), 10. Lc. adds ev VTTO/MOI^, " the 
opposite of dcpia-ravrai, v. 13" (Plum- 
mer). For ev. ..ev. . .ev Blass (Gr. p. 146) 
would write ev...ev...ev, cf. Mt. o pev... 
o 8e...o 8e : but CM is probably the 
equivalent of |, at the rate of; see 
note on v. 8. the employment of this 
detail in the interpretation by Mt, 
Me. is remarkable. Lc. omits it, but 
it clearly asserts a principle which 
is as true in the kingdom of GOD as 
in nature. Cf. Victor: reraprov ovv 

pepos e&todr) Kai ovde TOVTO cV {(rrjs 

Kap7ro(popet The comment of Theo- 
phylact serves to throw light upon 
the estimate of Christian perfection 
formed by a later age : ot p.ev ela-t 
Trapdcvoi Kai cpijfwcoi, aXXoi myddfs 
Kai ev Kotvo/3i o), erepoi Xai /coi Kai ev 

(Cf. Jerome on Mt. xiii.) 

THE WORD (Lc. viii. 16 18 ; cf. Mt. v. 
15, x. 26, vii. 2, xiii. 12, xxv. 29; Lc. 
xi. 33, xii. 2, vi. 38, xix. 26). 

21. al e Xeyei/ occurs with remark 
able frequency in this chapter (vv. 9, 
II, 13 (\eyei), 21, 24, 26, 30, 35 (Xey)). 

Possibly its repetition indicates that 
the editor had before him here a 
number of detached sayings of un 
certain order, which he has thus 
strung together without note of time. 
Several of these sayings are given by 
Mt. in other contexts (see last note), 

S. M. 2 

or occur in a slightly different form 
which suggests a double rendering of 
the same Aramaic words : cf. Lc. viii. 
16 with xi. 33, viii. 17 with xii. 2, viii. 
1 8 with xix. 26 ( A . Wright ad I}. These 
phenomena at first sight throw doubt 
upon the Marcan sequence in this 
place, and it is worthy of notice that 
Tatian passes from v. 20 to v. 29 ; but 
the inner coherence of the sayings 
with the preceding context supports 
Me., and, unless they were repeated 
on other occasions, it is probably Mt s 
order which is at fault. 

fi^n epxerai 6 Xu^i/oy] Vg. num- 

quid venit lucerna ? MT/T* expects a 
negative answer, cf. e.g. Pilate s ques 
tion (Jo. xviii. 35) pi?/ cya> lovSaloy 
flfii; and see on Me. xiv. 19. With 
epxerai the commentators compare 
Li ban. ep. 358 T] 8e (eTrioroX^) ep^frat. 
The reading of D (dnTerat for epx^rai : 
cf. Lc. d\jsas) is a harmonising gloss, 
unless, as has been ingeniously sug 
gested, we may see in it a retransla- 
tion of acceditur (accenditur), Harris, 
Cod. JBez., p. 89. C O \i>xvos "a lanterne" 
(Wycliffe); rather, the lamp (on the 
article see v. 3), as contrasted with 
the Xa/z7raff or torch : see exx. in 
Trench, syn. xlvi, and cf. Lamp, 
Lantern, in Hastings, D. B. iii. The 
\VXVQS when at rest is placed on 
a stand Xu^i/ia a later form of Xv^- 
viov or \vxvelov-\vxvovxos used in 
the LXX. for the nTUp of the Taber 
nacle (Exod. xxv. 31, &c., esp. xL 4, 

eiaoifreis TTJV \vxviav Kai eTriflija fLS TOVS 

Xv^j/ous-). In the present context the 
\vxvos is the word, the Xv^^ a the 
hearer or body of hearers (cf. Apoc. 
i. 20) ; in Lc. xi. 34, Apoc. xxi. 23 
the metaphor is applied somewhat 



iva VTTO TOV JULO$LOV T60rj fj V7TO Tr\v K\ivr]v, ov% iva 

, v \ -v / % . i 

22 CTTI TrjV \v%vi>av 
rj iva <f)avepco6rj , 



23 e\6rj eh <f>avepov. 

* z 

e i 

e^et cora xoveiv 

iva v. T. p. redi{\ v. T. p. refloat tf* | eirt] viro KB*2 13 33 69 1071 | re^ 2] 
All al? 1 11 effTtv] + n KACEFGLSVAII 2 2<i> minP rmu c f vg syr^ arm 

go (om n BDHKMUH* min Batmu b e ff i q aeth) | eav w iva. KBA (i 13 28 69 604 
ajperpauc^j eav py ACKLIIS 33 209 al pauc aXX iva D 49 b ff i q o eav ^-rj 
EFGHMSUV* | eX^ eu Qavepov] (pavepue-r) B (syr? 6911 ) aeth 

of a pvo-Tripiov (v. n). If the Gospel 
was for the moment treated as a 
secret, this was so only because 
temporary secrecy was essential to 
its successful proclamation after the 
Ascension. Those to whom the secret 
was now confided were charged with 
the responsibility of publishing it 
then. The Av^Wa must be ready to 
receive and exhibit the \VXVQS as 
soon as the appropriate time had 

KpuTrros and aTTOKpvcfoos are both 
0. T. words : cf. esp. Dan. ii. 22, Th. 

avTOS a.TroK.a\vTTTi fiadea Ka\ airoKpv(pa 
/Nfnripp) ib. 47, LXX., 6 eKfpaivw 
[AWTr/pia KpVTTTa.. On a.7roKpv(pos cf. 

Lightfoot on Col. ii. 3. Eai/ p-rj iva <^>., 
except for the purpose of being re 
vealed ; for eav p? without a verb see 
Blass, Gr. p. 216. AXX iva answers 
to eav M iva (Blass, Gr. p. 269), but 
(ag. Blass) there is a perceptible differ 
ence of meaning : see the paraphrase 
attempted above. Similarly e<m.v and 
eyevero, though relating to the same 
set of facts, present them in different 
lights; what is 5 now hidden from 
us became so through the will of 
GOD working its way through dark 
ness to the perfect light. Thpht. 
ri yap TJV Kpv(pia>Tepov 6eo\> ; aXX 
o/xco? icai OVTOS ecpavepadi] ev o~ap<i. 
Bengel : " id axioma valet de rebus 
naturae, de sensibus et actionibus 
hominum malis et bonis in statu 
naturali et spirituali, de mysteriis 

23. et Tiy ex ft cora AcrX.] See On 

differently. When the word has been 
proclaimed, its purpose is defeated if 
it be concealed by the hearers ; when 
the lamp comes in, who would put 
it under the modius or the couch 
of the triclinium ? MoStos (Mt. v. 
15, Lc. xi. 33, in viii. 16 Lc. has 
= 1 6 sextarii, a sixth of a 
s (? = n ^P), a peck rather than 
a bushel (so all the English versions), 
is a Latinisin common, as the reflF. 
shew, to the three Synoptists ; the 
word had doubtless been adopted 
into colloquial Greek. The reading 
virb TTJV \vxv iav is rightly called by 
Holtzmann "em Beispiel altesten 
Textverderbs " ; cf. WH., Notes, p. 24. 
This saying brings before us the 
commonest furniture of a Galilean 
home, and the details add to its 
picturesqueness 6 Xv^^os, 77 \VXVLCL, 

6 podios, ) K\Lvrj. 

22. ov yap CO-TIV KPVTTTOV KrX.] Vg. 
non enim est aliquid, &c., cf. Mt. 
ovdw yap KT\. and vv. 11. here; for 
there is not [anything] hidden (Mt. 

KeKaXvufievov, Lc. xii. 2 (TvyK.fK.a\v(JL- 

nevov) except with a view to its 
future manifestation, neither did it 
become a secret [to remain a secret], 
but on the contrary (aXXa) that it 
might pass into the light of day/ 
The interpretation of the parable 
takes the form of a parallelism after 
the manner of Proverbs and Sirach. 
While asserting a great principle of 
the Divine government, our Lord 
corrects a false impression which 
might have arisen from the mention 


24 Kal eXe^yev CLVTOIS BXeTreTe TL a/coi/eTe* ev w 24 

jULETpa) jUL6TplT HJLeTprj6^(TeTaL VfJLLV Kal ^TTpOCTTeBri- 6 

creTcu VJULIV. 35 os yap ^X ei "> 8o0fjcT6Taf avrdp Kal os 25 a 
VVK e^ei, Kal o X L <*p&?<TT6M CCTT avTOv. 

l eXeyev OVTWS ea-Tiv r\ fia<riXeia TOV deov, 26 

24 aitouere] + /ecu irpoffredrja eTaL V/JM> rots aKovovffiv 13 69 346 556 arm 

1071 | /cat irpoared. VJMV] om DG 114 s^beg + rois aKovovatv AQ b H"2i3> al 
i 33 69 alP q syrr arm 25 ex] pr av DE*FHK6 b av ex?? AE 2 G(M)SUVn | 

<5o#77<rercu] Tr/Jocrre^creTcu D 271 

#. 9. The warning is needed for the 
Apostles as for the rest. 

24. jSXeVere ri aKouere] Lc. /3X. ovi/ 
?rc3? aKovere. In Mc. s form of the 
saying /SXeVeii/ is to consider: look 
well what it is that ye hear, ie. weigh 
its meaning ; be not as those who 

ft\TTOVTS OV ftXeTTOVCTlV (Mt. xiii. 13)- 

Thpht. Trpos vr}(f)a\ioTT}Ta dieycipet TOVS 

trap efJiov dta<j)fvyeTCi>, Cf. Heb. ii. 
I f. 

cv w fjLTpa> icrX.] l You shall be paid 
back (Lc. avrnifrp-qdrja-frai) in your 
own measure. The proverb occurs in 
several contexts (Mt. vii. 2, Lc. vi. 
38) with different applications : here 
the sense is : your attention to the 
teaching will be the measure of the 
profit you will receive from it. Euth. 

/zerpelre rrjv 

The fierpov however is not intellectual 
merely, but spiritual ; its capacity 
depends on the moral condition of 
the hearer. Bengel : " est cor cum 
sua capacitate, cupiditate, studio im- 
pertiendi aliis, obsequio." Nor is the 
return limited by it : KOI Trpoo-re^crerai 

Vfjuv (Mt. 7Tfpi<ra v6rio Tai), i.e. the 

Aoyo? when received by one who is 
not an aKpoarrjs ImXr^a-^ovr^s exceeds 
his immediate power of assimilation ; 
he is rich beyond his measure, richer 
than he knows. 

25. bs yap %ei rX.] Another pro 
verbial saying, found also in other 
connexions (Mt. xiii. 12, xxv. 29, Lc. 

xix. 26). Here the sense is : for the 
appropriation of any measure of Di 
vine truth implies a capacity for 
receiving more ; and each gift, if as 
similated, is the forerunner of another ; 
Bede : " qui amorem habet verbi 
dabitur illi etiam sensus intellegendi 
quod amat." But the converse is 
also true : * incapacity for receiving 
truth leads to a loss of truth already 
in some sense possessed. 5 The para 
doxical form of the original tradition 
is removed by Lc. who writes o doxet 
e^eii/ apdijaerai. But the paradox is 
characteristic of Christ s sayings (cf. 
e.g. viii. 35, x. 31), and it is true : the 
man both has and has not : cf. 
Rom. ii. 20, 2 Tim. iii. 5. With dpdij- 
0-erai air avrov cf. Mt. xxi. 43, XXV. 
28, 29. On the readings os e^ei, os av 
*X el (*xn) see Blass, Gr., p. 217. 


26. Kal e\eyev /crX.] The record of 
the public teaching seems to begin 
again here ; the unexplained parable 
belongs to the o^Xos, not to the /za- 
0rjrai (see below v. 33 f.). The parable 
which follows is peculiar to Me., un 
less we accept the improbable theory 
of Weiss and Holtzmann that it forms 
one side of the picture of which the 
other is preserved in the Parable of 
the Tares (Mt. xiii. 24 ff.). There are 
verbal coincidences, e.g. KaQcvdrj (cf. 
Mt., v. 25), xoproi/...o-Iro (cf. Mt, VV. 
26, 30), Bepia-pos (cf. Mt, V. 30) ; but 
both the purpose and the story differ 



27 &k av6pct)7ros /3d\rj^ TOV cnropov ITTI Trj<s yfjs 2 Kal 
KaBevSrj Kal eyeiptjTai VVKTCL Kal rjfULepav, Kal 6 
apropos /3\a(TTa Kal jULrjKvveTaiy 60s OVK oi&ev avTOS. 

28 * s avTOfjidTri n jrj KapTTCKpopel, TrptoTOv -^opTov^ elrev 

26 ws KBDLA 13 28 33 69 &\?* uc me] ws ecu/ (av, orav] AC0 b IIZ<i> al mini* l a tt vt P lv 
go al | aXXi7 F /3aXX iumP*" 6 | om TOV D 2 pe 27 KaBevSei EFHU 33 69 

al mu | eyeiperai KEFGHLM 69 alP" 1 " 6 76/3^7; D | ySXacrra BC*DLA 2? alP] pXaaravri 
KAC 2 GKMSUVe b IIS<i> minP 1 pKaaravei. EFH 33 al mu | wKwerai BDHS min nonn ] 
firjKvvrjTai KACLAII alP 1 28! avrofMTij] + yap AII2^> al latt vt P lv go pr ort D 

2P 6 arm | etrei/ bis B*(L)A (cf. fc<)] etra bis AB 2 CDII al min forteomn 

\videly. Tatian places Mc. s parable 
immediately before the Tares, an 
order which has much to recommend 

ovrois. . .(os avQptoiros /SaX?;] The regu 
lar construction would have been a>s 

cav av6p. paXy (cf. I Th. ii. 8), or eos 

avBp. ftaXav (cf. i Cor. ix. 26, Jas. ii. 
12) or 0? av @a\rj. There is a partial 
parallel to the anomalous cos... #0X77 in 

xiii. 34, cos ai>$pco7roff...eVeretXaro. Tov 
(TTTopov. as in Lc. viii. 5? TOV crrr. avrou, 
or perhaps generic, seed of any kind. 
In the series (3d\r]...Ka6evdr)...yi- 
pqrai, &c., the first verb alone stands 
in the aor., the act of sowing being 
"single and transient" (Madvig, 128) ; 
for the conjunction of aor. and pres. 
cf. Jo. iii. 1 6, i Pet. iv. 6. Snopos, 
sowing or seed time, is used in the 
later Biblical Gk. as nearly = o-Tre p^a, 
where the reference is to the seed as 
used by the sower, not to the par 
ticular grain ; cf. Deut. xi. 10, Lc. 
viii. 5, ii, 2 Cor. ix. 10 (contrast 
<77re p/u,a in Me. iv. 31, i Cor. xv. 38). 

27. KOL KaOevdrj Koi cyciprjrai] Cf. 
Ps. iii. 6, e-yto Koiij,i]0r)v KOI vTrvwaa- 
The process goes on VVKTO. 
rjnepav, not merely VVKTOS ital 
(v. 5), but occupying the wx^- 
: cf. Lc. ii. 37, where the point 
is that Anna s whole life was given to 
devotion ; Jo. iv. 52 ( Westcott s note). 
The order v. KOI T). is usual (cf. Gen. 
i. 5, &c.), and appropriate in this 
context where KaOevdrj precedes. 

BAaora = /3Xa(rrai/4. BXaoraeo occurs 
also iii Eccl. ii. 6, Hennas Sim. iv. i, 
devdpa TO. p.ev jSXao-rwi/ra ra fie r)pa : 
cf. WSchm. p. 125. Mr)Kvveo~6ai i& 
an air. \ey. in the N. T., but cf. 

The middle emphasises the 
activity of growth internal to the plant. 
Into this mystery of growth however 
the sower cannot penetrate : it takes 
place coy OVK oi8cv avros, after a manner 
which baffles his understanding. Vg. 
"dum nescit ille," Wycliffe, "while he 
wote not," and similarly the other 
English versions before 1611, regard 
ing coy as an adverb of time ; A.V.> 
R.V. "he knoweth not how." 

28. avTO/jLarr] 77 yij KapTrocpopel] Vg. 

ultra enim terra fructificat. Avro- 
p,aroff is used of the spontaneous pro 
duce of uncultivated land (Lev. xxv. 
5, n, 4 Regn. xix. 29, = ITDD) : cf. 

Plat, pollt. 272 A, KCtpTTOVS OV% IITTO 

ya>pyias (pvopevovs aXX auro^tar^ff 
dvadidovo~rjs TTJS yfjs* Bengel s remark 
is true and weighty : " non excludi- 
tur agricultura et caelestis pluvia 
solesque." Here however the thought 
is that when man has done his 
part, the actual process of growth 
is beyond his reach or comprehen 
sion ; he must leave it to the ap 
parently spontaneous action of the 
soil. In the N. T. the word occurs 
again but once (Acts xii. 10). Cf. 
Philo, de incorr. mund. 944, 


y eiTev 7r\ripr] CTITOI/ ev TW (TTa-^yL. 29 crrai/29 a 
^e TrapaSol 6 KapTros, ev6vs aTrocTTeAAet TO SpeTravov, 

OTL 7rap<TTV]KeV 6 QepLCTfJLOS. 

30 Kai eXeyev /7s o/uLOiaja wiuiev^ Tr]v /3aa-i\eiav TOV 30 f a 

iS crrctxi" ] (rraxvas D | ir\-rjpri ffiTov KAC 2 LAII < i > al min? 1 ] ir\tjpey (TITOS B 
o airos D TrXT/pT/s ffiTov C* vid Z TT\rjpes ffirov min 2 TrXrjpot, O~LTOV min pauc me codd 

29 t<*BDA 2P 6 ] irapadu ^s c H ABL0 b ^Z4> al min fereomn | e^aTrocrreXAei 13 69 346 

30 TTWS tsBCLA minP*" besyr hclm s] Tlvt ADII2$ al min? 1 cfffiqvg syrr? 68111101 ^) 
arm me go aeth Or | o/j.oi^a-0/j.ev G i 604 al pauc latt O/J.OIW<TW K ?8 69 al muc arm 004 

up, yielded, surrendered. Com 
pare the Complutensian text of Hab. 
iii. 17 (LXX.), which for o-vicfj ov Kapiro- 

(poprjo-ei reads r) o*. ov p.rj napada TOV 


OTrooTeXXei TO dpenavov^ Sc. 6 avQpai- 

TTOS (v. 26) ; the time has again come 
for the intervention of the agricul 
turist. The phrase is borrowed from 
Joel iii. (iv.) 13: ft-ajroo-TeikaTe (-IP! 7B^ 
cf. Field, Notes, p. 26) ^peVaj/a OTI 
Trap e arr; Kei> TpvyrjTos : cf. Apoc. xiv. 1 5, 

77 TOV erovs a>pa 

On Kapnofopelv see #. 2o : here it is 
loosely used in reference to the inci 
pient stages of the fruitbearing plant. 
Trpooroi/ xoproi/ icrX.] Vg. primum 
herbam, delude spicam, deinde ple 
num frumentum. With TJ-peoroj/. . .eirei/ 
...eirei/ cf. 7rpam>i/...7retTa (l Cor. XV. 
46, I Th. iv. 16), 7rpe5roi/...ira (l Tim. 
iii. 10) : circv (Blass, Gr. p. 20) is a 
very rare, originally Ionic, form of 
flra, for which see note on v. 17. 
Xopros is properly herbage suitable 
for pasture (see e.g. vi. 39, Jo. vi. 10) ; 
here it is the green blade of corn, as 
in Mt. xiii. 26. The next stage is 
that of the ora^vs (ii. 23, cf. Gen. 
xli. 6 ff. = rPSE^ to which succeeds 
the TrXjpTjs a-lros (Job V. 26, (TITOS 

a>pt/LtO? KOTO. KdlpOV 6fpl6fJ.fVOs}. Not 

improbably Me. or his early copyists 
wrote n\ripT)s (rlrov : see WH., Notes, 
p. 24, and J. Th. St. i., p. 121. 

29. orav de Trapa&oZ 6 Kaptros] Vg. 
cum se produxerit fructus. Cf. Mt. 

xiii. 26, ore & /B\d(TTT)(rV 6 ^oprof /cal 
xapnov fTToirjcrfv. Tlapadol (coilj. aor. 

= 7rapaSw, see WH., Notes, p. 175, 
WSchm,, p. 121, Blass, Gr. p. 49) 
is either permits, allows/ a sense 
supported by such writers as Herod., 
Xen., Polyb. (e.g. Polyb. xxii. 24. 9, 
TTJS wpas TrapaStSovCT-T/r), or rather per 
haps, yields [itself] for which Jos. 
xi. 19 (AF) is quoted (OVK yv iro\is 
rjrts oil TrapeftcoKcv rois viols lerpa^X 
= (B) 9f V OVK fXafiev *I.) ; cf. I Pet. 

ii. 23 6s...7rapSi Soi; gave Himself 

6 Bcpio-^os TTJS yrjs. Apeiravov is the 
later form of the Attic dprrravr) (cf. 
8p7ravT]<p6pos in 2 Mace. xiii. 2), used 
in Lxx.( 12 > and N.T.< 2 ). HapeWiyKfj/, 
not is at hand, Vg. adest, or stands 
by, as in the phrase 01 napecmjKOTfs 
(xiv. 47, &c.), but is ready for the 
reaper, as the O.T. shews : cf. Joel I.e. 

where it =^3 and Exod. ix. 32, 77 yap 

/cpi^r) TrapeoTrjKvia ( = S QN). 

Of the interpretation of this inter 
esting parable only a few leading 
points can be stated here. The func 
tions of the sower end with the sow 
ing, those of the reaper begin with the 
harvest ; all that lies between is left 
to the mysterious laws of growth co 
operating with the soil, the sunshine, 
and the rain. Christ came to sow, 
and will come to reap : the rest be 
longs to the invisible working of His 
Spirit in the Church and in the soul 

SEED (Mt. xiii. 31-32, Lc. xiii. 18-19). 

30. TTois 6p,oia>(T<i>/jifv. . .6<i>iJLfv ; (delib. 



31 6eov, n ev TLVI avTriv 7rapa(3o\ij Bw/uLev ; 3I 
(TivaTretos, os OTCLV (nraprj CTTI 


fJLiKpOTepov v 

3 * Kai OTO.V 

conj., WM., p. 356, Blass, Gr., p. 210). 
Lc. (who has placed this parable and 
the parable which follows it in Mt. 
in quite another context) retains the 
double question which Mt. has lost ; 
for the form cf. Isa. xl. 18. How 
are we to depict the kingdom of God 1 
in what new light can we place it 1 
The Lord, as a wise teacher, seems to 
take His audience into His counsels, 
and to seek their help (cf. Blass, Gr., 
p. 1 66). But the parable is ready, 
and follows without a break. 

TU)V 67TI 

30 run KBC*LA min noim Or] TTOIO. AC 2 DO b II2<l> minP 1 | Bwp.ev KBC*LA 28 63 alP auc 
b (e) syr hcl me Or] irapapa\(a^v AC 2 De b II23> al minP 1 latt vt P ly s syrrP 68 * 11101 ^*) arm 
31 ws] o/ioia e<TTu> D c vid me vid | KOKKU NBDAH*2* min nonn ] KOKKOV ACL0 b n 2 al 
min mu latt^ | om os K* (hab K c - a ) | fjUKporepov KBD*LMA 13* 28 33 131 179 235 
258 1071 alP ] (uxporepos ACD 2 e b II23> al minP 1 go | ov] e<mv (A)C(D)Me b nS3> al 
v s arm go | TWV eiri rrjs yrjs] om C 271 b e a eiaiv e. r. y. D 

tristic writers refer also to the pro 
perties of the mustard seed e.g. 
Hilary (in Mt.) : " grano sinapis seip- 
sum Dominus comparavit acri maxime 
...acrius virtus et potestas tribula- 
tionibus et pressuris accenditur." But 
this, if designed, is quite in the back 
ground of the thought. 

OTO.V (Tirapf) eVt TTJS yr)s] Mt. and Lc. 

particularise : the mustard is sown. 
not in the open plain like the wheat, 

but ev ro> dypoi, (Is KTITTOV (3 Regll. XX, 
[xxi.] 2) ; it is a garden herb. Mtxpo- 
repov ov TrdvTOiV rcov o TTfp/xarcoi : the 
construction is again involved : we 
expect o (sc. o-rreppa) piKp. ov...yf)S+ 

OTO.V (nrapTj KT\., or as in Mt. o /zi*cp. 
fiV o-Tiv...orav de KT\. The verse 
reads like a rough note translated 
without any attempt to remove gram 
matical difficulties. On the use of 
the comp. when the superlative seems 
to be required see WM., p. 303. The 
seed is relatively the least of seeds, 
i.e. in proportion to the plant. For 
one of several possible applications 
cf. Jerome in Mt. xiii. : " praedicatio 
evangelii minima est omnibus dis- 
ciplinis...hominem Deum, Deum mor- 
tuum, scandalum crucis praedicans. 
Confer huiuscemodi doctrinam dog- 
matibus philosophorum...sed ilia cum 
creverit, nihil mordax, nihii vividum, 
nihil vitale deinonstrat." 

32. KOI orav a-rrapf) takes up the 
thread of os orav <nr., broken by the 
intruded participial clause. For ava- 
ftalvei, ascenditj see above, v, 7. Mt. 
and Lc. exaggerate the growth (yiverai. 

31. D KOKKcp (rivdirccos^ Wycliffe, 
" as a corn of seneueye." Answer to 
7T<Sff o/iotcoo-co/Ltei/ KT\. , two construc- 
tions seem to be combined cos KOKKOV 
[6t](Top.v] and KOKKCO [o/zoiooo-o/iei/]. 

KOKKOS is here a grain or seed, as in 
K. (T LTOV Jo. xii. 24, i Cor. xv. 37 ; in 
the LXX. KOKKOS is the scarlet dye 
(Lam. iv. 5, Heb. JPin, Sir. xlv. n, 
Heb. *}&), more usually TO KOKKLVOV 
(cf. Mt. xxvii. 28, &c.), produced from 
the berry-like grub which feeds on 
the ilex coccifera. The a-Lvairi is pro 
bably sinapis nigra, which, though 
but a herb (kaxavov Mt. xiii. 32), 
grows to a great height in the warm 
valley of the Jordan, forming branches 
and assuming the appearance of a 
small tree (Lc. xiii 19, eyeWo els 
Se i/opoi>). The point of the parable 
lies in the contrast between the rela 
tively small seed and the size to 
which the plant attains ; cf. Mt. xvii. 
2o = Lc. xvii. 6. The disproportion 
seems to have been proverbial. Pa 


CTTrapfj, dvafiaivei Kal yiveTai 






33 Kal TOiavTais 7rapa/3o\ais TroAAaZs e\d\L 33 

TOV Xoyov, KaBws tjovvavTO dicoveiv 24 ^oopt^ 34 

/} -v ^ -\ /-V > ^ > ^ ^^ 

papOMis OVK eAaAet avTO-is, KCIT iCLav 06 
juadriTcus eireXuev TrdvTa. 


DFGHKMSUAIIZ* minP 1 | KaraffK^oiv B* (-vow KAB 2 CDL al)] /cara- 
crKf]vo)o-[ai] A vid 33 om iro\\cus C* vid LA i 28 33 131 604 al nonn bee syri*** arm 

me codd agth | om ifa^^s TjSfy. aKovfiv <J> 34 x^/ 3 ^ 5e] KCU %wpis B<l> 604 me syr** 8 * 1 | 

naff tdtav B*DA | rots iSiots ^ai?. XBCLA 1071 Or] r. pad. avrov AD0 b II2i> al 

minfereomn I air \ Vl , b 

v, eytvero els 5.)> whilst Me. 
adheres to the fact: it becomes the 
tallest of garden herbs a 8cv8po\d- 
Xavov, as Theophrastus calls such 
towering succulent plants (hist, plant. 
i. 3, 4). For \dxavov see Gen. ix. 3, 
Prov. xv. 17, Lc. xi. 42, Rom. xiv. 2 ; 
for Troielv K\d8ovs cf. Ezech. xvii. 8 roC 

KOI not.*! KT\. refers to Dan. iv. 9 

(12), Th., ev TOIS K\ddois avTov Karco- 
KOVV (v. 1 8 Karea-Kijvovv) ra opvea (LXX. 

Tflt 7TTlJ>a) TOV OVpCLVOV KT\. I cf. Ps. 

ciil (civ.) 12, Ezech. xvii. 23. Kara- 
o-Krjvolv: see WH., Notes, p. 173; 
WSchm., p. 1 1 6 n., Blass, Gr. p. 48. 

The parable supplied the followers 
of the Gnostic Marcus with materials 
for one of their mystic formulas : 

Iren. i. 13. 2, T) dvevvorjTos Kal apprjros 
xdpis...Tr\rjdvvai <?v troi TTJV yva>o~iv av- 
TTJS, fyKdTao Treipovo a TOV KOKKOV roG 
(Tivcnrfas els TTJV dyadrjv yr]v. 

The three parables of the Sower, 
the Growth, and the Seed, direct 
attention successively to the soil, the 
hidden life working in the seed, and 
the seed itself in its relation to the 
final results of the sowing. Any im 
pression of failure derived from the 
first parable is corrected by the 
second and the third. While the 
first two regard the Kingdom of 

Heaven in its operations upon the 
individual, the third represents it as 
an imperial power, destined to over 
shadow the world. 

BOLIC TEACHING (Mt. xiii. 34). 

33 f. ToiavTais TrapaftoXais 7ro\\als] 
The parables just given are to be 
regarded as specimens, a few out of 
many. Even Mt. s raCTa irdvra eXdXrjo-cv 

...ei/ Trapa/SoAals- must not be taken 
as limiting the parables to the seven 
which he relates. EXaXei avTols TOV 
\oyov : the subject of the teaching 
was the same as at the outset (ii. 2) 
the word of the Kingdom though 
the method was new. Kada>s ^vvavTo 
OKOVCIV : comp. Jo. xvi. 1 2, i Cor. iii. 2, 
Heb. V. 12 f., Xli. 2O. Xcopt? 8e irapa- 
/SoAf/s KT\., l but apart from a parable, 
except in a parabolic form, He did 
not speak to them (sc. rot? o^Aou, 
Mt.), i.e. at this stage of His ministry ; 
with the form of the sentence comp. 
Jo. i. 3, Philem. 14, Heb. ix. 18. 
Mt. finds in this a fulfilment of Ps. 
Ixxviii. 2 f. 

/car ifitai/ Se rA.] Wycliffe, "bi hem- 
silf," by themselves. Kar I8iav (for 
the form Kaff Idiav see WH., Notes, 
p. 145) = Kara fiovas, v. io when the 
crowd had dispersed and He was left 
with His immediate followers. Tots 


otf I/ \ -v / fT > ~ > / / > / / 

35 " Kai AeYGf CIVTOIS ev eKeivrj Tr] rj/uepa o^}sias 

36 yevomevris Aie\0(x)iuLev ek TO Trepav. * 6 Kai dipevTes 

avTov ws nv ev 

pat)., possibly suggested by KUT 

t., =rols p,a6r)Tais avTov (Jo. xiii. l), 

but emphasising the relation. ETTI- 
\vetv is used of interpreting dreams 
(Gen. xl. 8, xli. 8, 12, Aq. = 0-vyKpivei.v, 
aVa-yyeXXeti/, Lxx.), and of deciding a 
question (Acts xix. 39) ; eV/Xvo-ts in 
2 Pet. i. 20 = the exposition of Scrip 
ture. Me. has given us our Lord s 
eVi Xutm of one of the parables (v. 
14 ff.) : exposition now regularly fol 
lowed (eVe Xvev iravra) the public teach 
ing. Cf. Orig. c. Gels. iii. 46, e 

a TOVS o^Xovs TOVS 

acxpias avrov f 

37 TrXoico, Kai ci\\a 7T\ola r]V IULCT avTov. 

35 om TO 1071 36 /cat aXXa] + 5e AC 2 DEFGHKMSUVIIS<1> (om 5e KBC*LA 

minP ttuc ) | TrXoia KABCDKMAIIS i 13 33 69 1071 al nonn ] TrXoiapia EFGHLSUV< 
alP 1 | TT\. t\v (ijffav KDA) /*er airr.] ra ovra /ter aur. TrX. I -28 604 

(Ixvi.) 12) rather than to cross. 

To irtpav : SC. TTJS 6a\do-<rr]s, cf. V. I. 

36. KOI d(J)VTs TOV 6}(\ov KrX.] See 
the two striking incidents which Mt. 
connects with this departure (viii. 
1822). The Lord was already on 
board (Me. iv. i) a point which Mt. 
(epfiavTi aurw) and Lc. (avTos eW/3^) 
overlook, and He now put to sea 
(Lc. dvrixdrjo-av) without going ashore 
to make preparations (o5s fa Vg. ita 
ut erat}. Euth. : <os fa dvrl TOV o>s 
fKaOrjTo ev TOJ TrXoto). For the phrase 
cf. 4 Regn. vii. 7 (coy e<rni> = fcOH ^?5) ; 
Fritzsche cites Lucian, As. 24, d^ffKav 
<os fy ev TW 56<r/Li<S. For TrapaX. see 
Acts xv. 39 : in the Gospels the word 
is commonly used of the Lord taking 
the Twelve, e.g. ix. 2, x. 32, xiv. 33, 
cf. Jo. xiv. 3 ; but here the disciples, 
as owners and navigators of the boat, 
take Him with them. Me. alone 
adds that other boats started with 
them, either as an escort, or through 
eagerness to follow the Rabbi ; these 
were probably scattered by the storm, 
or soon turned back again. One boat 
seems to have sufficed for the Twelve 
and the Lord, see vi. 32, 45 ; otherwise 
we might suppose the aXXa TrXoia to 
be those of other disciples. 

37. yiveTai XaiXax// fj.yd\rj KrX.] 
Mt. speaks only of the creioyzos peyas 

on the water which resulted. Lc. on 
the other hand adds to the picture, 
possibly from his knowledge of the 

locality, KaTeftr) X. ai/c/xou els TTJV \L^vqv. 

The cyclonic wind which arose swept 
down upon the lake from the hills 
through the ravines on the W. shore : 

AND SEA (Mt viii 2327, Lc. viii. 


35. fV cjceivrj TTJ ^epa links on the 
sequel with iv. i ff., and therefore with 
iii. 20 ff. Lc. seems to have lost this 
note of time, but preserves the general 
order (eylvtro Se ev /nia ra>v ?)/Liepa>i/) ; 
Mt. transfers this miracle and the 
next into another context. 

o-^ias yevonlvr)i\ Late in the after 
noon, but probably before sunset ; for 
the crowd had not yet left the shore ; 
see however i. 32, Jo. vi. 16, 17. 
The immediate purpose of the cross 
ing was perhaps to disperse the 
crowd before nightfall. Ate X&o/uez/, 
let us go through ; so Lc., Mt. 
uses dirf\6elv. AtaTrepay is the usual 
word (v. 21, vi. 53), SUpxevOai being 
more appropriate to travelling by 
land (Lc. ii. 15, xvii. 21, Jo. iv. 4, 
Acts viii. 4, &c.), or, if used of the 
water, meaning to wade (Ps. Ixv. 



IV. 39] 

\cu\a\ls /ueyaXj; dvefjiov, Kai TO, KvjmaTa 67re /3aAAei/ 
eis TO TrXoiov, uxTTe rjSrj ye/u/^ecr&u TO irXolov. 
I CLVTOS rjv ev TTJ Trpv/mvrj ITTI TO 7rpo(TKe<pa\.aiov 38 
Kai eyeipovcriv CIVTOV Kai \e r yovo~LV 
ov me\6L croi 


37 fieya\ov C e | eirefiaXKev ABCGHKSVATI 2 Z3> minP 1 latt vt P lv *] eTrepaXev KEFL 
Mil* min satmu e/SaXe^ D t>cpa\ev (U) min^ | om ir\. K* (hab K a ) | 775*7 
7eyti. TO TT\.] avro 77577 yep. AEFHKMSUVn(2)<l> 13 69 124 346 syrr? 68 * 11101 ^) arm 
go | yefjufeffdcu] /3u0ifc<r0cu G i 33 al noim KaTairovT^fffdat minP auc 38 ev 

KABCDLA min nonn ] eirt IIZ<I> al minP 1 | em Tr/ooa/ce^aXaiou D 131 | <-yei.pov<n.v KB* 
C*AII minP*" ] dteyeipovaiv AB 2 C 2 LII 2 S<I> al minP 1 dieyetpavres (om Kai sq) D 28 69 
604 2P eyeipavres 13 69 alP* uc 

cf. G. A. Smith, H. G. p. 441 f. For 
\al\a\lr see Ps. liv. (Iv.) 9, Aq. ( = LXX., 
xaratyis-), Job xxi. 1 8, Sir. xlviii. 9 
Jer. xxxii. 18 = xxv. 32 
, 2 Pet. ii. 17. 
Kai ra KVfj.ara fTTf/3aX\v KT\.] * The 
waves came crowding up into the 
boat. For various uses of eVi/SaXAetj/ 
intrans. cf. Tob. vi. n, Judith xi. 12, 
I Mace. iv. 2, 2 Mace. iii. 3, Me. xiv. 
72, Lc. xv. 12 : of classical exx. 
Plat. Phaedr. 248 A comes fairly 
near to the sense of the present con 
text : vp.7r(pt<pepovTai TraTovcrai dXX^- 
Xaff KOI eVi/3aXXouo-at. If WO follow 

these analogies els is not against, 
but so as to enter ; the point is not 
the violence of the waves, but the 
filling of the boat. 

cocrre 77877 ycfj.iccr6a.i] Mt. a><rre... 
Ka\V7TTfcr0aij Lc. (rvv7r\T)povvro t add 
ing *ai eKtvftvvfvov (Jon. i. 4). For 
y6p.iT0(u cf. Lc. xiv. 23, Apoc. xv. 8. 

38. ai a.vTos...irpo<TK.f($>d\a.iov\ Pe 
culiar to Mark ; the other Synoptists 
notice only that He slept (Mt. enddevdev, 
Lc. d<pvirv<i><rev). Comp. Jon. i. 5, Itoi/as 
5e Kare /37 et9 TTJV KoiXrjv TOV TT\OLOV Kai 

fKa.6cv$fv. Our Lord s work for the 
day was done ; the navigation belonged 
to others, and He took the oppor 
tunity of repose. He was in the stern 
(Acts xxvii. 29, 41), where He would 
not interfere with the working of the 
ship, on the head-rest 7rpoo-<e<aXaioi/, 

properly a pillow (irpos KefpaXrjs, Gen. 
xxviii. n, i Regn. xxvi. n ff., i Esdr. 
iii. 8, Ezech. xiii. 18, 20), here possibly 
a rower s cushion (see Smith, Ship 
wreck, p. i26ff.); the art. indicates 
that there was but one on board, or 
in that part of the boat. According 
to the later Greek interpreters, it was 
merely a wooden head-rest (Thpht. 

v\ivov de TrdvTtoS r\v TOTJTO), possibly 

a stage or platform ; cf. Macgregor, 
Rob Roy on the Jordan*, p. 321. 
See however Hesychius ad v.: TO 

deppdnvov Tuirrjpfffiov e < Kadeovrai 

ol fpea-a-ovTfs. Sleep is attributed to 
our Lord in this context only ; but it 
is probably implied in i. 35, and in 
passages which describe His vigils as 
if they were exceptional. The fact 
that He slept is rightly regarded by 
Leo M. (ad Flav.) as fatal to a 
Eutychian view of His Person : " dor- 
mire evidenter humanum est." Yet, 
as Ambrose says (in Lc.}, "exprimitur 
securitas potestatis quod... solus in- 
trepidus quiescebat." On avros see 
WM., p. 187. 

8ida<TKaXe] Mt. Kvpie, Lc. eVio-rara 
all probably = Rabbi, cf. Mt. xvii. 4 
with Me. ix. 5, Lc. ix. 33, and Jo. i. 
39. The touch of natural resentment 
at His seeming neglect which is seen 
in Mc. s OTJ fj.e\i OTH, disappears in Mt. 
and Lc. For the phrase see Tob. x. 
5, Lc. x. 40. 



Kat eiirev Trj 6a- 
Tre^ifULcocro. KCLI e fcoTracrei/ 6 ai/e/zos, 
fULeyaXrj. 4 Kat eiirev aJrcus Ti 


40 Kai eyeveTO 

41 e*Ao* etrre 

39 eyepdeis D 28 69 604 2P 6 alP auc | /cat etTrep TT; 0aA.] /cat TT; 0aX. /fat etTrei/ D I 118 
131 209 604 b c e ff i q arm | Tre^^oxro] /ecu <j)i/j,b)d r)Tt D 40 eare] + ourws 

al min fereomn syrr arm go (om KBDLA 2? latt me aeth) j oi^rw KBDLA 
latt vt P lv ? arm me aeth] TTWS OVK ACIIS3> al 33 al? 1 f syrr go 

39. SifyepQeis *rA.] They had no 
need to repeat their cry; it had the 
effect of fully arousing Him. From 
Wycliffe onwards the English versions 
follow the Vg. exsurgens, "He rose 
up," or "He arose"; R.V. rightly, " He 
awoke." The rebuking of the wind 
and sea presents a striking analogy to 
that of the unclean spirit in i. 25. 
The Sea is personified (cf. Ps. cv. 
(cvi.) 9), or perhaps regarded as the 
instrument of adverse powers ; but 
comp. xi. 14, 23, for exx. of dramatic 
commands to inanimate objects. Me. 
alone gives the words of the rebuke : 
Trcfapaxro (Wycliffe, "wexe doumb"), 
be still and continue so (WM., p. 
395 f.), stronger than ^t/ico ^rt (i. 25). 

Kat eKOTTCKTCv KrA.] Ko7raeii/ is used 

of water in repose after a storm or a 
flood, Gen. viii. i ff., Jon. i. n, 12 ; of 
fire, Num. xi. 2 ; of wind again in Me. 
vi 51. The wind, as if weary of a 
fruitless struggle, " sank to rest," and 
the result was (eycvfro) a "great 
calm " : the little lake rapidly settled 
down again into its normal state of 
repose. Ta\ijvr) in Biblical Greek oc 
curs only in this context and in Ps. 
cvi. (cvii.) 29, Symm. 

40. Tt 6eiAoi eo-Tf ;] Mt. with less 
probability makes the rebuke precede 
the stilling of the storm. In classical 
Greek Set Am is the extreme opposite 
of Spawns, the mean being dvdpeia 
(see Trench, syn. x.). The 8ei\6s is 
the man who lacks physical or moral 
courage and therefore fails to do his 
duty in danger: Arist rhet. i. 9, dv- 

6V, 6V TJV rrpaKTiKoi ttVt TG>V /caA<3i/ 
fpya>v ev -roty Kivdvvois SetAt a de rovvav- 
T IOV. Jewish ethical writers connect 
SeiAt a with an evil conscience (Sap. 
iv. 20, xvii. 11). In the N. T. a new 
element enters into the conception; 
dciXia is connected with oXtyoTriaria 
(Mt. here) and aViom a (Apoc. xxi. 8) ; 
it is excluded by rrioms. Thus it 
becomes a sin of the first rank, for 
which the Seurcpo? davaros is reserved. 
Hence the warning now, and again 
before the end (Jo. xiv. 27). The 

Trvev/jLa 8ei\ias IS not of God (2 Tim. 

i 7) ; it is the opposite of the Trvevpa 
dwdfjicois which was in Christ, and 
comes of faith. 

OVTTO) fX Tf Tt orrw;] Not yet, after 
months of discipleship. Comp. viii. 
17, Jo. xiv. 9, Heb. vi. 12. Faith in 
its fulness (Mt. viii. 26) was still 
wanting to them ; or as Lc. puts the 
matter, if they had faith, it was not 
ready at hand for use in time of need 
(TTOV 77 TnWtff v[j.a>v ;). This is the first 
of a series of censures on the Apostles 
for their lack of faith or understand 
ing; see vii. 18, viii. 17, 21, 33, ix. 19, 
[xvi. 14], Mt. xiv. 31, xvi. 8, xvii. 20. 

41. (po(Brj0r)crav <p6ftov peyav] An 

awe of the Presence of Christ generi- 
cally different from the fear which 
sprang from want of faith in Him 
indeed its direct opposite. This 
miracle came home to the Apostles 
above any that they had witnessed. 
It touched them personally : they had 
been delivered by it from imminent 
peril. It appealed to them as men 

V. 2] 


OVTOS ecTTiv, OTI Kai 6 

, Kai eXeyov Trpos aXXyXovs^ Tis dpa IT a 

Kai Y\ 


acrcra v7ra- 


1 Kai r]\6ov 

TO irepav Trjs 6a\dcrcrr]s ek Trjv I Y. 
.^ z ee\6oi>TO$ avTOv IK 2 

41 o aveftos] 01 ave/noi K c - a DE i 33 131 1071 al nonn bcfiq me aeth | v-n-aKovet, 
avTb) K C BL] airrd) viraKovei t$*CA I 13 28 69 alp*" viraKovovfrw avra) AII2<I> al min pl 
b c d e f vg arm me go vwa.Kovov<riv D V i tjXdev CGLMA | daXaaffrjs] XIJULVTJS 

604 | Tepa<n)i>wi> N*BD latt] Tadap-rjvuv ACII2> al min? 1 syrr** 58111 " 51 ^*) go Tepy^-rjvwv 
K c - a LUA i 28 33 604 1071 al nonn syrr" 111301 ^) arm aeth Or 2 e^Xtfoj/ros avrov 

fciBCLA i 13 69 604 alP"" 10 b f syrr arm me aeth] e&XeovTt ain-w AII2<S> al min? 1 
g i q vg go ee\dovTwv avruv D c e ff 

quod autem dixi ad iracundiam, hoc 
tenete regulariter in omnibus tenta- 
tionibus vestris." 

LEGION (Mt. viii. 2832, Lc. viii. 


I. rfX9ov els *rX.] Lc. recasts the 
whole Sentence : Kare-n-Xevo-av fls TTJV 

X- T&V Tep., TjTLS f<TT\V CLVTlTrfpa TTJS 

TaXciXaias. They reached the land of 
the Gerasenes right over against the 
Galilean shore. For TO frepav see 
iv. 35- 

ra>v Tepao-r/i/o)!/] So Lc. In Mt. 
Tadaprjvwv is the best attested reading. 
The * Western text substitutes Tepa- 
o-Tpeoi/ for Tad. in Mt., the * Syrian 5 on 
the other hand changes IVpao-^cSi/ 
into Ta8. in Me. and Lc. ; whilst the 
Alexandrian text reads Tfpyfo"r)VG>v 
in all three : see WH., Notes, p. 1 1. 
Origen (in loann., t. vi. 41) supports 
Tepy. on purely internal grounds: 
Tfpacra Sc TTJS Apa/Sms- eori iroXts ovre 
QaXaatrav ovre Xip,vr]v TrXr/criov e^c 
Fafiapa yap TroXis fJ-v O~TI TTJS ] 
...aXXa Tepy f era acp fjs ol Tepyf&aloi 
TroXis dpxaia Trepl rr\v vvv KaXovpevrjis 
Tiftepidda Xlfivijv -rrepl TJV KpTjpvbs Trpoo~- 
KfifJifvos TT) Xip.VT) (cf. t. X. 12 (lo)). 

Jerome, who like Origen knew Pales 
tine, bears witness to the existence of 
a Gergesa on the E. shore of the lake 
(de situ, p. 130: "et hodieque super 
montem viculus demonstratur iuxta 

used to the navigation of the Lake. 
Thus it threw a new and aweful light 
on the Person with Whom they daily 
associated. For (frofiflo-Qai <o/3oi/ 
peyav (cogn. ace., WM., p. 281) comp. 
Jon. i. 10, i Pet. iii. 6, 14 (Isa. viii. 12). 
\eyov irpos d\\i]\ovs fcrX.] To Him 
they said nothing, their awe kept 
them silent (cf. Jo. xxi. 12). But as 
they worked the ship while He per 
haps was resting again, the question 
"Went round ris apa OVTOS eo~Tiv (Ale. 
Lc.) = TroraTTos f(mv Mt. "Apa is illa 
tive ; in view of what we have just 
witnessed, what can we say of Him ? 
Cf. Mt. xviii. i, xix. 25 ; Lc. i. 66, and 
see WM., p. 556. Wyclifte, "who, 
gessist thou, is this?" TLS...OTI, cf. 
Blass, Or. p. 293 n. 

Kai 6 avepos <al 77 ^aXao-o-a] Not 

only the demons (i. 27), but, what to 
these sea-going men was a greater 
marvel, the wind and the sea. For 
a promise of the further extension of 
this power of Christ over the creation 
see i Cor. xv. 25 ff., Heb. ii. 5 ff. 

An exquisite homiletical treatment 
of the story may be found in Aug. 
serm. 63 : " audisti convicium, ventus 
est; iratus es, fluctus est...periclitatur 
navis, periclitatur cor tuum...oblitus 
es Christum; excita ergo Christum, 
recordare Christum, evigilet in te 
Christus, considera ilium... imperavit 
Christus mari, facta est tranquillitas. 


[V. 2 

TOV 7T\oov eiyis vTrrivT na ev avTco K TWV /uivrj /uewv 
3 av6pa)7ros ev Trveu/maTL aKadapTa), 3 6s Trjv KaToi- 
el^ev ev Tots jui/^/xcrcm/, /ecu oi/Se a\ucre* ovK6Ti 

i om evOvs B b c e ff i S yrr sin P eshhcl arm | airyvniaev AI12$> al mm? 1 3 
DH min mu | oi;5e NBCDLA 33 ^] ovre AXIS* al min? 1 \ a\v<ret BC*L 33 i** c e] 
a\v<r<riv KAC 2 DAII<I> al minP 1 b f ff i 1 q vg syrr arm me go aeth ovre d\v<re<rii> owe 
TreSes 1071 | om ovKert AC 2 II2<i> al minP 1 i q syrr me go aeth 

stagnumTiberiadis"). Almost directly than has been supposed" (Wilson, 
opposite to Mejdel on the Ghuweir are <?) Mvypetav is used of both, see 
the ruins now known as Kersa( Wilson, Mt. xxvii. 60, Lc. xi. 47. 
Recovery of Jerusalem, p. 369) or 
Kursi : the nature of the place answers 
fairly well to the description in vv. 1 1 ff. 
where see note ; comp. Thomson, Land 
and the Book, pp . 374 f. But the Arabic 
name, which means a stool, may be 
merely descriptive (Schumacher, Jau- 
l&n, p. 179) ; and there seem to be philo 
logical difficulties in the way of an identi 7 
fication of Kursi with either Gerasa or 
Gergesa. The Decapolitan city Gerasa, 
Jerash (Joseph. B. J. i. 4. 8, iii. 3), was 
thirty miles to the S.E., and, as Origen 
saw, impossible (see however Burkitt in 
J.B.L. xxvii. ii. (1908)). On the other 
hand the neighbourhood of the lake 
side Gerasa might perhaps be loosely 
described as Gadarene territory ; Ga- 
dara, Urn, Keis (Joseph. B. J. iv. 7), 
was but 6 miles S.E. of the southern 
extremity of the Lake, and Josephus 
(vit. 9, 10) mentions Ta8apr}va>v KOI 
iTnrrjvtov KWfj,as at dr] fiedopioi rrjs Ti- 
fiepiddos. . .ervyxavov Keifjievai. 

2. e&\6ovTos...ei>6vs KT\.] The 
Lord had but just landed (Lc. eVt ryv 
yrjv] when the incident occurred. YTTCLV- 
TQV is common to Mt., Me., Lc. ; for etc 

TtoV fJt,VT]>V LC. haS K TTjS TToXeCBff, 

but apparently in the sense of be 
longing to the town, for he agrees 
with Mt. that the man had his resi 
dence in the tombs. "There do not 
appear to be any rock-hewn tombs 
near Kersa; but the demoniac may 
possibly have lived in one of those 
tombs built above ground" which 
were " much more common in Galilee 

in the sphere of, under the influence 
of : see note on i. 23. Mt. 8vo dainovi- 
6fj,cvoi, cf. fivo Tv(p\oi, Mt. xx. 30, 
where Me. and Lc. mention one only. 
As Victor remarks, TOVTO ov diatfrcwiav 
ffjKpaivet, since the mention of one de 
moniac does not exclude the presence 
of a second, unless it is expressly stated 
that he was alone : still it indicates 
either a distinct or a blurred tra 
dition. Mc. s description is too minute 
in other respects to permit us to 
suppose that it is defective here. 

3. TT)V KaTOiKT](TlV fl^ei/ fV TOIS /il>.] 

Vg. domicilium habebat in monu- 
mentis. On the practice of haunting 
sepulchral chambers see- Ps. Ixvii. 
(Ixviii.) 7, LXX. rovs KCLTOIKOVVTCIS ev 
rdfpois, Isa. Ixv. 4 ev rois pv^p-aa-iv... 
Koi/ia>i/rai. KaroLKrjcris is an OTT. Xey. 
in the N.T.; in the LXX. it is fairly 
distributed ( = l^iD), together with 
the non-classical KaroiKtcria. Mi/jy/ia 
and fj,vr)fj,elov are used with nearly 
equal frequency in the LXX. ; in the N.T. 
pvwa is relatively rare (Me. 1 Lc. ev - 3>act2 - 
Apoc. 1 , against about 40 exx. of 

3 4. Kal ovde aXvo-ei xrX.] Not 
even (ovde) fetters availed any longer 
(ovKert) ; the malady had grown upon 
him to such an extent that coercive 
measures were now fruitless. Ata TO 
avTGv...(rvvTfTpi(p()ai i reason for the 
statement just made : since the ex 
periment had often been made and 
proved futile. Ata with the inf. here 


ovSeis e&vvaTO avTOV Srj&ai, 4 $id TO avTOV TroAAa/as 4 
TreSa^s Kal dXvcrecri SeSecrdai, Kal Siea Trdo dai VTT 
avTOV Ta? dXvcreis Kal TCLS TreSa? (TvvTeTpi<p6ai 9 


icryyev OVTOV Sajucwrca. 5 Kal Sid Trai/Tos 5 
VVKTOS Kal rifjiepas ev TO?? [ivYi^acrw Kal ev TCUS opecrw 
\v 6 


eavTOv \idois. 

3 fSvvaro] eroX/xa M 4 5ia TO...<rwTeTpt<$at] ort ?roXXa/as airror dede/jit>ov 

?re5es /cat aXfcrecrtv 6V ois ed^ffav Sieo-rraKevai /cat ras 7re5as (rvvTerpupevai D (sim ff i q 
Vg) 5ia TO ai/TOP TroXXas 7re<5as /cat aXi tm? (hucusque syr 81 ") ais fdrjcrav avrov Siecnra/cevat 
/cat crvvTTpi<f>fvaL I -28 131 209 (604) al^*" 111 5ta TO TroXX. aiT. ?re5ais /cat a\vaf(ri.v at? 
edrjcrav dieairaKevai /tat ras TTfSas <riVTerpi<f>6ei a.i a 1 * 6 | /cat fiydeva. avrov KT-^VLV da/j.a<rai 
D 604 | 5a/i<nu] Srjcrai A. om ^* (hub t^ ( *) 5 ^at 5ta TTCLVTOS vu/cros] VVKTOS 5e 

D be e f i q /c. 5ta TTOO-T/S y. 604 | cv rots opeo-u* /cat ev rots /J.VT]/J.LOLS D (b e i q) | /c/aa^wv] 
D Kpavyafuv 69 124 225 346 | eairrov] auroi D 

belongs to the evidence introduced 
by Sta, so that we should expect Kal 
/i^SeVa io-xvetv. Me. however reverts 
to the ind. imperf. of #.3. On ta-- 
XViv=&vva(rdai see Field, Notes, p. 
26 f. Aa/meti/ is used properly of wild 
animals : see however James iii. 7, 8, 
with Mayor s note. Even iron 6 dapd- 
a>v irdm-a (Dan. ii. 40, LXX.) failed in 
the present case. 

5. VVKTOS KOI jj/zcpas] I.e. at inter 
vals during the night and the day (see 
note on iv. 27); yet without any long 
intermission practically dia Travros, 
cf. Deut. xxxiii. 10, Lc. xxiv. 53, Heb. 

tv rols opfaiv] At times he left the 
shelter of the tombs for the open 
downs, and his cry was heard among 
the hills. 

Kpdfav Kal KaraKoTTTatv eauroi>] For 
Kpdciv used of demoniacs or the pos 
sessing spirits see i. 26, iii. ii, ix. 26. 
St Paul transfers it to the domain 
of the Spirit of God, Rom. viil 15, 
Gal. iv. 6. The word suggests strong 
emotion, which may be either good or 
evil. For Kara/coTi-reii/, Vg. concidere, 
to cut to pieces (here only in N.T.) cf. 
2 Chron. xxxiv. 7 (K. XfTrra), Jer. xxi. 
7 (K. tv o-To/zan /za^ai pay); his body 
may in this way have been gashed 
and scarred all over, for (Lc.) 

"expresses the evidence rather than 
the cause " (Burton, 408). ru Sais- /cat 
aXvo-fo-t, Vg. compedibus et catenis, 
with fetters and manacles; Wycliffe, 
"in stockis and cheynes" ; cf. Ps. civ. 
(cv.) 1 8, 3 Mace. iv. 9, Acts xii. 7, 
and Lightfoot, Philippians, p. 8 : 
Horace, ep. i. 16, 76 "in manicis et | 
compedibus saevo te sub custode 
tenebo." The perfects dcdeo-Bai, 3ic- 
<nra<r0ai, o-vvTTpi(f>6<u refer to actions 
"whose result was existing not at the 
time of speaking, but at an earlier 
time " (Burton, 108). It is as if the 
writer s imagination had caught the 
words of the neighbours as they told 
the tale of their repeated failures (ov 
avrov brfcrai, TroXXaxiff yap 
KrX.), and he had embodied 
them without a change of tense. The 
scene reminds the reader of Samson, 
Jud. xvi. 8, 9, edrja-ev avrov. ..KOI di- 
(TTracrev rag veupea? (8ippT)fv, A ; cf. 
Lc., V. 29, 8iapf)a(ra>v ra dfa-fJia). Ata- 
o-Trao-^ai is more than to be torn 
apart/ rather torn to shreds : cf. 
Jud. xvi. 9, Jer. x. 20, Acts xxiii. 10; 
vvvrpifitaQai is to be crushed or 
* broken into pieces, like glass or pot 
tery or a bone ; cf. Me. xiv. 3, Jo. 
xix. 36, Apoc. ii. 27. 

4. <al ovdels l(T\vfv avrov &i/Lid<rai] 

In its logical connexion the clause 


idtov TOV Irjcrovv OLTTO juaKpoBev eSpa/uLev Kai Trpocre- 

7 Kvvncrev CIVTOV, 7 /ca* Kpd^as (pcovri fjieydXri Xeyei Ti 
efjioi <roi, Irjcrov, vie TOV 6eov TOV V^JS KTTOV ; 

8 opKL^co ere TOV 6e6v, juij /xe /3a<rawerj7s. ^eXeyev yap 

6 om OTTO AKLMnS<i> min nonn | irpoffeKvvr}crev] Tr/xxreTreo-er F | avruv ABCLA 
m j n paucj al/rw KDIIS<3? min nonn 7 Xe-yei] eiirev D al minP 1 | v^iorou] ^w^ros A 


hcl (nig) 

8 eXeyey yap] /cat e\eyev 

iKavto OVK eWducraro Ifidriov. Field 

(Notes, p. 27) defends the Wycliffite 
rendering " betynge hymsilf," quoting 
Chrysostom for this use of KaraKoir- 
Tftv ; but At tfois- seems to determine 
its meaning in this context; cf. 
Syrr 8in. P esh. ]yj t< a^^g t h at the man 

was a source of danger to passers by, 
so that people avoided that way (i.e. 
apparently the way from the shore 
over the hills). At times a paroxysm 
seized him (Lc. o-vvrjpTTOKei avrov, 
rjXavvtTO dno TOV baipoviov), and then 

he was at his worst. Nevertheless 
the man did not attempt suicide; 
"servatus est homo ne, ut porci, in 
mare se praecipitaret " (Bengel). 

6. KOI lb(ov KrX.] ATTO fiaKpoQev 

(WM., p. 753 f.) occurs again viii. 3, 
xi. 13, xiv. 54, xv. 40, "ein dem Mark, 
besonders beliebter Pleonasmus " 
(Meyer- Weiss) ; it occurs also Mt. 2 , 
Lc. 2 , Apoc. 3 , and is fairly common in 
the LXX. ; cf. 4 Regn. xix. 25, A ; 2 Esdr. 
iii. 13, xxii. 43, Ps. xxxvii. (xxxviii.) 
12 (X c - a ART), cxxxvii. (cxxxviii.) 6, 
cxxxviii. (cxxxix.) 2 : Aq. has els diro 
/u., 4 Regn. xix. 25. MatpoOfv itself 
is a late Greek equivalent for 
6tv (Blass, Gr. p. 59). 
first perhaps with hostile intentions. 
The onrush of the naked yelling 
maniac must have tried the newly 
recovered confidence of the Twelve. 
We can imagine their surprise when, 
on approaching, he threw himself on 
his knees; comp. iii. n, ra Tn/ew/iara... 
TrpocreTmrTov. Upoo-Kvvelv is rarely 
used in the Gospels in reference to 
these acts of prostration exc. in Mt. 

(only here and Me. xv. 19, Lc. xxiv. 
52, Jo. ix. 38). 

7- Kal Kpdas] Lc. dva<pa^as (cf. 

Me. i. 23). The words of the cry 
begin as in Me. Lc. (where see note) 
by repudiating fellowship and inter 
course (TI e/Aoi KOI crot ;). With vie 
TOV 6eov cf. o aytos TOV Oeov in the 
earlier incident. Tou fyio-Tov, not in 
Mt, but probably original; o v^na-- 
TOS or (as a proper name) " 

= j or |, in LXX. frequently 

from Gen. xiv. 18, 19 onwards : in 
the N.T. it occurs only in passages 
with an O.T. ring, Lc. i. 32, 35, 76; 
vi. 35, viii. 28, Heb. vii. i (where see 
Westcott s note), or in sayings at 
tributed to the possessed (here, and 
in Acts xvi. 17). This name, which 
Israel used in common with other 
monotheists and even pagans, seems 
to have been displaced in Christian 
Gentile circles by words which gave a 
fuller view of GOD as revealed in 
Christ Kvpios, 6eos, o Trar^p. 

fjLTj fj.e (Bacravio-fls] Mt. q\6es o&e 
Trpo Katpov (3ao-avio-ai yp,as ; a re 
markable variation which has the air 
of originality. The unclean spirits re 
cognise that (3acravio~fji6s awaits them; 
it is only a question of time ; cf. Act. 
Thom. 42? TOV Kaipov ^[JL(OV fj.rjo f rrca 
evecrTcoTos... and on Kaipos see Me. i. 
15 note. The ill-sounding words /3a- 
o~avo$ ftao~avico /Sacrai tcr/ios meet the 
reader constantly in the Books of the 
Maccabees in descriptions of physical 
torture ; in Wisdom they are used in 
reference to the plagues of Egypt 
(Sap. xi. 9, xii. 23, &c.). The N.T. 


avTw Ge\6e, TO Trvev^a TO ditdQapTOv, e/c TOV 
dvGpwTTOv. 9 Kai 7rr]pa)Ta CLVTOV Ti bvofjid croi ; Kal 9 
Aeyet avTw Aeyto)!/ bvofJLa JJLOL FecTTti/], OTL TTO\\OL 
(T/xei/. I0 /cat TrapeKaXei OVTOV vroAAa iva jmrj avTa 10 

> /-v >/<> ^ II S ^^ ^ ^ ^ 

WJ/ 06 fC6 

8 CK] a-rro A 33 alP* 110 f i q vg 9 rt crot OP. etrrt^ D latt Or int | Xe7et avrw] 

airKpi0T} \ejtav EFGHSUVn m minP 1 | \eyiw K*B*CDLA latt syrr me] \eyeui> 
(K C )AB 2 IIZ<I> al min forteomn | fwt] + evriv B(D) 69 124 238 346 lat^P 1 ^ arm 
10 Trape/caXet ^BCDLnS* min? 1 b e f i q vg go] Trape/caXow AA1 i 28 2? &1?* 
C ff syr 8111 arm go + ot dai/jioves syr" 111 | aura EGA] aurous DEFGHSUVS^I avrov K 
KLn minP auc b e syrP 0811 aeth n TT/JOS ra 0^97 (5~) minP aucvid 

tranfers them to the spiritual conse 
quences of sin : cf. Mt. xviii. 34, Lc. 
xvi. 23, Apoc. xx. 10. Me. alone re 
tains the form of adjuration which 
accompanied this despairing appeal. 

O/>Kieti> Tiva Kara Kvpiov (TOV Qtov) is 

the LXX. form (3 Regn. ii. 43, cf. Mt. 
xxvL 63), but the present construction 
occurs again in Acts xix. 13, i Thess. 

V. 275 Cf. OpKlo> (T6...TOV BfOV TOV 

> A^paaI *crX. in the long Jewish in 
cantation printed by Deissmann, J9$0- 
studien, p. 28 flf. ( = E. Tr. p. 274 ff.). 

8. \fyev yap *rX.] He had been 
saying ; cf. Burton, 29. The com 
mand probably followed the words rt 
j/Mu...ut/rt0rov; With fe\6c cf. i. 25, 
ix. 25. To irv. TO a<a6., nom. for voca 
tive ; see WM., p. 227 f. and Blass, 
Gr. p. 86 f. 

9. Kal tTTT/pcora] Lc. eV^pajrj/o-ei/. 
The imperfect carries on the narra 
tive of the conversation. The ques 
tion is probably a reply to the appeal 
fjoj /Lie ftao-avtorys. Who was the sup 
pliant ? was it the man or his op 
pressor ? This was the first point to 
be determined. AVTOV, cf. Euth. : TOV 

av0pa)7rov /jiv eV^pcora* irpos TO irXfjdos 
de TU>V fv avTUt daipov&v 8iej3aivev 77 

ovofia poi *rX.] Legio made 
its way not only into the later Greek, 
both Hellenistic and literary (Plu 
tarch, i. 1072, Mt. xxvi 53), but pro 
bably into the Aramaic of Palestine ; 

it is found in Rabbinical writings 
(|V^, pi. prA, Dalman, Gr., p. 149) 
and in early Aramaic inscriptions 
(8. A. Cook, Glossary, p. 67 s.v. fcOl 1 ^), 
and it survives in Lejjun, the modern 
name of a site usually identified with 
Megiddo (G. A. Smith, H.G. pp. 386, 
407). To a Palestinian of our Lord s 
time the name would connote not only 
vast numbers the strength of the 
legion often reached 5000 to 6000 
men (Marquardt, ii. 389, 441) and 
submission to a superior will (Bengel : 
"uni parebant ut legio imperatori"); 
but the miseries of a military occu 
pation by a foreign power (on the 
history of the Roman legion in Syria 
see Schiirer n. i. p. 50 ff.) ; even such 
small bodies of irregular troops as 
served under Herod Antipas and 
Philip knew how to harass and plun 
der (Lc. iii. 14). For other exx. of 
possession by more than one unclean 
spirit cf. Me. XVL 9, Lc. xi. 26 ; cf. 
Tertull. anim. 25, "septenarii spiritus, 
ut in Magdalena, et legionarii numeri, 
ut in Geraseno." 

IO. Trape/KoAei avTov TroXXa] The 
sing, is used because the spirits, 
speaking by the voice of the man, are 
still regarded as a single ego the im 
perfect implies repetition. IIoXXo, Vg. 
multum, cf. i. 45, vi. 20; so /Ltcucpa 
Me. xii. 40, TTVKVCL Lc. v. 33. 

e a> Tfjs x<opas] Vg. extra regionem, 


12 Op6i 


avTov Xeyovres 

[V. n 

e roi 

TO. TrvevjuiaTa TO, 


1 1 om fieya\r) DLUT minP auc b e ff i go | ^offKo^vuv K c - a ALA minP auc b d q 
12 trapeKa\eo-aj> KBCLAII m sZ<J>T i 28 al? 1 c go syr hcl ] Trape/raXow ADKMH txt min nonn 
bf ff iqvg | aim>j>] + iravres 01 dai/j.oves AEFGHSUVn m sS<J>l a syr hcl arm + oi 8aifju>ves 
KMII txt min nonn b c ff i q vg syr Bin P e8h + 7rai ra ra Sai/jLovia 604 2 pe + ra dcu/ji.ovia D e f j 
\eyovra D | aTreX^w/xey D 13 /ecu eirerp. avrois] + evdews AIIS (<J>*T ev0. o t?) al 

minP 1 f vg /cat eutfews /cs t-fjs eTre^ev avrovs is TOUS x l P ovs ^ /cat o I. 
aurous 604 2P 

sc. TWV Tfpa<rr)V(ov. Lc. has the re 
markable variation els rrjv a /3uo-o-oi>, 
which may have the double meaning, 
(i) "into the depths of the sea" (so 
a/Suo-o-os- is frequently used in the 
LXX., cf. e.g. Isa. Ixiii. 13) ; (2) into 
the place of punishment (Apoc. ix. i, 
&c.). An attempt has been made 
(Exp. iv. iv. p. 377) to treat these 
two versions of the demoniac s words 
as renderings of nearly identical Ara 
maic; but it is probably safer to 
regard Lc. s phrase as interpretative. 
The man feared nothing worse than 
expulsion from his native hills; the 
spirits dreaded a graver punishment. 
Bede: "hostis humanae salutis non 
exiguum sibi ducit esse tormentum 
ab hominis laesione cessare." 

ii. jfi Se Kl KT\.] Within sight, 
but (Mt.) at some distance. The herd 
was a large one (^ya\rj Me., cf. 7roXX<5j/ 
Mt., liuivtov Lc.), numbering a>s dio-- 
X/Xiot (Me. only). Ilpbs TO> opfi : 
at, on the side of the mountain, cf. 
]JC. xix. 37 ""pos TT) K.aTafido fi rov opovs 
a construction more frequent in the 
LXX. than in the N.T. (WM., p. 403). 

dyeXr) ^oipcoy /xeyaXj;] For the num 
ber see v. 13. The O.T. mentions 
dyeXat 7rpo/3ar<joj> (i Regn. xvii. 34), 
alymv (Cant. iv. I, vl 4), KawXvv (I 

Ix. 6); an ay. ^oiptov was perhaps 
hardly to be found W. of the Jordan 
and its lakes : even the word xoipos is 
unknown to the LXX. who use vs in 
the few passages where they have oc 

casion to mention the unclean animal. 
On the moral difficulty which the 
destruction of the swine has been felt 
to present see Plummer, &t Luke, p. 
228 f. 

ftoo-Konevr)] For the middle voice 
of this verb cf. Gen. xli. 2, Job i. 14, 
Isa. xi. 6, etc. The swine were under 
the control of swineherds (oi POO-KOVTCS 
v. 14): for this class see Lc. xv. 15. 

12. irapfKa\e(rav] Contrast TrapexaXet 
(v. 10), Kpdgas. . .\eyei (v. 7). The Spirits 
at length dissociate themselves from 
the man, for they know that their 
hold over him is at an end, and the 
plural is consequently used ; cf. v. 13. 

7T[J.\f/ov] Mt. aTrooreiXov : for the 
difference of meaning see on iii. 14. Lc. 
avoids both verbs (tva eirtrpe^ij avrovs 
els cKeivovs Lo-\6fiv). The Lord s VTTCL- 
yere (Mt.) was permissive only: they 
were left free to go if they would. 

13. KCU 7TTpC\^V avTOts] See last 

note. The reading of D (evdeus Kvpios 
irjcrovs 7rfJL\lsev avrovs els TOVS xoipovs) 
loses sight of an important distinction. 
The permission shewed how com 
pletely the spirits were subject to His 
will : Clem. Horn. xix. 14, (os fjajde TOV 
fls %oipovs elcrcXOclv avev rrjs avrov 
ct-ovcriav ej^ovres* Cf. 

sa. Tertull. fug. 2 : " nee in porcorum 
gregem diaboli legio habuit potesta- 
tem nisi earn de Deo impetrasset," 
and Thpht. ad loc. 

are regularly used in refer- 

V. 14] 


Y\ d<ye\ri /caret 

ei<Tn\6ov ets TOI)S 

TOV KpriiJ.vov ek TYIV 6d\a<r(rav y ok 
ev Trj 6a\d<T(rr]. 

T A I y \ t /) / j \ >/ i IT 

4 Kac OL pocr/coi/Tes awrovs e<pvyov~ { 

dypovs* K.O.L rj 

IT a 

- J 4 e b 


13 c^eX?;] + Trcwa 1071 | a>s SurxtXioi] ws ,/3 (ras i lit ante ^ B ? ) B ws ^1X101 H pr 
170-011 5e AC 2 nP4>T al minP 1 a f i 1 (arm) go pr rjffav yap minP auc syr hcl 14 

rows xLpw ATE alP 1 syr hcl arm go | avyyyetXav EFGHSUVA al? 1 
ABKLMUn*2<J>l 33 al nonn syr hcl me go] e^Bov S*CDEFGHSVAn 2 min? 1 
b c e f f i vg sr 8111 ? 6811 arm aeth om H alP* uc 

ence to possession : cf. Me. i. 25, 26, 
vii. 29, 30, Mt. xii. 43, Lc. viii. 30, 
xi. 26, Jo. xiii. 27. Ta irvcv^ara ra 
aKa$apra, cf. TO Tri/fv/za ro anaQaprov 

(v. 7). The corporate unity which 
resulted from their identification with 
the man s personality is now lost : see 
on v. ii. Els TOVS xoi pov?. Patristic 
writers point out the fitness of the 
coincidence which brought unclean 
spirits into fellowship with the most 
unclean of beasts : e.g. Macarius Mag- 
nes iii. II, ov 7rpo/3ar<oi> dye\as ovS* 
tTTTTtai/ ovde ^SoaJv Xa/3fij/ 
ravra yap TO. {"wa KaOapa Kai df 
aXXa ^oi peoi/ viroo-pav Kai araKTG>i> 

a^poio-^a. The moral was readily 
drawn: Clem. Horn. x. 6, ret oui/ 

aXoyot? coois eoiKora 7rpaavrfs K rrjs 
tyvxns vptov rrjv dvOpuTrov ^VXTJV a7ra>- 
Xecrare, eS(77rep 

TI dye\r) KrX.] Vg. 

impetu grex praecipitatus est Wy- 
cliffe, "with a great birre the flok 
was cast doun." Driven to madness 
by a new and sudden impulse the herd 
rushed to its destruction. Oppav is 
used of the unreasoning onrush of a 
crowd, 2 Mace. ix. 2, x. 16, xii. 22, 
Acts vii. 57, xix. 29. Kara rov Kprj- 
pvov, "down from the steep," WM., 
p. 477. Kprjp.v6s = JPD , 2 Chron. 
xxv. 12. Of Kersa Schumacher (p. 
1 80) reports : "steep precipices at a 

S. M. 2 

slight distance from the Lake... are 
numerous." Qy Sto-^t Xtoi : the number 
is given by Me. alone. Dr Plummer 
(<St Luke, p. 231) remarks that it "may 
be an exaggeration of the swineherds 
or owners," adding, " Had the number 
been an invention of the narrator, 
we should have had 4000 or 5000 to 
correspond with the legion." 

nrviyoiTo] suffocati sunt, Lc. dnf- 
Trviyrj ; Mt. more vaguely, direQavov ev 
rols vdao-tv. The word is used in i Regn. 
xvi. i4f. of the effect of possession 
by an evil spirit. 

AND HOSTILE (Mt. viii. 33 34, Lc. viii. 


14. Kai 01 ftoo-KovTfs *rX.] The 
XoipoftucTKoi fled, narrowly escaping 
the fate of the herd, and reported the 
matter in Gerasa and the country 
places round the town (/cat ds TOVS 
dypovs, Me. Lc., cf. Me. VI. 36, 56, 
xv. 21). Kai rjX&ov Idelv, i.e. the towns 
folk and the countryside poured down 
to the place where Jesus was appa 
rently still halting by the Lake ; cf. Mt. 
7rao"a 77 TroXt? f^rfkSfV els V7rdvTr/(riv r<3 

Iqo-ou. Their immediate object was 
to see what had happened (r6 ytyovos} ; 
but finding all quiet again, they went 
down to the shore (ep^oirai Trpoy TOV *I. 

Me., cf. Lc.) and there witnessed a 
scene more remarkable than that 
which the swineherds had described. 


15 i^elv TI e&Tiv TO yeyovos. * 5 Kai ep^ovTai Trpos TOV 

Irjcrovv, xai Betopovcriv TOV SaijULOvL^oimevov KaQrifjievov 

IjjiaTLorfjLevov KCLI (TaxppovovvTa, TOV ecr^rjKOTa TOV 

w f 1 6 Xeyiwva* Kai e(po/3f]6r}(rav. l6 Kal ^OLrjy^cravTO avTols 

Kat Trepi 


7TW5 e<yev6TO TW 

15 TOV 5cu/i.] pr avrov D \ om Kadrj/j^vov A minP er P auc e | ifiarifffjievov] pr Kai 
al minP 1 q syr Binhcl arm go (om KO.I KBDLAS) | om TOV ecrx^/cora TOV Aeytcova 
D mm* 8 ** 110 latt vt v (<*** P ler ) 16 /cat dirjyrjaavTo ] 1177. 5e DEFHUV al mu 

e f i q /cat diyy. de 1071 | tSoires] ores A | 676^6x0 rw daijji..] effudrj o daifJi.ovi<T0eis 
I 209 

15. tiecopovo-iv TOV 8aip.ovi6ncvov 
JM-A.] For Gewpetv cf. iii. n, xii. 41, 
xv. 40. C O d<uiiovi6fjLfvos is timeless 
(see note on i. 4), the man who, as 
they knew him, belonged to the class 
of demoniacs : see WM., p. 444, Burton 
123. Contrast o daipovio-Beis (v< 18), 
where the fact of the possession being 
now at an end is emphasised. Ka&, 
2fu, o-axfrp., "cum antea fuisset sine 
quiete, vestibus, rationis usu * (Ben- 
gel). Kadfoevov, as a disciple (Lc. ii. 
46, x. 39). Lc. adds here irapa TOVS 
Trodas rov Irjo-ov, the technical phrase 
for the position of the scholar (Acts 
xxii. 2, cf. Schiirer 11. i 326). 

f/xarto-/ieVoj/] Before he took his seat 
among the disciples he had been 
clothed (cf. Lc. viii. 27), perhaps 
with a spare x i v belonging to one 
of the Twelve. Though i/iario-/z6s is 
fairly common, the verb has not been 
detected elsewhere in Greek litera 
ture, yet here it is used both by Me. 
and Lc., who also share tadr^. and 
o-(o<j)povovvTa a coincidence difficult 
to explain except on the hypothesis 
of a common Greek tradition or docu 
ment, or on that of one of the two 
Evangelists having borrowed from the 
other. 2o><poj/etz> is opposed to virep- 
^povclv (Rom. xii. 3), and eKorfjvai (2 
Cor. v. 13) ; the o-uxfrpvv goes with the 
vr)(pd\ios, the Ko&fjuos, the o-epvos (i 
Tim. iii. 2, Tit. ii. 2), o-<o<ppo<rvvr) with 
ai SoJy (i Tim. ii. 9). These conceptions 
however belong to a developed Chris 

tian ethic; in the present passage 
the word scarcely rises above its 
ordinary Greek sense. Cf. Arist. 
rhet. i. 9. 9 o-axfrpoo-vvr) 8e aperi) & r)v 
TO.S rjdovas TOV (reo/zaros 1 OVT<OS %ovo~iv 
<os 6 vop.os KfXfvei ctKoAacri u de TOV- 
vavriov. 4 MacC. i. 31 <ro><p. dr) TO LVVV 
eVrti/ iriKpa.Tia T&V 7ri6vfJ.icov. The 
man was not simply sanae mentis 
(Vg.), but free from the slavery of 
headstrong passions, master of himself 
again. Toveo~xr] K oTaTov\yitova empha 
sises the contrast between his present 
state and that from which he had 
been just set free ; the words are not 
in Lc. and may be an editorial note 
due to Me. For the perf. part, see 
Burton, 1 56 ; while t/iarto-/teVoi/ de 
scribes a condition which belongs to 
the time indicated by 6ca)povo-iv, eV^jj- 
KOTO. goes back behind it, to a state 
which had ceased to exist, who had 
had the Legion ; so the MSS. of the 
Vg. which retain the clause (qui 
hdbuerat legionem). Kat tyoffiQrjarav, 
cf. iv. 41 ; both events excited the awe 
which attends the supernatural. 

l6. Kat dirjyrjo-avTO KT\.~] The towns 
folk turned to those who had witnessed 
everything the Twelve, and perhaps 
a few bystanders and learnt from 
them the whole story. Airj-yeto-tfat (a 
common equivalent of "IDD in the LXX. 
but relatively rare in the N.T., Mt. 2 
Lc. ev - 2 act - 3 Heb. 1 ) well expresses the 
voluminousness of the Eastern story 
teller ; cf. ix. 9. 


TCOV xoipwv. 17 Kai rip^avTO 7rapaK.a\eiv avTov a7re\- IJ 
Beiv CCTTO TCOV opitov avTwv. 

18 Kai ejjifiaivovTOS avTov ets TO TrXotov TrapeKaXei 18 
avTov 6 Sai/uLovKrOels iva JJLCT avTov rj. * 9 Kai OVK 19 
d(f)f]Kv avTOV, d\\a Xeyei avTw* Yiraye ek TOV OLKOV 
<rov Trces TOfs crof? Kai d7ra. r y<yi\ov avToTs ocra 6 

ere. *Kai d7rfjX0ev 20 



17 T]p%. Trapa/caXew] Trape/caXow D 225 604 2 pe a | a7reX0eu>] iva. aireXdi) D | aTro] 
A 1 8 enpaivovros NABCDKLMAnST i 33 124 al nonn ] enparros EFGHSUV* 

| Trape/caXet] Ty/o^aro TrapaKaXeiv D latt vt P lr s X p /cat t o ^ABCKLMAII I 33 

flvg syrP 68111101 me go] /cat o I^ous 69 arm o 5e I. D rell bceff gi aeth | a-n-ay- 
761X0* ] StayyeiXov D I 13 28 69 131 209 346 604 apcry^eiXcw ALIIS^l al | o Kvpios] o 
Beos D 238 i TreironjKev KABCLHST minP*" 1 me] eTroitjo-ev DK<i> min nonn | /cat ??X.] K. 
ort 7/X. D b c ff i S yrP e8h ( nonsin ) 

tion is now called to his deliverance ; 
the possession was a thing of the 
past. On the constr. TrapeKoAet...?!^ 
see Burton, 200, and cf. v. 10 

19. Kai OVK a<p?iKv avrov] Lc. aW- 
\vvfv de avrov. The request -is re 
fused, because the man is wanted for 
immediate service. The eastern shore 
of the Lake was for the present closed 
against Jesus and the Twelve. A pre 
paratory publication of the demoniac s 
story was necessary in anticipation of 
a later visit (vii. 31 ff.). What had 
been prohibited in Galilee (i. 43 f.) is 
under other circumstances not only 
permitted but commanded in Deca- 
polis: cf. Eccl. iii. 7, Katpbs TOV o-tyav 

KO.I KdlpOS TOV XaXftl/. 


ii. ii. The man s first duty was to 
his own house (where he had long 
been a stranger, Lc. viii. 27), and his 
relatives and acquaintances. Comp. 
i Tim. v. 4, 8. His tale was to be 
told in his own circle first, ol o-oi: 
cf. TO a-ov, Mt. xx. 14; TO. o-d, Lc. vi. 30. 

For a-rrayyeiXov Lc. has dirjyov (see On 

v. 1 6). 

oo-a 6 Kvpios o-ot KT\.] On ova see 
iii. 8 note, and infra, v. 20. Lc. 6 0c6$ : 


17. xal Tjp^avro KT\.] Ephrem 
(cone. exp. ev. p. 75) represents the 
Gerasenes as hostile from the first 
It is difficult to say how far this little 
town within Gadarene territory may 
have fallen under pagan influences 
the owners and keepers of the swine 
were surely indifferent Jews but 
their unwillingness to receive Christ 
was probably due to the fear that His 
miraculous powers might bring upon 
them further losses. The demand 
for His departure was unanimous ace. 
to L/C. : yp<&TT)(rcv avTov anav TO TrXfjflos 
rr)s rrepix^pov. The only parallel in 
the Galilean Ministry is the expul 
sion from Nazareth (Lc. iv. 29). The 
opia would be the bounds of the dis 
trict attached to Gerasa, cf. Mt. ii. 16, 
xv. 39, Me. vii. 24, 31. 


SENT TO EVANGELISE (Lc. viii. 3839). 

1 8. cpfiatvovros O.VTOV *rX.] As He 
was going on board, the released de 
moniac begged to be taken with Him 
as a disciple : cf. Me. iii. 14, Lc. xxil 
59. Thpht. s explanation is quite un 
necessary (e(po/3elTO yap /n^Trore \iovov 
(vpovres avrbv ol daifjLOves TraXtv eVeX- 
Baxnv avro>). For o ftai/JLOVKrOeis see 
note on 6 daifj.ovi6[j.evos, v. 1 5 ; atten 



[V. 20 

tea jp 
avTco 6 

KrjpvcrG eLV iv Trj AeKa7ro\ei 6crct 

Kai Trdvres 

21 3I Kai SiaTrepdcravTOS TOV Irjcrov iv ra> 

irdXiv el^ TO Trepav, 

j o^Aos TroAik eV 

21 om ev rw TrXotw D i 28 2 pe a b c e syr 8in arm | ets TO -rrepav tra\iv KD 
i q syr utr | CTT] 717305 DN 13 28 69 346 2? e 

a b c f g 

is here Kvpios as in Lc. i. 6, 
&c., either rnrp.or r% as repeatedly 
in the LXX. ; o K. is used of Jesus by 
Me. only in xi. 3 where it possibly 
= o &8ao-KaAo? (Jo. xiii. 13). Euth.: 


TO davfjia eiriypafpofjLfvos. H.firoirjKfv 
KOI r)\fri<TfV. the combination of tenses 
expresses two sides of the transaction, 
its historical completeness and its 
permanent results. The act of mercy 
was momentary, the consequences 
would be before the eyes of those 
who listened to his tale. On such 
combinations see WM., p. 339. In some 
cases the perfect appears to bear a 
sense almost undistinguishable from 
that of the aorist, ib., p. 340, Burton, 
80, 88; but here the change of tense 
can be conveyed in a translation : cf. 
R.V. hath done, had mercy. In 
the next verse where an ordinary 
narrative is in view Me. writes roi- 
770-6! . For Trotflv TI nvi cf. Mt. 
xxvii. 22. "Oo-a, which belongs pro 
perly to TreTToirjKev, is loosely carried 
on to ijXerja-ev, before which we should 
expect o>s. 

2O. Jjpf-aTO Krjpixro-eiv fv TTJ Aexra- 
TroXet] Lc. Ka& O\TJV rf}v TroXiv i.e. 
Gerasa. The Decapolis (G. A. Smith, 
H. G. p. 595 ff., Schiirer n. ii. 94 ff.) 
was strictly a confederation of Greek 
cities, perhaps originally ten in num 
ber. Pliny H. N. v. 18. 74 mentions 
Damascus, Philadelphia, Raphana, 
Scythopolis (the O.T. Bethshan), Ga- 
dara, Hippos, Dios, Pella, Gerasa 
(now Jerash], Kanatha : but he 
warns his readers that the names 
varied in different lists. As a geo 
graphical name the word was prob 

ably used with a corresponding laxity, 
arid the territory of each city in the 
league was regarded as the local 
Decapolis. If so, the Decapolis of 
the Gospels (Mt. iv. 25, Me. v. 20, 
vii. 31) may be sought for in the 
neighbourhood of Gadara and Hippos, 
which bordered on the Lake (Joseph. 
B. J. iii. 3. I, irpos eco Se lirir^vri re KOI 
TaSapots aVoTe/nverat [r; FaXtXata] KOL 
TTJ Tav\a>vtTi8i). See note on vii. 31 
infra. K^piWeii/ : the man became 
a Kfjpvg, sharing in his measure the 
ministry of Christ and the Apostles 
(i. 14, iii. 14). For the moment the 
result was merely to excite astonish 

21 34. ON His RETURN TO THE 


22, Lc. viii. 40 48). 

21. dia.7repacra.VTOS fls TO irepav] 

To irepav is here the Western shore; 
the place of landing is apparently 
Capernaum. See below, v. 22. For 
dicurfpqv ( cross the water ) c vi. 53, 
Acts xxi. 2. 

o-wijx^ 1 ! KT ^-1 The contrast is re 
markable ; on the E. side He had 
been desired to depart; on the W., 
dirf8ea.To OVTOV 6 o^Xoy (Lc.). The 
reading of ND looks back to iv. 
i : again a great multitude as 
sembled. ETTI with ace. of a person is 
not common (WM., p. 508), and when 
preceded as here by a verb which im 
plies rest it is a little difficult; the 
multitude had come together at the 
first sight of the boat putting out 
from Gerasa, and as soon as He had 

V. 2 4 ] 



Kai Y\V Trap 


22 tw f 


idcov O.VTOV 

7rapKa\L 23 
OTL To Qvydrptov HJLOV 

avTov 7roX\d 

vTrj, iva 
icca 770^7. * 4 Kai aTrfjXdev /xe-r avTov. 

21 om /cat i7v Dbcefffiq syr sin aeth 22 /cat i] + i$ou ACP a^c f 1 syr 1101 

arm go j ets] ris D | om ovo/xcm laei/oos D a e f i | om iSow avrov D e id. TOV H-rja-ovv 
N | TTpos] 7ra/)a N 23 Trape/eaXei BDAIIS<I>] TrapaKaXei SACLN 33 1071 2? 

al nonn irapaKaXiov D a b e ff i q | om ?roXXa D al b c ff i q | iva e\6(av...a.vrri\ e\0e a\f/ai 
avrrjs e/c rwv xetpw^ (rou D b i q syr 8 " 1 | om avnj N | iva ffwdrj KO.L 770-77 ^CDLA 13 69 
346 604 2***] OTTWS cr. /c. ^ererai ANnS"!* 24 aTTT/X^ei ] VTTijyev D 124 eTropeuero 604 

24syr w 

landed, it swarmed down upon Him 
a constr. praegnans. T Hi/ Trapa rr\v 
OaXao-o-av may merely mean, He was 
by the Sea ; cf. WM., p. 503, Blass, 
Gr. p. 138. 

22. ep^erai els TU>V dpxi(rvvay(0ya)v] 
The teaching is interrupted by an 
arrival. Mt. (ix. 18) places this inci 
dent in an entirely different context ; 
Lc. agrees with Me. For tls v 

apxio: Mt. has ap^oji/ ei?, Lc. ap^eoi/ 
TTJS <ruvaya>yrjs here, but ap\HTvvd- 

yo>yos further on (viii. 49). In a small 
synagogue there might be but one 
such officer (Lc. xiii. 14); in larger 
synagogues there were sometimes 
several (Acts xiii. 15, xiv. 2, D). The 
apxiorWycoyos ^npp.SH L^N"1^ was the 
supervisor of the worship of the 
synagogue (Schiirer n. ii. p. 63 ff.), 
but not (as Irenaeus v. 13. i calls him) 
an dpxtepfvs: his functions were not 
priestly but administrative only. For 
a later distinction between apxovres 
T. (rvvayuyfjs and dp^Krvvaytoyoi see 
"W. M. Ramsay, Exp. v. i p. 272 f 

laeipos] = T f LXX. itm p, Num. 

xxxii. 41, Jud. x. 3 f.; in Esth. ii. 5, 
i Esdr. v. 31 Idcipos ; Syrr. n-pesh. have 
Joarash. For the Jair of Judges Jose- 
phus (ant. v. 7) gives lapr/s (Niese), 
but with the variants laei prjs, laetpos. 
In view of these facts it is arbitrary 
to derive loeioy from "l*JP as if 

it arose out of the story itself 
(Cheyne, in Encycl. Bibl. s. v.). Both 
the earlier Jairs were Gileadites. 
Victor remarks : TO ovopa ITCU 5ta 
TOVS lovdaiovs rovs eldoras TO yeyovos. 

More probably, because it was familiar 
to the first generation of believers; 
cf. xv. 21. Bengel : "quo tempore 
Marcus hoc scripsit [? Petrus hoc 
dixit] Jairus eiusve filia adhuc repe- 
riri in Palestina potuit." The name 
occurs also in Lc., but not in Mt. 

TTiTrret npos r. TroSa? auroC] Mt. Trpoa- 
eicvvfi avrov: see on v. 6. The pro 
stration is the more remarkable as that 
of a dignitary in the presence of a 
crowd. His dignity was forgotten in 
the presence of a great sorrow; he 
recognised his inferiority to the Pro 
phet who had the power to heal. 

Trape/caXet KT\.} On TroXXa see V. IO, 
note. Qvydrpiov, cf. vii. 25 : a diminu 
tive of affection used in later Greek 
(Plutarch, Athenaeus) ; in the N. T. 
peculiar to Me. Lc. adds that she was 
(cf. vii. 12, ix. 38). Eo-^aro>y 
also peculiar to Me., a phrase 
condemned by the Atticists, see Lob. 
Phryn. p. 389 ; Josephus has (ant. ix. 
8. 6) fv fo-xdrois elvai, cf. Vg. here, 
in extremis est. Wycliffe 2 , "is ny3 
deed." Mt. substitutes apri eVeXev- 

TTjaei/, Lc. airfdvr)(TK.ev. 

Iva \6a>v CITIES KrX.] For the 
ellipsis see WM., p. 396. Either Trapa- 


Kai yKO\ov6ei avTw o^Xos 7ro\i/s, Kai 

25 OUTOV. * 5 Kal ryvvn ovora ev pucrei 


syr sin SaTravtia-ao-a TO, Trap avTrjs Travra Kai prj^ev^ (*)<pe\n- 

27 detcra dXXa /maXXov ek TO xelpov eXdovcra, ^ O,KOV- 

25 yvvrfl + Tis DNII al min? 1 26 ra Trap aim;? ABLNS al min ferelo ] ra Trap 

courts KCKAII min mu ra eaurTjs D TO, VTrapxovra avrrjs & ra Trap awry 736 

or 0e Xa> may be mentally sup 
plied: cf. vv. 10, 1 8, and see Burton, 
202, 203. Mt. gives a simple im 
perative (dXXa t\6a>v fatties), and so 
the Western text in Me.; cf. Vg. 
reni impone manus- Mc. s broken 
construction reflects the anxiety of 
the speaker. The Greek expositors 
contrast the superior faith of the 
centurion (Mt. viii. 8). For the use 
of imposition of hands in healing see 
vi. 5, vii. 32, viii. 23, 25, [xvi. 18]; 
Acts ix. 17, xxviii. 8; as a primitive 
form of benediction (Gen. xlviii. 146".) 
in common use among the Jews 
(Mason, Baptism and Conf. p. 10, 
cf. Hastings, D. B. iii. p. 84 f.), it was 
adopted by our Lord, and employed 
in the Church in various rites to 
symbolise and convey gifts whether 
of healing or of grace, "iva <ra>6fj KOI 
77077 is not a hendiadys: that she 
may be healed (of her disorder) and 
her life may be spared. For o-yfav 
1 to restore to health, in cases where 
the disease is not fatal, see vv. 28, 34, 
vi. 56, x. 52. 

24. airri\6( v ;* avrov] The Lord 
rose and followed the synagogue- 
ruler, and after him went the Twelve 
(Mt.), and a vast crowd (Lc.), eager 
to see another wonder. The crowd 
pressed round Him, leaving Him 
scarce space to move (vweBXipov 
avTov, Me.) or even to breathe 
(o-vvciTviyov auroi/, Lc.). 2ui>0Xi/3a> 
(Sir. xxxiv. i4 = xxxi. 17), Me. only; 

cf. #Xi/3eii>, Me. iii. 9, a7ro0At /3e/, 

Lc. viii. 45. 

25. yvvr) ovcra tv pvaci] So Lc. ; 
Mt. y. alfjioppoova-a. For flvai ev p. 
see WM., p. 230 : ev p. in a condition 
of, i.e. suffering from, hemorrhage. 
Fritzsche compares rjv cv rrj voo-a 
Soph. Aj. 271. Pvo-is is used in Lev. 
xv. 2 if. for 2*1?; aipoppoelv occurs in 
the same context (v. 33). The trouble 
had lasted as many years (12) as Jair s 
child had lived, cf. infra, v. 42 ; Ben- 
gel: "uno tempore initium miseriae 
et vitae habuerant." For a curious 
use made of this number by the 
Valentinian Gnostics see Iren. i. 3. 


26. TroXXa iraQova-a VTTO TroXXcov 
mrpwj/] She had suffered much at 
the hands of many physicians: cf. 
Mt. xvi. 21, TroXXa iraOfiv ano TU>V 
Trpeo-fivrepcw. Both VTTO and OTTO are 
used with verbs of passive significa 
tion to denote the agent : Blass, Gr. 
pp. 125 f, 135. For some of the pre 
scriptions ordered by the Rabbinical 
experts see J. Lightfoot on this verse. 
Aa7rai/77<racra TO, Trap avrfjs iravra, Vg. 
et erogaverat omnia sua-, cf. iii. 21 ol 
Trap avrov, Lc. X. 7 ra Trap aura>i/, 
Phil. iv. 1 8 Ta Trap vpi<5i/, and see 
Field, Notes, p. 27; the phrase is 
equivalent to ocra flx fv > o\ov TOV ftlov 
avTrjs (xii. 44), which might indeed be 
little enough, as the last reference 
shews. In Lc. BD Syr. 8in - omit the 
corresponding words larpols irpocrava- 
Xoicraora o\ov TOV filov avrfjs, and WH. 
exclude them from margin as well as 
text. For varying estimates of the 
physician in later Jewish writings see 


o~aa"a TO. rrepl TOV lrjorov, 6\6ovcra ev TCO ox\(*> 
OTTLcrOev YI^ISGLTO TOV i/uaTiov avTOv 2 eKeyev *yctp OTL 28 

ctvTOVj crcoO^croiuiai.^ 1FW f 
TOV ai/uaTO^ avTrjs, 29 Wg 



61/0US erjpdv6ri r\ 

eyi/ft) TW craf/uart ort iaTai OLTTO TYJS /utctcrTiyos 

27 ra 7re/)t K*BC*A] om ra K C AC 2 DLNIIZ<I> min fereomn [ e> rw oxM eis TOP 
o%\oj N 13 28 69 124 346 | rou Lfjia.Ti.ov] pr TOU Kpao-n-eSov M i 33 1071 al pauc 
28 eXeyev yap (\eyovffa D 604 2 pe b c ff i q aetfajj + e^ eavrrj DKNIIS i 33 209 604 2?* 
al nonn a c ff i q arm | ecu> ( + /u,ovoj> 33 arm) at/ , /ca^ TWV i/ianwi/ (rou i/ucmou N 33) aur. 
KBCLA 49 ev ] /cav rcov tna.Ti.wv avr. (TOV i/icmou eaurou D) ai//. ADIT al min fereomn 

Tobit ii. 10 (B and K texts) an 
interesting parallel and on the other 
hand Sir. xxxviii. i ff. Holtzmann 
quotes from the Mishna a sentence 
which seems to shew that they were 
in ill odour with the Rabbis (Kid- 
dushim, iv. 14, "medicorum optimus 
dignus est gehenna"). Mrjdev afaXrj- 
tiflo-a, as her experience told her; 
ovdev c^). would have merely stated the 
fact; see, however, Blass, Gr. p. 255. 
Els TO x*<-P ov fk0ov<ra : cf. eVt ro ^etpov 
TTpoKOTrreiv (2 Tim. in. 13). 

27. ra Trepi roO l^crov] I.e. the 
report of His powers of healing; cf. 
Lc. xxiv. 19, Acts xxiv. 10, Phil. 
ii. 23. 

\0ovo-a fv TO) #;(Aa> oiria-Bev] She 
mixed with the crowd which followed 
the Lord and contrived to make her 
way to the front, immediately behind 
Him. For a similar touch of delicate 
feeling cf. Gen. xviii. 10. 

rjij/aTO rov t/xartov avrov] The part 
touched was the Kpaa-irebov (Mt. Lc.), 
i.e. the edge of the outer garment. 
The Law required every Jew to attach 
to the corners of his quadrangular 
covering tassels, which according to 
later usage consisted of three threads 
of white wool twisted together with a 
cord of blue ; see Num. xv. 38 f. : 

xxii. 12: o-TpcTrra ( twists ) Tronjarfis 
treavro) eVt rutv Tefrtrapwv Kpacnrfdaiv 
(mS^)3) Twv 7rcpij3o\aia>v crov (see 
Driver, ad I.). Interesting details will 
be found in Hastings, D. B. i. p. 627, ii. 
p. 68 ff., and Encycl Bibl. ii. p. 1565. 
The Lord doubtless conformed to the 
precept of the Law, though he after 
wards censured the Scribes for their 
ostentatious obedience (Mt. xxiii. 5). 
The Kpao-ircdov may have been either 
one of the tassels, or the corner from 
which it hung (so the LXX. in Deut. 
I.e., Zach. viii. 23). One corner with 
its tassel was behind Him, and on 
this the woman laid her hand (c\0ovo-a 

eVi ra TTTepvyia ra>i> ip-aTicov 

Kal 7Tl6^O~fTf fTTl TOt 

/cXwcr/xa vaKivdivov ; Deut. 

28. eXeyev] Mt. adds ev f 

the words were unspoken. Eai/... 
KOV has caused trouble to the copy 
ists, but K&V qualifies r<5i/ f/ianW 
(WM., p. 730), cf. Vg. si vel vesti- 
mentum eius tetigero; similarly we 
find /a...*cai/ in vi. 56, and Acts 
v. 15 (where see Blass, and cf. his 
Gr. pp. 19, 275). Mt. substitutes 
IJLOVOV for <av without materially 
modifying the sense. TcSi/ t/uartW, 
the clothes, general and inclusive, 
as in v. 30 infra. On the expecta 
tion of a cure by contact comp. iii. 
10, and on croj^a-o/nat see v. 23 

29. fvtivs cgrjpdvQr] KT\.] The 

hemorrhage ceased: Lc., using per 
haps a medical term (cf. Plummer, 



[V. 30 

30 3 Kai evdvs 6 Irjcrovs eTTiyvovs ev eavTco Trjv e^ avTov 
^vvajj-iv efceXOovcrav, eTricrTpcKpeis ev TO) 6%\(*) eXeyev 

31 T/s JULOV ri^jsaTO TCOV IjULaricov ^ 3l Kai e\eyov avTco ol 
w h vLoQwral avTov BAeVei? TOV oyXoi/ <rvvd\i{3ovTd a~e^ 

30 rf]v ef avrov dvvafjuv eeX0.] Trjv d. ( + TTJV D* arm vld ) e^eX^. air. avrov D 
31 \eyov(nv DN 2 pe (a) e i q 

Luke, pp. Ixv, 235), ccrrr] 77 pvo-ts. For 
|r/pat i/<B in the sense of drying up a 
spring cf. 3 Regn. xvii. 7, Jer. xxviii. 
(li.) 36, j]pava> TT)v Trrjyrjv avrfjsl ff 

TTTjyrj TOV alfj.aTos is from Lev. xii. 7- 
"~Eyv(o TO) crcapan on i arai : she knew 
from her bodily sensations, cf. ii. 5, 
cTTiyvovs... TTvevpaTi, dat. of sphere 
(WM., p. 270). "larat transfers the 
reader into the region of the wo 
man s thoughts : the conviction flashed 
through her mind, "la^ai : I have re 
ceived a permanent cure. The perf. 
pass, of laojLtai occurs here only in 
Biblical Greek, for ia/xai in 4 Regn. 
ii. 21, Hos. xi. 3 is middle; but m^i/, 
ladija-ofjiat are repeatedly used in 
a passive sense both in LXX. and 
N.T. For fj.d(TTi plaga see iii. 10, 

30. evdvs o Irjo-ovs *rA.] The Lord 
also experienced an instantaneous 
sensation in the sphere of His con 
sciousness (ev eauroi), amounting to 
a definite knowledge of the fact ; 
for eTriyvovs as contrasted with eyi/co 
(v. 29) see note on ii. 8. He was 
fully aware that this power had gone 
forth from Him rrjv e avrov 8vvafj.iv 
^\6ovo-av not as Vg., virtutem 
quae exierat de eo, but " virtutem 
quae de eo [erat] exisse": cf. Lc. eyvtov 

8vvap.iv et-eXQovo-av air* 6/zou, Vg. novi 

virtutem de me exisse. Tyv e^ 
avTov, that which belonged to Him 
and from time to time proceeded 
from Him ; ef\dovo-av, " the substan 
tive part, as object," Burton, 458 ; 
cf. Acts xxiv. 10, Heb. xiii. 23. That 
miraculous energy went forth from 
Jesus was notorious, cf. vi. 14 ; con 

trast the disavowal of personal power 
on the part of the Apostles, Acts iii. 
12. The Gk. commentators are care 
ful to point out that the Lord s power 
did not leave Him when it went forth 
to heal ; the movement is not to be 
understood TOTTIK&S 77 o-oo/uartKoos (Vic 
tor, Thpht.). 

eVtcrrpa^els ev TO) o^Aep] ETrearpa- 
<f>rjv in a middle sense : cf. Sap. xvi. 7, 
Mt. x. 13, Me. viii. 33, Jo. xxi. 20. 
The Lord turned and questioned the 
crowd which pressed upon Him from 
behind (m. 24, 27). The act of turn 
ing was characteristic ; see viii. 33, 
Lc. vii. 9, 44, ix. 55 &c. The question 
seems to imply that He needed in 
formation ; see Mason, Conditions, 
&c. p. 149 f. ; on the other hand cf. 
Jerome, tract in Me. : " nesciebat 
Dominus quis tetigisset ? quomodo 
ergo quaerebat earn ? quasi sciens, ut 
indicaret. . .ut mulier ilia confiteatur 
et Deus gloriticetur." 

The order ris (J.OV...TMV t/u. may 
perhaps be intended to bring together 
the two persons of the toucher and 
the Touched, cf. V. 31, TLS pov ^aro; 
see however WM., p. 193. 

31. eXeyov aura ol p.a6r]raC\ Lc. 

elnev 6 IleVpos. That the remark was 
Peter s might have been inferred from 
its hasty criticism, and a certain tone 
of assumed superiority, which at a 
later time called for a severe rebuke ; 
cf. viii. 32 ff. 

On the spiritual significance of 
o-vv6Xi@iv and a^Tco-dai see Victor: 


avTov 6 8e aTTKTTtov 6\iftei avTov icat 
Xviret Compare especially Aug. serm. 


? Tis JULOV i r 



, L irepiefiXeTreTO iSeiv 32 

Tr\v TOUTO TTOUicracrav. 33 f; Se yvvrj (poflrjOeicra Kal 33 
Tjoe/xofcra, eifivla o yeyovev avTy, rj\6ev Kal Trpocre- 
Trecrev avTco Kal eiirev avTco Tracrav TVJV d\r]6eiav. 
34 6 e el-Trey a\)Tr\ OwyaTrip, r\ TricTTis crov crecrutKev 34 


vTraye eis 




31 T]\f/aTo] + T(j)v ifAaTiwv arm 33 Tpe/j.ov<Ta] + St. o TreTronjitei \adpa D 50 124 

604 736 (1071) 2P (6^) a ff i arm | o yeyovev] TO yeyovos N | avr-q ] pr eir ANUS al 
min pl c f vg fir avTtjv $ 13 66 al pauc | TrpoaeTreaev aurw] TrpocreKwrjcrev avrov C TrpocreK. 
aurw 6 pe | a\T]6eia.i>] curiav I 13 28 69 346 (arm) 34 dvyaryp BD] dvyarep 

al rnin forteomn | viraye] iropevov N 604 

spiritual effort. For the combination 
<po/3. *cal rpe p.. cf. Jud. ii. 28 (B), Dan. 
v. 19 (Th.), 4 Mace. iv. 10, i Cor. ii. 3, 
2 Cor. vii. 15, Eph. vi. 5, Phil. ii. 12. 
The inward movement expressed itself 
in visible signs of excitement. 

Trao civ TT]v d\i]6eiav] l The whole 
truth. Cf. Jo. xvi. 13 (jr\v dX. TT.) 
and Westcott s note. Lc. gives the 
details. The confession revealed both 
the purpose (df rjv alriav} and effect 
(cos IdBr) Trapa^pfjfia). Moreover it was 
made publicly (evcomov TTCIVTOS TOV 
Xao). Bede : " ecce quo interrogatio 
Domini tendebat. 3 

34. Bvydrrjp = dvyarep : SO the LXX. 
(codd. BA) in Ruth ii. 2, 22 ; iii. i ; 
cf. WH., Notes, p. 158. With this 

use of 6vydrr)p cf. Tfnvov (ii. 5)5 iraibla 
(Jo. XXI. 5). H TTio-ri? o-ov <reo-Q>Kev 
o-e : thy restoration is due to thy 
faith, cf. x. 52, Lc. xvii. 19 a state 
ment which does not of course ex 
clude the complementary truth that 
she was healed by power proceeding 
from the person of Christ (v. 30). 
Christ s purpose in detecting her was 
to perfect her faith by confession 
(Rom. x. 10) ; this end being now 
gained, she is free to reap the fruits 
of her venture. Jerome : " nee dixit 
t Fides tua te salvam factura est, 3 sed 
*salvam fecit. 333 

els elpijvTjv] Lc. Tropevov els 

62 ; Bede ad I. : " quern turba passim 
comitans comprimit, una credula 
mulier Dominum tangit." 

32. Trepie/SXeVero Idflv KrX.] The 

Lord s only reply was to look round 
with a prolonged (imperf.) and scruti 
nising gaze (iii. 5, 34) which revealed 
to Him the individual who had stolen 
a cure. I6 s eu/ is the inf. of purpose, 
Burton, 366 ; on the distinction 
between Idelv and pXc-rreiv see note 
on iv. 12. The use of the fern. (TTJV 
7roirj<ra<rav) is anticipatory : the per 
son who had done this and who 
proved to be a woman. Or it may 
refer to Christ s knowledge of the fact 
whom He knew to be a woman. 3 
Her woman s touch (Bruce) had re 
vealed her sex. 

33- *? ^ ywri *rA.] Lc. adds tfioGo-a 
...on OVK \a.6ev. She was detected 
partly by her nearness to Christ, a 
position from which she could not 
withdraw, on account of the crowd 
partly by her own consciousness (- 

dvla o yeyovcv avrfj}. She felt the 

Lord s eye resting on her, and knew 
herself discovered. The fear and 
trembling with which she came for 
ward are not fully explained by the 

Western gloss Si o 7rTroi^Ki \aQpa 
(WH., Notes, p. 24) ; a deeper psy 
chology would take into account the 
excitement of the moment and the 



IT. 35 


I ^ 

w f crvva r y(d f yov XeyovTes OTL H uvyaTrj 

36 TL 6TL CT/Cl/AAeiS TO V L&d(TKaXoV ] 

TrapaKOVcras TOV Xoyov XaXov/mevov XeyeL TW d { 



35 om ert N 36 o 5e I.] + ev6eus AC(N)II<I> al mm? 1 a syr hcl go | Trapa.Kov<ra.s 

K*c- b BLA e ] aKovffas K c - a ACDNIIS3> al m in forteonm latt (exc e) al | rov \oyov XaX.] 
TOV Xo-y- TOV XaX. B TOVTOV rov \oy. D rov \oy. ev0eu>$ XaX. S 

tip., go and enjoy peace ; an 0. T. 
phrase = D A^ r? 1 ? i Regn. i. 17: 
cf. i Regn. xxix. 7, 2 Regn. xv. 9. 
The Vg. vade in pace answers better 
to the tamer rrop. tv flprjvrj (Acts xvi. 
36, James ii. 16, where see Mayor s 
note). *I<r6i vyir)s OTTO TTJS p.. o-ov, be 
sound (and therefore free) from thy 
scourge : i.e. continue so from this 

time forth; cf. Mt. eVeotfj? 77 yvvjj OTTO 
rf/s topay fKeivrjS. With vy. OTTO cf. 
Rom. ix. 3 avadcp-a eivat airo. For 

/iao- see note on iii. 10. 

Ace. to Ev. Nicod. i. 7 (B) the 
woman s name was Veronica. Euse- 
bius (H.E. vii. 18) relates a tradition 
that she was a native of Caesarea 
Philippi or Paneas, where a brazen 
statue of her in the act of kneeling 
before the Saviour had been seen by 
himself. Macarius Magnes (i. 6) re 
presents her as a princess of Edessa, 

and as pcxpi TOV vvv doidipov cv rfj 

/zeo77 rcov TTora/xeai/. For the mass of 
legend which has gathered round 
the story see Thilo, Cod. apocr. i. 
560 n. 

CHILD (Mt. ix. 2326, Lc. viii. 49 

35. eri O.VTOV \a\ovvTos] So Lc. : 
the exact phrase occurs in Gen. xxix. 
9, LXX. The coincidence was a happy 
one for the cu/zoppoouo-a, for the new 
arrival at once diverted the attention 
of the crowd. ATTOTOV ap^tcrvj/ayto-yov : 
he was present (v. 36), so that the 

words = a7ro Tffs oiKtas TOV ap^. (Euth.);. 
cf. Lc. Trapa TOV p^. ^Ep^oirai 
"man kommt" (Lc. ?p x rat ns) ; cf. 

\eyovo-iv, i. 30 (Meyer). y Arre6avev = 

TfOvrjKfv (Lc.) ; see Burton, 47. 

TL ert O~KV\\CIS /crX.] Tindale : " why 
diseasest thou the master any fur 

ther?" LC. p,T)KTl 0-KV\\. 2/CuXXftl/iS 

properly to flay or to mangle (Aesch. 
Pers. 577), but in later Greek to 
harass, annoy (Euth. avri TOV ircpi- 
fnras, eVo^Xet?) ; cf. 3 Mace. iii. 25 
vj3p(o)s KOI o~Kv\p.v, ib. vii. 5 
o~Kv\p.<nv coy avSpaTroSa, Mt. ix. 3^* 
Here and in Lc. vii. 6 the verb means 
scarcely more than to trouble, put 
to inconvenience (Vg. vexare). Tov 
didao- K a\ov = Win (|51), Dalman, 
Worte Jesu, p. 278 ; cf. Me. xiv. 14. 
The remark shews that the power of 
raising the dead was not yet generally 
attributed to Jesus ; only one instance, 
so far as we know, had occurred, and 
that not in the Lake district (Lc. vii. 

1 1 ff.). Victor : eVo/ucrai> fj.r)KfTi avTov 
eivai 8ta TO TfBvrjKevat avTr)v y 

OTL 8waTOS TfV K.OL O,TTo6av- 

ovo~av avao~TTJo~ai. 

36. irapaKovo-as TOV \6yov \a\ov- 
fifvov] On the construction see WM., 
p. 436. In the LXX. irapaKoveiv is uni 
formly to hear without heeding, to 
neglect or refuse to hear, or to act 
as if one did not hear ; cf. Ps. xxxix. 
13 Symm., i Esdr. iv. n, Esther 
iii. 3, 8, vii. 4 (7^7^0-0 = ^^nnn), 
Tob. iii. 4, Isa. Ixv. 12 (Trapj/Koverare = 
Dri^Dl^ N?) : and so the word is used 
in Mt. xviii. 17 bis ; whilst TrapaKorj 
is the reverse of vTraKor/ (Rom. v. 19, 
2 Cor. x. 6, Heb. ii. 2). The Lord 
heard the words said (for XaX. see 
WM., p. 436, Burton, 458, and note 

V. 3 8] 



Mr] <po/3ov JJLOVOV TricrTeve. 37 /ca* OVK 37 
d<pfJK6v ovSeva {JiT avTOv (TvvaKO\ov6rj(rcu, el /mrj 
TOV HeTpov Kai laKw/Sov Kai Icodvrjv TOV d^e\(pov 
laKcofiov. ^ Kai epxpvrcu ek TOV OLKOV TOV dp%i- 3^ 
(rvvaycoyov, Kai dewpel Qopvfiov Kai K\aiovTas Kai 

37 ov8e cva. D | /ier avrov GVVO.K. KBCLA] aura; avvaKoKovdyaan, EFGHMSUV 
n 2 (2)^> avTd) aKo\ov0T)<rai AKII* min pauc 7rapa/coAou077<rcu aurw D i 28 124 209 604 
2** | TOV ILerpov ] om TOV ABLE al min omnvid 38 epxovTat KABCDFA i 33 

a lpauc b e i q syrP e " h me] epxerai LNII2$ al minP 1 a c f ff go syr hcl arm aeth | TOV 
OIKOV] Trjv oiKiav A 604 i** | etfewpei D | om /cai 3 D$> al min^ lat^*? 1 me | K\O.IOVTWV 
Kai dXaXafovTuv D i^ 

on v. 30 supra\ but spoke as if He 
had not heard, passed them by in 
silence and followed His own course. 
Contrast Act. loann. 17 (ed. James, 

p. 22 f.), v< fKaarrov T)/XWJ/ KaXovpcvos 
oi>X virop.V(i TrapaKOvarai T^CBI/, and cf. 

Field s note ad I. 

fJiOVOV TTLO-TfVf] Lc. fJ.. 7ri<TT6V(TOV, 

faith being viewed as an act rather 
than as a state. With \tovov tantum- 
modo cf. Mt. viii. 8. There was no 
cause for fear, unless the man s faith 
broke down. 

37. The crowd is not suffered to 
approach the house. Lc., perhaps 
with less exactness, represents the 
Lord as dismissing them on reaching 
the house (e\6a>v...ovK dffiKcv etcreA- 
0tv : cf. Mc. s OVK a<j>r)K.V...Ka\ p%ov- 

reu). 2vvaKo\ovdelv is a rare compound 
in Biblical Greek (2 Mace. ii. 4, 6 ; in 
N. T. only here and in xiv. 51, Lc. 
xxiii. 49) ; comp. i]Ko\ov0ci in v. 24 
the crowd followed, but there was no 
bond of fellowship to keep them with 
Him to the end. 

ei P.TJ TOV HfTpov KT\J] Even of the 
Apostles only three are permitted to 
enter; so careful is the Lord not to 
invade at such a time the seclusion 
of the home life. Three were suf 
ficient as witnesses (Mt. xviii. 16) ; 
and the same triad were chosen on 
other occasions when privacy was 
desired (ix. 2, xiv. 33). 

The order of the names is the same 

as in Mc. s list of the Apostles (iii. 
1 6), and it is maintained in ix. 2, xiii. 
3, xiv. 33 ; Mt. on the whole agrees 
(x. 2, xvii. i) : Lc. on the other hand 
usually writes II. KOI lamias Kai la/cco- 
/3os (viii. 51, ix. 28, Acts i. 13), though 
his Gospel preserves the older order 
in the Apostolic list (Lc. vi. 14). See 
note on Me. iii. 16. The single article 
in Me. before the three names seems 
to represent the three as a body. But 
the practice of the Evangelist varies ; 
thus in ix. 2 we have TOV II. /ecu TOV 
IOK. KO.I Io>., while in xiv. 33 an article 
stands in WH. s text (though the 
margin agrees with v. 37) before each 
name. For TOV d8c\<pov Ia*c. see i. 
1 6, 19 notes. 

38. Qfapfl . . . aXaAdojTctff TroXXa] 
The Lord has dismissed one crowd 
only to find the house occupied by 
another (66pv$ov = ox\ov #opu/3ou/u.ei/oi/, 
Mt). For the moment He stands 
gazing at the strange spectacle (0a>- 
pel, cf. xii. 41). Qopvfios is the uproar 
of an excited mob (xiv. 2, Acts xx. i, 
xxi. 34). The Kai which follows is 
epexegetic (WM., p. 345); the up 
roarious crowd within consisted of 
mourners. AXaXa^Vu/ is *to shout, 
whether for joy (so often in the 
Psalms, e.g. Ps. xlvi. (xlvii.) i, aXaXa- 
are ra> 0fa>), or in lamentation, cf. 

Jer. iv. 8, KoirTfo-Oe Kai ctXaXaarf. 
The correction oXoXvgovras proposed 
by Naber is unnecessary; even if 


39 d\a\d<pvTas TroAAcr 39 /cca ei<re\6u>v \e<yei avTols Ti 
6opvfiei(rQe Kai K\aieT6 ; TO Traifiiov OVK direQavev 

40 aAAa KctBevSei. 4 jca* KaTeyeXcov avTOV. auros Se 
6K/3a\d)v TTCLVTOS TTapoXafJifidvei TOV TraTepa TOV 

39 /cXcuere] pr n D 28 b f ff i q 40 avros 5e KBCDLA 33 latt (exc e) me] 

o Se ANIIS al mm? 1 syr 1101 ^ arm o 5e is M<i> min? 11110 syrP 6 * | Travras] TODS o%Aoi;s ew 
D lat^P 1 

mortuos suos qui putant mortuos ; ubi 
resurrectionis fides est, non mortis 
est species, sed quietis." 

40. KareyeXfov CLVTOV~\ So Mt., Me., 

Lc. The compound is used in the 
N. T. only in this context, but it is 
common in classical Gk. and in the 
LXX., e.g. Ps. xxiv. (xxv.) 2, Prov. xvii 
5, 4 Mace. vi. 20. The Engl. versions 
rightly lay stress on the scornfulness 
of the laughter expressed by KOTO. 
(e.g. Wycliffe, " thei scorneden hym " ; 
Tindale, "they lawght him to scorne"). 
On the gen. see WM., p. 537 n. Ac 
cording to the Gk. expositors the 
Lord suffered these hirelings to de 
ride Him in order to prevent them 
from saying afterwards that the child 
was not really dead (Thpht. cos av ^ 
e^cocrtv vcrrepov \eyeiv on KCLTO^OS (cata 
leptic) cyevero). But it is unnecessary 
to seek for any such explanation ; rj 
dyd-TTT] Trdma VTropevei. 

avros Be e/cj3aXcov irdvras KrX.] On 
Kftd\\Q> see i. 12. In this case some 
pressure was needed, for it was the 
interest of these paid mourners to 
remain. There is a sternness mani 
fested in their ejection which finds a 
counterpart on other occasions when 
our Lord is confronted with levity or 
greed ; cf. xi. 1 5, Jo. ii 1 5. Jerome : 
"non enim erant digni ut viderent 
mysterium resurgentis, qui resusci- 
tantem indignis contumeliis deride- 
bant." Avros Se, *He on His part, 
Vg. ipse vero. napaXa^dvei, cf. iv. 
36. Five persons enter the chamber 
of death by His invitation. In the 
0. T. instances of the raising of the 
dead the prophet is alone (i K. xvii 

eu> is to be taken in its ordinary 
sense, the heartless uproar was an 
aXaXaypos rather than an oXoXvy/ids. 
The mourners were probably pro 
fessional ; among them were musicians 
(avXrjTai, Mt.), and wailing women 
(at 6pT]vovo-ai, Jer. ix. 17); "even the 
poorest of Israel will afford his dead 
wife not less than two minstrels and 
one woman to make lamentations" 
(J. Lightfoot), and this was the house 
of an dpxuruvdyo>yos. On the shallow- 
ness of the feeling which prompted 
these demonstrations see Sir. xxxviii. 

39. clo-(\6av KT\.] The Lord en 
tered the court, and expostulated. 
For Mc. s n Gopvpelo-Qc and Lc. s 
milder /^ AcXa/cre, Mt. has the sterner 
dvaxo>pfiTj which may have followed 
when the call to silence had proved 

in Vaill. OVK d-rredavev aXXa Kafovdet. 

is enigmatical ; KaOevdeiv may = re- 
QvrjKevcu, as in Dan. xii. 2 (LXX. and 
Th.), i Th. v. 10 ; cf. Koi/zacr&u in Jo. 
xi. ii ff., but this sense seems to be 
excluded when the verb is placed in 
contrast with diroOavflv. Hence some 
have declined to regard this miracle 
as a raising of the dead (see Trench, 
Miracles, p. 182 f.). But the fact of 
the child s death was obvious to the 
bystanders, and is apparently assumed 
by the Evangelists, at least by Lc. 
(etSorey on aircBavfv). The Lord s 
meaning seems to be : a death from 
which there is to be so speedy an 
awakening can only be regarded as a 
sleep. Cf. Bede: "hominibus mor- 
tua, qui suscitare nequiverant, Deo 
dormiebat." Ambrose : " fleant ergo 

V. 42] 



7TCU?)ioV Kai TY\V fJLr]T6pa Kat TOl)s JUL6T dVTOV, KCtl 

ei&TropeveTaL OTTOV rjv TO TTCU&LOV ^ 4I fcca KpaTya as 41 1 w f , 
Trjs %eipos TOV TratSiov \eyei avTri TaXeiBd, KOV/UL 
o ecTTiv fJLe6epfjLr}vev6fJievov To xopacriov, (rot Ae^o*, 
eyeipe. 4a /ca* ev6vs dveo-Trj TO Kopdcriov Kal TrepieTraTei, 42 

40 per aurov] + ovras D | TO TratdW] + ava.Kei/j.vov ACNII^> al min? 1 + 
S 604 arm 41 TTJS %pos] n;* xetpa D | raXetda (raXiOa KACLNII al arm)] 

pafipi dafiiTa D thabitha (tabitha etc.) a b c ff i r vg codd a&e<z acultha e | KOU/U 
NBCLMNS i 33 1071 al nonn ff] ACOV/U (A)DAH$ al minP 1 latt^PHvg) syrr peshhci arm 
me aeth | eyeipat U4> min 8 ** 11 eyeipov minP auc 

19 flf., 2 K. iv. 33), and this seems to 
have been the case also at the raising 
of Tabitha (Acts ix. 40). Our Lord, 
knowing the issue (Jo. xi. 41, 42), 
chooses to work in the presence of 
witnesses, not excepting the mother, 
though He ejects the jeering hire 
lings who were not in sympathy 
with His purpose. Euth. : TOV /uei> ovv 

iraTepa KOI TTJV /i^repa...7rapeXa/36 6faras 
TOV Oav/jiaTos toy otKeiovs CKfivrj, TOVS fie 
HadrjTas as oiKfiovs eavra). ^Itriropev- 
cTai o-irov = 6io-7r. els TO vTrepaov (Acts 

IX. 39) 07TOV. 

41. KpaTTftras TTJS X 1 P OS rov Jratfiiov] 
Wycliffe, "he heeld the hond of the 
damysel " ; Tindale rightly, " toke 
the may den by the honde." See WM., 
p. 252 ; Blass, Gr. p. 101 ; and cf. i 
31, ix. 27. He addresses Himself to 
the personality, not to the body only 
(Xe y avTjj : cf. Lc. vii. 14, Jo. xi. 43); 
COmp. Jo. V. 28, 01 ev Tols fivrjueiois 
O.KOI>O~OVO~IV. AI)T^ i.e. re5 Tratfiiop, a 
construct ad sensum : cf. Blass, Gr. 
p. 1 66. 

raAeiftz, coiJ/Lt] ( W) D-lp n^l? (Dai- 
man, p. Il8n., 266 n. ; with raAettfa 
cf. the use of nSp, D^St? in i Sam. 
vii. 9, Isa. xl. n, Ixv. 25). On the 
strange corruptions of these Aramaic 
words in some Western texts see 
Chase, Syro-Latin Text, p. 109 f. ; 
tabita for talitha found its way into 
our earlier English versions, Tindale, 
as well as Wycliffe. For other Ara 

maic words preserved by Me., see 
vii. 34, xiv. 36 ; and on the general 
subject of Aramaisms in the Gospels, 
Schiirer II. i. 9. "O eo-Ttv pedepfjiT]- 
vcvopcvov, a phrase common to Mt, 
Me., Jo., and Acts; other forms are 

o Xe yfTcu [jicQepiJL., o tpfjirjvevcTai, ovTtas 
yap p.e6epiJir]VveTat. MfQfpnTjvfVfiv (a 

late compound for the class, ep^??- 
vcveiv) is already used in reference 
to the translation of Hebrew into 
Greek in the prologue to Sirach (1. 19). 
To Kopao-iov : the word is late and 
colloquial (Lob. Phryn. p. 74), and 
survives in modern Gk. (Kennedy, 
Sources, p. 1 54) ; in the LXX. where 
it usually represents H Tl^ it is fairly 
common from Ruth onwards ; in the 
N. T. it is used only of the girl in 
this narrative and of the daughter of 
Herodias. On the nom. (TO Kopdo-iov) 
see v. 8 note, and cf. Lc. 17 


42. fvdvs avto~Tr)...Kcu 
The effect was instantaneous 
XP^pfh Lc.), the child rose and walked 
(imperf., since the act was continuous, 
and not, like the rising, momentary ; 
cf. Jo. v. 9, Acts iii. 8). Strength re 
turned as well as life : cf. Lc. vii. 1 5 
XaXeiv), Jo. XL 44 (egfjXGcv... 
OVTOV inrayetv). Hi/ yap TO>V 
8a$eKa justifies TrepteTraret the child 
was of an age to walk ; the correction 
in D has arisen from a failure to 
understand yap. For the gen. of 



[V. 42 

r\v yap TCOV 

/ecu e^ecTTrjcrav evdvs 

43 /U*ya*7. /cca iecrreiXaTO avrols 7ro\\a iva 
yvol TOVTO Kai eiTrev Sodijvai avrrj 

-r-r-r T R I/ \ ^"~~\ ) ^Z3 \ 

VI. I $Kai ej~ri\uev e/ce*(7ei/, KCU 

^ /5 1 

TY]V TraTioa 

42 yv yap] TJV 5e D *2P* ^ latt | dwdeKa (8eKa 8vo 3> i)] pr oxra KG A pr ws i 33 604 
alP uc arm | e^effrrjffav + Travres Dcfffiq + oi 701/61? aim?? 736 SP* alP auc | om ev6vs 1 
ADNIIS* al minP 1 latt syrr arm go al (hah KBCLA 33 me aeth) 43 om TroXXa 

D lat^P 1 | yvoi ABDL] yvw KCNAIIZ<i> al | 806^0.1] Sovvai D VI i /c 

NBCLA] K. t]\0ev ANH2<I> al minP 1 Or Kairri\6ev D (sic) 

time cf. Lc. ii. 37, 42, iii. 23, Acts 
iv. 22. For a patristic homily on the 
three miracles of raising the dead 
recorded in the Gospels see Aug. 
serm. 98 (Migne). 

f^eoTrjo-av KrA.] On e ^iVrao-tfai see 
note on ii. 12, and for eWrao-is in this 
sense xvi. 8, Lc. v. 26, Acts iii. 10. 
The nearly equivalent phrase fKa-rijvai 
eKo-rao-iv nfyaXyv occurs in Gen. xxvii. 
33. Evtivs is not necessarily otiose : 
the astonishment was instantaneous 
and complete. 

43. dica-TflXaTo *rX.] Two direc 
tions follow the miracle : (i) the facts 
are not to be made public, (2) the 
restored child is to receive nourish 
ment. The purpose of (i) was partly 
to prevent idle curiosity, and the ex 
citement which would check spiritual 
work (cf. i. 44 note, vii. 36), partly 
to gain time for His departure (vi. i 
note). In (2) we have fresh evidence 
of the sympathetic tenderness of the 
Lord, and His attention to small 
details in which the safety or comfort 
of others was involved. In the ex 
citement of the moment the necessity 
of maintaining the life which had 
been restored might have been over 
looked. But life restored by miracle 
must be supported by ordinary means ; 
the miracle has no place where human 
care or labour will suffice. Chrys. : 

OVK avros SiScotrti , dXX* eiceivois Ke\fvei % 
<o<T7rep KOI eVi ro> Aaapou dire Aucrare 
avrov. Victor sees in this command 
evidence of the reality of the miracle : 

fls anodei^iv TOV d\t]6a>s avrrjv cyeyepGai 

KOI ov doKr)<ri rivl Koi <j)avTO.(riq, re 
ferring to Lc. xxiv. 41 f.; cf. Iren. v. 
13. i, Jerome, tract, in Me. ad 1. 

Aiao-re XXeii/ is properly to divide or 
distinguish : cf. e.g. Gen. xxx. 35, 40, 
Deut. x. 8. In the mid. the word in 
later Gk. has acquired the meaning 
to give an explicit order, to en 
join : Jud. i. 19, Judith xi. 12, Ezech. 
iii. i8ff., and this sense it uniformly 
bears in the N. T. (Me. 5 , Acts 1 ; c 
the pres. part. pass, in Heb. xii. 20). 
With the conj. yvol cf. TrapaSoT, iv. 29 
note, and WM., p. 360. For the inf. 
see Burton, 337, 391 ; for 

lv, almost = /3p<a/ia, cf. VI. 37, Jo. 

v. 33- 

(Mt. xiii. 53 58 ; cf. Lc. iv. 1630). 

i. cfj\0v cKeWev] From the house 
of Jairus (cf. v. 39, eio-eX0a>z/), but also 
from Capernaum ; cf. Mt. xiii. 53, 
p.Tr)pv eiccWev, where there is no 
mention of Jairus in the context. 
The purpose was probably to escape 
from the enthusiasm of the crowd, 
who, notwithstanding the charge to 
conceal what had occurred (v. 43), 
must soon hear of the miracle. 

fls rr]v Trarpida avrov] I.e. to Naza 
reth, cf. Lc. iv. 23, 24 ; the word can 
be used of a town, cf. Phil. leg. ad 

Ctti. 36, ecrri de p.oi lfpocr6\vp.a Trarpiy. 

Neither Mt. nor Me. mentions Naza 
reth here, but Me. i. 9, 24, Jo. i. 46 
imply that the Lord was regarded 
by the Galileans as a Nazarene; 
His birth at Bethlehem was forgotten 


avTOV Kai dKO\ov6ov(riv avTco ol fJiadrjTai avTOV. 

Kai ol 7TO\\oi aKOvovTes e^eTrXqcrcrovTO 
flodei/ TOVTO) TavTa, Kai r/9 Y\ <ro(pia 77 


Ka a 



2 yevofAevov <ra/3/3aroi;] yfAepa 0-a/3/3araH D (f) i (q) r | ot TroXXoi BL 13 28 69 346] 
om ot fc*ACDAII2< al minP 1 | aKovvavres DFHLNAII al om bee | e^ewX-rjcrffovTo^ + eirt. 
TTJ didax-r] avrov D minP*" 10 latt (exc e) syr? 0811 arm | ravra] + iravra KG 2 (airavTa. C*) 
(A) TOVTO TravTa 1071 | TOVTO 2 KBCLA me] avrw ADIIZ<I> al min forteomn | at 
8vva/j,ts Totatmu 5. r. %. a. yivo/i-evai fc<*( c B(LA) 33 (vg) me] 5w. rotairrat 5. r. x- 
yivovrat. AC 2 EFGHM(N)SUVS (at 5uv.) * i 13 28 69 al mu a e iva. KO,I dw. rot. d. r. x- 

et. yeivwvrcu D (sim C* b f i q ff r arm) | 5ta TWJ/ xet/>wi ] 5. r. 

(cf. Jo. vii. 41, 42), and even if it had 
been notorious, the village where His 
family lived (v. 3), and where He had 
passed His youth (Lc. iv. 16), might 
well be called His irarpls. Lc. places 
this visit, of which he has preserved a 
much fuller account, at the outset of 
the Ministry, but without note of 

a.Ko\ov6ov<riv avrw ol p,a6. O.VTOV] It 
was not a private visit to His family ; 
He came as a Rabbi, surrounded by 
His scholars. 

2. ycvopevov <ra/3/3arov] Vg. facto 
sabbato, when Sabbath had come. 
Lc. ev TTJ f) fie pa TO) i/ <ra/3/3aro>i/. He 
took His place in the synagogue as 
the reader ( Ambr. " ille ita ad omnia 
se curvavit obsequia ut ne lectoris 
quidem adspernaretur officium "). Lc. 
describes the whole scene from the 
recollections of some eyewitness, per 
haps the Mother of the Lord. The 
Scripture expounded was Isa. Ixi. i, 2. 
"Hpcrro dida<TKeiv = cdi8a<TKv, Mt., cf. 
Lc. ijpgaro \cyciv. A similar phrase is 
used in i. 45, iv. i, v. 20, vi. 34, viii 
31, always apparently with reference 
to a new departure. It was perhaps 
the first time He had taught officially 
in His own town, and but for the 
hostility of the Nazarenes it might 
have been the beginning of a course 
of teaching there. On this use of 
cf. WM., p. 767. 

(^er labia) 

ol 7roXXol...e^7rX7yo (roi/ro] Mt. 
Kir\r)a (Tf(r6ai avrovs, Lc. irdvrfs e / 
rvpow avrw. Me. is more exact : the 
majority were impressed, but there 
was an undercurrent of dissatisfaction 
which in the end prevailed. For 

cf. L 22. 

TOVTCO TavTo. /crX.] A change 
had come over Him for which they 
could not account ; the workman had 
become the Rabbi and the worker of 
miracles. Of His wisdom they had 
evidence in His discourse; it was a 
gift (77 So0eio-a) and not the result of 
study (Jo. vii. 15); it had shewn itself 
in childhood (Lc. ii. 40, 47), and now 
was revealed again in the man. But 
whence and what was it (irodev; rt s;)? 
And the miracles such miracles as 
report said were being wrought from 
time to time (ytvo/zei/ai) by His instru 
mentality (8ia T&V x L P<*> v avTov, cf. 
Acts v. 12, xix. 11), whence were 
these? No similar powers distin 
guished any other member of the 
family, mother or brothers or sisters ; 
why should they distinguish Him? 
(Mt. iToOev ovv TOVTCO TavTa Trdvra;). 
Jerome: "mira stultitia Nazaren- 
orum ; mirantur unde habeat sapien- 
tiam Sapientia, et virtutes Virtus." 
On rtf 77 o-. see Blass, Gr. p. 176. Ai 
dwdfi6is...yiv6fj.vaij sc. TI : what mean 
such miracles wrought, &c. For dv- 
a miracle, see vi. 5, 14. 


3 ^Lpcov avTOv yivofjievai ; 3 ov% OVTOS ecTTiv 6 
6 vios Trjs Mapias Kai d$e\<pos laKw/3ov Kai 

[VI. 2 

3 o re/crco? o vios] o TOV TCKTOVOS wos /ecu 13 33 69 604 2 1 * 3 alP*" a b c e i vg (arm) 
aeth om o re/crow syr hclhier (cf. Or infr) | r??s Ma/ncis] om TTJS AD II al pl | 
12 T b e f q vg aeth IWO-T; ACNIIS<i> al minP 1 syrr go arm 

3. 6 rocrcoi/] Mt. o rou TCKTOVOS 
vios. To the sneer of Celsus TCKTW 
i7i/ rj)i> rexvrjv Origen (Gels. vi. 36) 

replies ovda/xoO TG>J/ eV rais KK\r)(Tiais 
<pepofj,va)v vayye\ia>v TCKTW O.VTOS 6 
Irjaovs dvayeypa-n-Tai. " He either for- 
got this passage or, perhaps more 
probably, did not hold Me. responsible 
for the words of the Galileans" (WH., 
Notes, p. 24: see however the app. 
crit. above). As the son of a reVrwi/ 
Jesus would naturally have learnt TTJV 
TfK.rovLK.rjv (see Lightfoot and Schott- 
gen ad loc.). This inference, if it was 
no more, was early drawn : cf. Justin, 
dial. 88, ra TCKTOVIKO. epya ^pya^ero lv 
dvdpcoTrots coV, apoTpa KOI fry a, and the 
answer to the scoffing question of 
Libanius (Thdt. H. E. iii. 18). TCKTCBI/ 
is properly an artificer in wood, but 
it is occasionally used of a worker in 
metals (i Regn. xiii. 19 TCKT&V o-idrjpov), 
and several of the Fathers held Joseph 
to have been a smith (see Thilo, Cod. 
apocr. N. T. i. p. 368 f. n.). Mystical 
reasons were found for the Lord s 
connexion with one or other of these 
trades; thus Hilary (on Mt. xiv.) 
writes : "Fabri erat filius ferrum igne 
vincentis, omnem saeculi virtutem 
iudicio decoquentis," and Ambrose 
(on Lc. iii. 25): "hoc typo patrem 
sibi esse demonstrat qui Fabricator 
omnium condidit mundum." The 
family continued to be engaged in 
manual labour to the third generation ; 
see the story of the grandsons of Jude 
in Eus. H. E. iii. 20, rots ^Ipa? ray 
favTwv eTTiSeucvvvai, papTVpiov TTJS av- 
Tovpyias TTJV TOV (ra>fj.aTos (TK\r)piav 
KOI TOVS OTTO TTJS o~vvx<>vs cpya(rias 

T\ TtoV IO*IO)V ^eipd>l> 

Trapio-TavTas. Of the particu 

lars of Joseph s work, and of the 
interest manifested in it by the Child 
Jesus, the apocryphal Gospels have 
much to tell: see Thilo I.e. 

6 vlos TTJS Map/as] The absence of 
any reference to Joseph in Me. is 
noteworthy; contrast Lc. in. 23, iv. 
22, Jo. i. 45, vi. 42. He was still 
alive in our Lord s thirteenth year 
(Lc. ii. 41 ff.), but there is no evidence 
of his life having been prolonged 
further ; according to Protev. 9 Joseph 
was already an old man before the 
Birth of Jesus, and all the later 
notices of the Lord s Mother (e.g. 
Jo. ii. i ff. ; Me. iii. 31 ff. ; Jo. xix. 
25 ff.) confirm the supposition that 
he died before the Ministry began. 
The Arabic Historia Josephi (cc. 14, 
15) places his death in our Lord s 
eighteenth year, when Joseph had 
reached the age of in. 

dSeX^os] On this relationship see 
Lightfoot (Galatians, " The Brethren 
of the Lord") and J. B. Mayor (St 
James, Introd.). Lightfoot disposes 
of Jerome s view (cf. de vir. ill. 2) 
that the brothers were cousins, sons 
of "Mary the sister of the Lord s 
Mother," and on the whole supports 
the alternative, which was widely held 
by Catholics of the fourth century, 
that they were sons of Joseph by a 
former marriage. This belief is traced 
by Origen (in Matt. x. 17) to the 
apocryphal Gospel of Peter, and it 
finds some support in the Protevan- 
gelium (c. 9). On the other hand the 
more obvious interpretation, which 
makes the brothers sons of Joseph 
and Mary, born after the Birth of 
Jesus, was apparently accepted by 
Tertullian (cf. adv. Marc. iv. 29, de 

VI. 3 ] 


lovfia Kal CLJJLCOVOS] Kal OVK eicrlv ai d$e\<pai 
Kal ecncctz/Sa/Y/^bj/TO eV ai/Yw. 

code Trpos 

3 om OVK syr 

earn. Chr. 7), who does not shew any 
consciousness of departing in this 
matter from the Catholic tradition of 
his time. 

The names of the four brothers are 
given only here and in Mi xiii. 55 ; 
Mi s order is IaKa>/3os, Ia>o^0, Si^wi/, 
lou Say. The loyalty of the family 
to the traditions of the O.T. appears 
in the selection : Joseph named his 
firstborn after Jacob, and his other 
sons after the greater patriarchs. 

laKoo/3ov] This James is mentioned 
as 6 d8f\<po? rot) Kvpiov in GaL i. 19; 
see also Joseph, ant. xx. 9. i, rov 

d8c\<pov IT/O-OU TOV Xe-yo/zeVou Xpioroi), 

loKoo/Sos- ovofia auro>, and Hegesippus 
ap. Euseb. If. E. ii. 23. His eminence 
in the Church at Jerusalem, to which 
Heg. refers, is implied in Acts xii. 17, 
xv. 13, xxi 1 8, and in GaL ii. 9, 12, 
where he is classed with Peter and 
John (ol doKovvrfs oruAoi emu) ; by a 
somewhat later age he was regarded 
as an eV/o-KOTros, and even (in Ebionite 

Circles) as TTKT<OTTWV eVto-KOTros (Clem. 

Horn, ad imt.), or archiepiscopus 
(Recogn. i. 73, cf. Hort, Clem. Recogn. 
p. 116 f.). In the heading of his 
own letter he describes himself simply 
as 6eov Kal Kvpiov lr)(rov Xptorov 
SovXos. For further particulars see 
Mayor, p. xxxvi ff., and Hort, Ecclesia, 
p. 76 ff., who suggests that " he was 
at some early time after the perse 
cution of Herod taken up into the 
place among the Twelve vacated by 
his namesake." 

icoo-T/ros] The name is another 
form of 1000-77$ ; see Mt. xiii. 55 and 
cf. Me. xv. 40, 47 with Mt. xxvii. 56 ; 
also Acts iv. 36, where for ICOO-T}^ o 
s Bapva/Sas- the R.T. reads 
Lightfoot s difficulty (Gala- 
tians, p. 268, n. i) seems to be met 
by Dalman s view (p. 75) that ^DV 
was a Galilean abbreviation of ^p T 1 

S. M. 2 

cf. the Rabbinic forms which he quotes, 
pp. 139, 143. For the Hellenised 
termination -fjs, gen. -^TOS, see Blass, 
Gr. p. 30 f. This brother is mentioned 
only here and in the parallel passage 
of Mt. ; the Joses of Me. xv. 40 f. is 
another person (see note there). 

lovda] The Judas who styles him 
self (Jude i) lovSaS y lT)(TOV XpHTTOV 

8ov\os d8c\(j)bs 6e ^aKoi/Sov. If he 

was the third brother (or fourth, 
according to Mt. s order) born after 
B.C. 4, his age at this time could 
not have been thirty, and his 
grandsons might well have been men 
in middle life during the reign of 
Domitian (Euseb. H.E. iii. 20). St 
Paul speaks of the Lord s brothers as 
married men (i Cor. ix. 5). 

2i /icoi/os] Mentioned only here and 
in Mt. xiii. 55 : for the form of the 
name see note on i. 16. The Symeon 
who succeeded James as Bishop of 
Jerusalem was, according to Hege 
sippus, a son of Clopas, Joseph s 
brother (Euseb. ff. E. iii. ii). 

at aSeX0ai] Mt. adds 7ra<rai. Epi- 
phanius haer. Ixxviii. 9 gives the 
names of two Salome and Mary, 
but his statement possibly rests upon 
a confused recollection of Me. xv. 
40; for other accounts see Thilo, 
Cod. apocr. p. 363 n. The sisters 
of Jesus are not mentioned else 
where (cf. however Me. iii. 32 v.l.), 
even in Acts i. 14 where the mother 
and brothers appear among the dis 
ciples at Jerusalem. They were settled 
at Nazareth (toSe irpbs wa$\ and pos 
sibly were already married women 
whose duties tied them to their 
homes; while the brothers passed 
from unbelief (Jo. vii. 5) to faith, the 
sisters were perhaps scarcely touched 
by the course of events. 

(TKavda\iovTo ev aur<u] So Mt. Lc 
passes over this intermediate stage of 




[VI. 4 

4 4 Kai eXeyev avTois 6 Irjcrovs OTL OVK ecrTiv 

el /my ev Trj TrctTpiSi avTOv KCLL ev TO?? crvyye- 

5 vev(riv avTOv Kai ev Trj oiKia CIVTOV. 3 Kai OVK 
e/c? TTOirjcraL ovSe/uLiav Suva/uui; , el jur) 


4 -irarp. avrov KABCDII2<J>1 irarp. eavrov K*L 1 3 69 346 pr idia K C AL | rots <rvyye- 
B*D 2 EFGHLNUVAS i 33 69 1071 al" atmu ] r. avyyevefftv KAB 2 CD*K 2 MSII<I> 
rrj (Tvyyeveia K* minP er P auc cognatione latt vt P lv (arm) | om avrov K a AC 2 DEF 
GHMSUVII al pl a f go arm 5 OVK edvva.To...irot.] non faciebat b c e (ff) noluit 

facere a f i q r 

Comp. Oxyrhynch. log. 6. The Lord 
here assumes the role of the Prophet 
which was generally conceded to Him 
(vi. 15, viii. 28, Mt. xxi. n, 46, Lc. 
xxiv. 19, Jo. iv. 19, vi. 14, vii. 40, 
ix. 17, Acts iii. 22, vii. 37). Svyyevev- 
o~iv = o-vyyeveartv : for the form cf. 
i Mace. x. 89 (N c - a A), Lc. ii. 44 (LXAA 
J > J 3> 33> 69, al.); see WH., Notes, 
p. 158, WSchm., p. 89, Blass, Gr., 
p. 27. Of the drtfjiia cast upon the 
Lord by His kindred and family (r) 
olKia avTov) see exx. in iii. 21, Jo. 
vii. 3 f. 

5. OVK edvvaTO...Troif)o-ai] Mt. OVK 
e7roir)o-ev. Origen (on Mt. x. 19) has 
an interesting comment on Mc. s 
phrase : ov yap elirev OVK rj6e\ev aXX 
v errl rnv 

feeling, but adds afterwards e-r 
o-av navTcs Ovpov. Amazement rapidly 
gave place to jealous suspicion, and 
jealousy to anger. The o-<dva\ov 
was the fact that the Lord till lately 
had been one of themselves. For 
<TKav8a\ie<r6ai see note on iv. 17, 
and for <r<. ev TIVL cf. Mt. xi. 6, xxvi. 
31 f. ; the construction occurs also 
in Sir. ix. 5, xxiii. 8, xxxv. 15 (xxxii. 
19). The Nazarenes found their 
stumblingblock in the person or cir 
cumstances of Jesus; He became a 

Tre rpa (TKavddXov (i Pet. ii. 7? 8, Rom. 

ix. 33) to those who disbelieved. The 
Cross enormously increased the diffi 
culties of belief for those who ex 
pected external display ; see i Cor. 
i. 23, Gal. v. ii. But for such there 
were difficulties from the first. 

4. KOI e\eyev avrois KrX.J An an 
swer to the objection which He an 
ticipates (Lc.), that the Capharnaites 
had been more favoured than His 
own fellow-townsmen. In His own 
city He would have been received 
with less alacrity ; people are slow to 
credit with extraordinary powers one 
who has lived from childhood under 
their observation. For OVK ea-Tiv 7rpo0. 
arip-os el ^ KT\. (Mt. Me.) Lc. sub 
stitutes ov8c\s Trpo^r/TT/? SeKro? CO~TIV 
ev rrj irarpt dt O.VTOV : JO., who seems 
to regard Judaea as the irarpLs (cf. 
Westcott ad I. and Origen in Cor- 
derius, p. 138), has a reminiscence 
of the saying in its earlier form (iv. 
44, avrbs yap ^Irjo-ovs cpapTvprja-ev on 
jrpofp. ev Ty 18 ia rraTpidi rip,r)v OVK e 


7ri(TTe(os eKeivov els ov evr/pyei r) 
Kci)\voiJ.vr)s 8e evepyelv VTTO 
To work a miracle upon a responsible 
human being it was necessary that 
faith on the part of the recipient 
should concur with Divine power; 
neither was effectual without the 
other : ovre ra evepy^ara TWV dwdpetov 
X&pls Tncrreo)? TTJS T<>V Oeparrfvofj-evav 
...OVTC rj TTicrru, OTToia TTor av 77, ^copiy 
TTJS Oeias Swains. Faith was neces 
sary also on the part of the worker of 
the miracle (see Mt. xvii. 19, 20), but 
in our Lord s case this condition was 
always satisfied (Me. xi. 21 f., Jo. xi. 

ft pr) 6\iyois appcooroi? KrX.] Cf. 
Me. xvi. 1 8, eirl dppccxrTovs ^etpa? 
, and for other instances 

VI. 7 ] 



TT)I/ aTTKTTiav 

eOepaTrevcrev^ 6 Kai e6av]ma(rev 6 

. 7 KO.I J 

aurcws CLTTO- 

Kat Trepifjyev TS /co^uas KVK\CO 
7rpocrKa\elTai TOVS SwSe/ca /ca* rj 
<TTe\\6iv Svo SJo, /ca* eS/Sof airrcus eov(riav TCOV 

iri(TTU> D 

6 edavnaaev KBE* vid 2? alP auc ] e0av/*af ACDLIIZ$ al min? 1 | 
(sed incredulitatem d) 7 Tpo07caXeiTcu...5vo 5uo] irpoaKc 

aireffTeiXev aurous ava /S D lat vt syr 8 " 1 | TWP TTV. row a/ca#.] pr /cara A 238 al aeth 
om Td)v bis CA 

of the imposition of hands in such 
cases, Me. v. 23, vii. 32, viii. 23, 25. 
These works of healing at Nazareth 
must, it would appear, have preceded 
the scene in the synagogue, which was 
immediately followed by the Lord s 
expulsion from the town (Lc. iv. 28 ff.) 

6. 0ai>] His wonder, as well 
as the limitation of His power, was 
real and not apparent only. Cf. Mt. 
viii. 10, where the Lord expresses 
wonder at a high degree of faith 
under conditions where faith was not 
to be expected. The surprises of life, 
especially those which belong to its 
ethical and spiritual side, created 
genuine astonishment in the human 
mind of Christ. Gav/za^eii/ is usually 
followed in the N.T. by Vt with dat. 
(Lc. iv. 22, xx. 26, Acts iii. 12), Trepl 
with gen. (Lc. ii. 18) or an ace. of the 
object (Lc. vii. 9, xxiv. 12, Acts vii. 31). 
Aia with ace. points to the cause of the 
sensation which the Lord experienced. 
Cf. WM., p. 497. 

ix, 35 x. i, x. 5 xi. i, Lc. ix. i 6). 

6 b. TTfpirjyev ras (CCO/MOS] Another 
circuit of the villages and towns (Mt. 
ras TroXeiff Tracras) of Galilee (cf. Me. 
i. 38 f.). Ku/Xa> does not limit the 
tour to the neighbourhood of Naza 
reth, but implies that, after passing 
from town to town, He came back 
to a point near that from which He 
started, i.e. the neighbourhood of the 
Lake ; see vi. 32. Aiao-/ecoi/ : Mt. 

adds ev rats crvvayaiyais aureui/, /cat 
KTjpvcror(0v...Ka.l OfpaiTcvtov. His work, 
as usual, included (i) Synagogue- 
teaching, (2) proclamation of the 
Kingdom in houses or by the road 
side, (3) incidental miracles of heal 
ing. Unbelief no longer prevented 
the manifestation of His power. For 
intr. with ace. loci cf. Mt. ix. 

35, xxii. 15. 

7. TrpooveaXelrai TOVS d(o8f<a] The 

Twelve are now a recognised body, 
who can be summoned as such at the 
pleasure of the Head, npoovc. implies 
authority, cf. Me. xv. 44, Lc. xv. 26. 
It is, however, characteristic of our 
Lord that His summons is by no 
means limited to disciples : cf. iii. 23, 
TrpofTK. avTovs, SC. TOVS ypafi^aTfls . vii. 
14, viii. 34, npoo-KaX. TOV o^Xo/. With 
TOVS dcodeica. cf. ol v8eKa Me. xvi. 14, 

OL e/SSo/iT/KOITCl SlIO (LC. X. 17), 01 CTTTO. 

(Acts xxi. 8). 

r/paro UVT. aTroo-re XXeii ] This Was 
the ultimate purpose of their selection 
(iii. 15, where see note). The time 
had now come for testing the results 
of their preparatory training. 

dvo dvo] As in LXX., Gen. vi. 19 f., 
vii. 2 f., 9, 1 5. Vg. binos, in pairs = ava 
dvo (cf. I) here), a Hebraism which 
Delitzsch renders DJ3^ DJJfj cf. WM., 
p. 312, Blass, Gr.j p. 145. On the 
purpose of this arrangement see 
Latham, Pastor p.,. p. 297 f. Thpht. 
cites Eccl. iv. 9, aya$ot 8vo vrrep TOV 

cva. Galilee was now evangelised in 
six different directions. The pairs 



[VI. 7 


pTcov. Ka 

6ov el JJLYI pd@$ov \JLOVOV, fmrj 
ek TYIV fyivnv %aAjcoi/, 9 aAAa 

Ta)V otKa 
9 apTOV, fJin Trripav, 

8 apwiv NCLA< 13 69 2** al** 110 | ^ aprov M ir^pav KBCLA 33 me aeth] w IT. 
/J.T) a. AIIS$ al minP 1 latt syrr arm /t^re TT. /iT/re a. D i?* a go 9 a\X EFGH 

KMAII alP 1 

were probably arranged as in the 
Apostolic lists, as Victor suggests. 

cov(Tiav KrA.] Cf. 111. 

: He was occupied in giving 
them their authority (imperf.), and 
while doing so, He charged them 
(aor.) etc. Egovo-ia is the note of the 
authorised servants, as it was that of 
the Master Himself, cf. i. 27, xiii. 34. 
Tcoi/ Trvv^a.T(t)v : gen. of the object, cf. 
Jo. xvii. 2, Rom. ix. 21, I Cor. ix. 12 ; 
other constructions are in use, as eiri 
with ace. (Lc. ix. i) or gen. (Apoc. ii. 
26, xiv. 1 8, xx. 6), firdvo) TWOS (Lc. xix. 
17) or Kara TWOS (Jo. xix. n). On TTV. 
aKadapTa see i. 23 note. 

Mt., Lc. extend the commission to 
the healing of diseases and the preach 
ing of the Kingdom. Both preaching 
and healing were in fact included, cf. 
Me. v. 12. 

8. 7rapjyyei\ev avTols Iva KrA.] "iva 
is used after TrapayyeXXco again in 
2 Thess. iii. 12; after irapaKa\<> it 
is frequent (i Cor. i. 10, xvi. 12, 15, 
2 Cor. vii. 6, xii. 8). In all these 
cases the telic use of Iva is in the 
background of the thought, but the 
sense is hardly distinguishable from 
that of the ordinary construction with 
the inf., or from a direct imperative ; 
cf. Lc. here (etVev. . .p,rj8ev eupere). Ely 

oSov, as a travelling outfit : Lc. more 
explicitly, els TTJV 686v, for this par 
ticular journey. For the anarthrous 
phrase cf. Me. x. 17, Lc. xi. 6. 

fl fir) pdftdov povov KrA.] Mt. (fJ.r)8e 

pdfidov) and Lc. (pyre p.) exclude 
even this an early exaggeration of 
the sternness of the command, for it 
is impossible to assent here to Augus 
tine s ruling (de cons. ev. ii. 75) 

"utrumque accipiendum est a Domino 
Apostolis dictum." The staff was the 
universal companion of the traveller, 
whatever else he might lack; see 
Gen. xxxii. 10 (ii), ev yap TTJ pd/35o> 
pov dif^rjv TOV lopddvrjv, and with 
the whole passage comp. Exod. xii. 
ii. Much forethought was ordinarily 
expended on a journey, cf. Tob. v. 17, 
and the delightful picture in Jos. ix. 
10 (4) ff. Mrj...ij.r)...}jLij carry on the 
construction wa /x^Sev aipaxriv (cf. Mt. 
Lc.). The order is ascensive : no 
bread, no bag to carry what they 
could buy, no money to buy with. 
This point is missed in Lc., and in 
the later text of Me. (cf. Vg. non 
peram non panem). Tlijpa is a leathern 
bag to carry provisions, cf. 4 Regn. iv. 
42 (cod. N, CompL), Judith x. 5, xiii. 
10, 15; Suidas : Trjpa ?) 0q<r) T&V 
apTo>v. The word is found from Homer 
downwards. On the significance of 
this direction cf. Victor : coo-re KOI 
diro TOV o~xijfj,aTo$ deiKvvvai TTCUTW vpas 

M?) fls TTJV <ovr)v %a\icov not a copper 
for your girdle/ Lc. /ur/re dpyvpiov nor 
a silver piece (shekel or drachma); 
Mt. /UT) KTr)(rr](r6e \pvcrov nrjde apyvpov 
p.ij8e xoAKoi/. The girdle served as a 
purse for small change (cf. the classical 
phrase els &VT)V didoo-Qcu), or, when 
secrecy was necessary, for consider 
able sums of money (Suet. Vitell. 
1 6, "zona se aureorum plena circum- 
dedit"), but on this occasion it was 
to be empty ; much less was the 
missioner to carry a pa\\di>Tiov (Lc. 

x.4). , 

9. aAAa inrodedffjLcvovs KrA.] A sud 
den break in the construction, sug 
gestive of the disjointed notes on 

VI. ID] 



arav^dXia Kai fjLr\ evfivcrao de $vo yi- 
Kai e\eyev CLVTOIS* OTTOV eav ei<T\6riTe ek 10 IT 

9 ev5v<ra<r0e B* 33 al** 110 ] evSwao-dai B 2 SII* al <-vdv<rr]<Td KACDAIF<I> al min? 1 a 
me go arm evdedva-eai LNS min mu 

which the Evangelist depended. The 
writer, forgetting that he has used 
iva, falls back upon the ordinary con 
struction of Trapayye XAo) with the inf. 
(oratio variata, WM., p. 724, Butt- 
mann, p. 330, Blass, Gr. p. 286; 
Bengel compares xii. 38, 6c\6vra>v 
irepiTraTfiv . . . KOI aa-naa-povs) , others 
with less probability regard vTroSe- 
8cp. [civai]...evdvcra(rdai (w. 1L) as 
1 infinitive imperatives, cf. Burton, 
365. If we read eVStWo-fle, an 
other change follows, from the oratio 
obliqua to the o. recta; see other 
N. T. exx. in WM., p. 725. For VTTO& 
<ravda\ia Mt. has /xr/Se vTroS^/zara (cf. 
Lc. x. 4). 2ai/SaXioi> and virodrjfjia are 
both used in the LXX. as equivalents 

of !?#3 (for o-avd. see Jos. ix. 1 1 (5), Isa. 
xx. 2, Judith x. 4, xvi. 9); in the 
N. T., aavd. occurs again only in Acts 

xii. 8; the form 71 JD is found in Rab 
binical writings (Schiirer n. L p. 
44 n.). The <ravSa\iov was in Greece 
part of the woman s attire (Becker, 
Char ides, p. 447), but in the East it 
appears to have been used by men 
also, esp. perhaps in travelling. There 
seems to be no warrant for distin 
guishing vavd. and v-rrodrjua: <rav8. 
may have been used here and in Acts 
1. c. (see Blass) in order to avoid 
writing vrroficSeVtfai vTro&T^ara. If SO, 
Me. is here again at issue with Mt. ; 
see note on v. 8 (ei py p. 

8vo xtro>iu] One 
Sufficed, cf. Jo. xix. 23, ra t/xana...6 
XiTvv. to possess two was a sign of 
comparative wealth, cf. Lc. iii. n. 
Two were however sometimes worn 
at the same time, esp. perhaps in 
travelling; see Joseph, ant. xvii. 5. 
7, rov evros xmSra, fWSeSvKfi yap dvo : 
ct Me. xiv. 63. It is the wearing of 

two on this journey which is pro 
hibited (w i/S.); Mt. and Lc. extend 
the prohibition to the possession of 
two (Mt. /ujjSe dvo x i vas > sc - KT7 7~ 
o-rjo-Qe: Lc. pfrf . %. fx ctv ^- 

On the general purpose of these 
directions see Latham, p. 290 ff. No 
hardship was suffered by the Apos 
tles in consequence (Lc. xxii. 35), while 
an important lesson was taught to 
the future Church : comp. Mt. x. 10 
with i Tim. v. 18. For the mystical 
interpretation see Origen in Jo. t. i. 
27 (25)- avros ecrnv rf odor, t rjv 
68ov ovdev eupeiv d(l...avTa.pK7]s yap eVrt 
iravros ffpo&iov avrrj T) odosl ib. t. vi. 

19; de princ. iv. 18; and cf. Bigg, 
Christian Platonists, p. I37f. 

IO. ACOI f\tycv avrols KrX.] The 
directions given above imply that 
the missionaries were to look for free 
entertainment. The Lord adds two 
general rules for their guidance in 
this matter: (i) during your visit to 
any town remain in the same house, 
(2) do not force yourselves on an un 
willing people or quit them without 
solemn warning. 

07TOU fCLV t(T\6r)Tf KT\.] The hoUSC 

was not to be chosen at haphazard, 
but by a careful selection of the fit 
test (Mt.) ; Jerome in Mt. ix., "apostoli 
novam introeuntes urbem scire non 
poterunt quis qualis esset. ergo 
hospes fama eligendus est populi et 
indicio vicinorum." Having made their 
choice, they were to be content with 
the fare it offered, and not to change 
their lodging unnecessarily (cf. Lc. x. 
7). St Paul seems to have followed 
this rule in his mission to the Gen 
tiles; see Acts xvi. 15, xvii. 57, 
xviii. 7 ; only during his captivity at 
Rome do we find him dwelling eV ZSt o> 
pio-6<op,aTi. Contrast the care with 


ii oiKiav, eKel Revere ecos av e^e\6rjT6 eKeWev. 


"/ecu os 


eicelQev eKTivctTe TOV xovv TOV VTTO- 




13 %e\66vTS 

ii os av TOTTOS w Sefrrai RBLA 13 28 69 124 346 gyr hcl ( m g> me aeth] os av /w/ 
5e. C* vid i 209 syr Bin oaoi eav w fefrvrai AC 2 DNII2I> al minP 1 latt B yrrP elhIld ( tJtt ) 
arm offoi ov fi-rj Sefavrai 1071 | om TOV vrroKaTw D 33 604 i^ latt (exc c) syr sin arm 
aeth | cturois] + afJLrjv \eyw vp.iv avexTorepov carat. 2o5o/iois tj Topoppois cv y/Aepa. /c/atcrews 
H rr) TroXet eKeivij ANH2> al min? 1 a f q syrr go aeth 12 eicrjpvfrv NBCDLA 

go -] fK-rjpvwov ANII2* al min forteomn latt | (jLeravowiv BDL me] 

NACAII^> al min forteomn jj.eTavor]<rov<nv NZ 

which the next age found it necessary 
to guard itself against an abuse of 
this privilege of the itinerant preach 
er; Didache II : Tras 6e aTroo-roAoj 

rpbs dex^ra) cop 
pevel de qpepav piav, lav Se 17 
icat rr\v aXXrjv rpels Se eav peivflj ^ev- 
doTrpcxfrJTTjs ecrriv KT\. 

II. 6s av TOTTOS p.?] 8er)Tai KrX.] 

The giving or withholding hospi 
tality in this case was not a per 
sonal matter; it was a visible sign 
of acceptance or rejection of the 
Master and the Father Who sent 
Him (Mt. x. 40, Lc. x. 16), and there 
fore an index of the relation in which 
the inhabitants as a whole stood to 
the eternal order. Mt. extends the 
principle to the case of the individual 
householder who refuses hospitality. 
For Se ^eo-tfai in the sense of hospit 
able or courteous reception comp. 
Acts xxi. 17, 2 Cor. vii. 15, Gal. iv. 14, 
Col. iv. 10, Heb. xi. 31. M^Se OK. 
v/xcSi/: nor will they even give you 
a hearing. 

fK.iropev6p.evoi eKeWev] I.e. e /c TOV TO- 
TTOV eKeivov. Mt. e o> rfjs OLKLUS r) rfjs 
TroXeojy cKfivrjs : see last note. E*- 
vdgarf TOV x ovv - Cf. Lc. X. II, cwrare 
Kal TOV KoviopTov (Mt. X. 14) TOV KO\- 
\rjdevTa ijfuv e/c TTJS TroXccos vfjuuv els 
TOVS Trodas aTTo/zacro-o/Lie^a, and Acts 

xiii. 51, where Paul and Barnabas 
are said to have acted upon this 

precept at Pisidian Antioch. The 
act was understood to be a formal 
disavowal of fellowship, and probably 
also an intimation that the offender 
had placed himself on the level of 
the Gentiles, for it is a Rabbinical 
doctrine that the dust of a Gentile 
land defiles. The Israelite who re 
jected the Messiah became as an 
eQviKos, cf. Mt. xviii. 17. The gar 
ments were sometimes shaken with 
the same purpose (Acts xviii. 6). 

els papTvpiov avTols] Cf. i. 44, 
xiii. 9. The action just prescribed 
was not to be performed in a con 
temptuous or vindictive spirit, but 
with a view to its moral effect: 
either it would lead to reflexion and 
possibly repentance, or at least it 
would justify God s future judgment 
(cf. Mt. x. 15, Lc. x. 12). The refer 
ence to Sodom and Gomorrah inserted 
by A and a few of the later uncials 
is from Mt. 

12. eKTfpv^av Iva fAeTavoaxriv] On 
this use of Iva. see note on Ttaprjyyeikev 

...iva (v. 8). Merai/oia was the theme 
of their preaching, /zerai>oeire its chief 
summons ; cf. i. 1 5, Lc. xxiv. 47, Acts 
xx. 21. Further, its aim and purpose 
were to produce repentance, and from 
this point of view Iva retains its telic 
force : cf. Vg. praedicabant ut paeni- 
tentiam agerent. The pres. /zerai/o- 
represents the repentance as a 


7ro\\d ete" ^^ 




JiKOv<rev 6 (3acri\evs 

ABLS$ al min? 1 latt] 

eX. IT. app. edep. Dbc(g)iqr | app. post e6. transp syr sin 
NIIS minP* 110 f 14 B.pwdtjs^ + rrjv aKorjv TV M 13 69 736 1071 alP auc 


(pavepov yap 14 syr hler 

app. K. 

state and not merely an act following 
upon the preaching. 

13. datpovia TroXXa eF/3aXXor ] They 
found themselves invested with the 
same authority over unclean spirits 
which had been the earliest note of 
the Master s mission (i. 23), and from 
time to time they exercised it (im- 
perf.). But they were not invariably 
successful (ix. 18); and when they 
succeeded, it was through a believing 
use of the Master s Name ( Me. xvi. 

17, Lc. ix. 49> 

rj\ei(pov e Xai o) TT. appwarous] Euth. : 


o~ida%6rivai TOVS dnoa-ToXovs. Oil was 
much used in medical treatment : cf. 
Lc. x. 34, Joseph. B. J. i. 33. 5. 
Galen (cited by J. B. Mayor) calls it 

apio-rov la/iarcoi/ iravrcav rols e^rjpafj.- 
pevois xai ai)^/uco6e(7t (rcofiaa-iv : Isaiah 
(i. 6) complains, OVK e<rrti> /LiaXay/xa 
f7ri6f1vai ovTf eXaiov OVTC KaTa.8ecrp.ovs. 

See also J. Lightfoot ad loc. and 
Schottgen on James v. 14. As used 
by the Apostles and followed by im 
mediate results, it was no more than 
a sign of healing power, but it served 
perhaps to differentiate their miracles 
from those performed by the Master, 
Who does not appear to have em 
ployed any symbol but His own hands 
or saliva. After His departure the 
Apostles and other disciples laid 
their hands upon the sick ( Me. xvi. 

1 8, Acts xxviii. 8, Iren. ii. 32. 4), but 
the use of oil held its place at least 
among Jewish Christians (James, I.e.}. 
Traces of a ritual use of the unction of 
the sick appear first among Gnostic 
practices of the second century (Iren. 
i 21. 5) ; on the later ecclesiastical 

rite see the authorities cited in D.C.A. 
ii. p. 2004 f. Victor remarks : o^/W^et 
ovv TO dXet<po/zei oi> f\aiov K.CU TO Trapa 


OTL yap 77 fv%rj TO TTCLV evijpyfi iravTi 
TTOV 77X01* TO 8e e\aiov coy ye oi/zat 

O"Up.f3o\OV TOVTWV V7TTJp)(. Bede fillds 

in this Apostolic practice a prece 
dent for the Western use of unction 
with which he was familiar: "unde 
patet ab ipsis apostolis hunc sanctae 
ecclesiae morem esse traditum ut 
energumeni vel alii quilibet aegroti 
ungantur oleo pontificali benedictione 

eKijpvav. . ,^ /SaXXoi/. . .rj\i(pov] The 
change of tense is perhaps intended 
to mark the incidental character of 
the miracles. The preaching is re 
garded as a whole, the miracles are 
mentioned as occurring from time to 
time during the course of the preach 
ing. The traditional text misses this 
point; cf. Vg. praedicdbant...eicie- 
bant. . . unguebant. , 



2, Lc. ix. 79). 

14. KOL TJKovo-t> 6 f3acri\evs C Hp.] 
Mt. adds rr)v aKor)v l^o-ou, Lc., TO yii/6- 
fjieva -jrdvra. Mt. distinctly connects 
this with the circuit of Galilee which 
began at Nazareth (xiv. i, iv CKCIVW 
r<5 Kaipoi). It was not so much the 
miracles at Capernaum, as the stir 
throughout the entire tetrarchy (Lc. TO. 
yivopfva navra) and the great diffusion 
of the movement caused by the mission 
of the Twelve, which attracted the at 
tention of Antipas. The court, even 
if located at Tiberias, could regard 



TO ovofjia avrov, Kai eXeyov OTL Itodvrjs 6 
v eyriyepTai EK veKputv, Kai Std TOVTO evep- 

14 c\eyov B (D -700-01 ) min**""?* 110 a b ff Aug cons ] eXe7cj KACLNAES al 
c f i q vg syrr me arm go eiirev rois -jraffiv avrov & \ o /Sa-n-rt^wj ] o /SctTrrtcrTTjs DS 13 28 
33 69 124 346 604 (baptista abcfiqvg) | eyyyepTai KBDLA 33 604] 777^ CNIP* 
2$ al aveaTTj AKII txt 

with indifference the preaching of a 
local prophet, so long as it was limited 
to the Jewish lake-side towns ; but 
when it was systematically carried into 
every part of the country, suspicion was 
aroused. O ftacriXevs = o TfTpadpxrjs 
(Mt. Lc.). Me. does not use the latter 
word, and Mt. falls back on ftao-iXevs 
in the course of his narrative (xiv. 9) ; 
cf. Acts iv. 26, 27, Justin, dial. 49 (6 
@ao-i\vs vp.uv Hpo>6V), Ev. Petr. I 
( c Hp. 6 fiao-tXevs), .Ev. NIC. prol. 
( HpeoSou j3ao~i\e(i)s TT/S FaXiXcuas). 
Victor . 6 de Map/toy Kai erepoi de Tives 
d8ia(p6pa>s Kai /SatrtXe a KaXovo-iv elVf 


aSeeorepov ert TTJ (pavfj Ke^p^jtie j/ot. A 
tetrarch was in fact a petty king, and 
may have been called /3ao-tXevs as an act 
of courtesy: he possessed a jurisdiction 
with which the Imperial authorities 
were ordinarily reluctant to interfere 
(Lc. xxiii. 7). Yet an attempt to 
claim the title from Caligula led to 
the downfall of Antipas : Joseph, ant. 
xviii. 7. 2. On the life and character 
of Antipas see Schiirer i. ii. 17 ff. 

(fravepbv yap KrX.] Notoriety was 
inevitable, although it was not desired; 
cf. iii. 12, vii. 24. Bengel : " lesus 
prius non innotuit...sero aula accipit 
novellas spirituales." What especially 
arrested Herod s attention was the 
common report (eXeyoi/ : see w. 11. 
and cf. Field, Notes, p. 28) that the 
new prophet was a resuscitated John. 
As Elijah was thought to have re 
appeared in John, so John had re 
turned to life in his successor. 
Origen (in Jo. t. vi. 30) suggests that 
the Baptist and our Lord were so like 
in personal appearance wore 8ia TO 

KOIVOV TTJS /J,0p<prjs itodwrjV T XptO"TOI> 

6-vvrjv : cf. however his remarks in Mt. 
t. x. 20. For o Panrifav see i. 4. 
EyT/yeprat, has risen and is there 
fore alive and amongst us again : cf. 

1 Cor. xv. 20. Hycpdrj (Mt. Lc., and 
below, v. 1 6) is scarcely distinguish 
able in a translation (cf. xvi. 6, and see 
Burton, 52 f.), but the perf. concerns 
itself less with the historical fact and 
more with the result. 

dia TOVTO fvepyovo-iv al vi>. fv avroJ] 
In life John did no miracle (Jo. x. 41), 
but John risen from the dead might 
well be supposed to have brought with 
him new and supernatural powers (e< 
TTJS dvao-Tao-ews 7rpoo-e Xa/3e TO 6avfj.aT- 
ovpyelv, Thpht), or, as Origen (in Mt. t. 
x. 20) suggests, the same powers turned 
into a new channel : aero 6 

Tas fv itodvvr] ev p.V r<a 
fvr]pyr]Kvai TO. TOV /3a7rn cr/iaro9 Kai TTJS 
8ioao"Ka\ias...V de r< l^croO ray repa- 
CTTIOVS dvvdfj.fis. Ei/epyoGcrii/, Vg. in- 
operantur, are operative/ intrans., 
as in Gal. ii. 8, Eph. ii. 2, PhiL ii 13 
(ro evepyeiv) I cf. Sap. XV. II, ^VXTJV 
Vpyovo~av. More usually evepyelv is 

followed by an ace. of the thing 
effected, cf. i Cor. xii. 6, ii, Gal. iii. 5, 

Eph. i. II, 20, while evepyflcrtiai is 

used intransitively, e.g. Rom. vii. 5, 

2 Cor. i. 6, Eph. iii. 20, Col. i. 29 ; for 
a further distinction noticed in St 
Paul see Lightfoot on Gal. v. 6. On 
the construction eWpy. tv TIVI see 
Lightfoot on Gal. ii. 8, and for other 
instances cf. Eph. i. 20, ii. 2, i Thess. 
ii. 13. At dwdfjLis, the miraculous 
powers of which report spoke ; for 
dvvafjus in this sense see i Cor. xii. 10, 
28, Gal. iii. 5 (Lightfoot) more usually, 
the miraculous acts which the powers 





iv avTip I5 a\\oi Se e\e<yov OTL 15 

a\\oi Se 

TTpofyrjTcov. l6 a/cot/o"a9 Se 6 HpcoSrjs eXeyev *Ov 1 6 
<yu> d7T6Ke(f)dXi(ra Iwdvriv, OVTOS qyepdrj. 

yap 6 HpwSrjs dTrovTeiXas 6KpaTrj<rv 17 

15 om 5e i FMUV syr hcl arm | om irpo<j>. ws Dbcffi TT/>. t\ ws A<1> i 
arm irp. effriv ws AC 2 II al mini 11 a f q vg go | ws eis row 7r/>o0.] om a ris TUP 
avearrj 33 16 eXe7e ] enrey ADII | OITOS IwawTj? rjyepd-rj K* oirros I. ai/ros yyepdr) fc\* 
oirros CAC vexpuv fjyepdr) D OUTOS earo* avros ^7. e/f veicpwv AH (2)$ al minP 1 b q go 
S y r hci arm 0< 6i a> ^ e a?ro raj ^ y> ON alP* uc O^ + ort AC AH me go 17 avroj 70/9 o] 
o yap K c - a L me go 

effect (vi. 2, Acts xix. n, 2 Cor. 
xii. 12). 

15. aXXoi 5e eXeyoi/ K rX.] While all 
were agreed as to the wonder-working 
power of Jesus, opinions differed as to 
His personality. Those who saw the ab 
surdity of identifying Him with John, 
took Him for Elijah, with whom John 
had refused to be identified (Jo. i. 
21). This opinion was perhaps widely 
spread in Galilee, where no suspicion 
seems to have been as yet entertained 
of His Messiahship. If Elijah must 
come before Messiah (ix. n), why 
should not this be Elijah? Cf. viii. 
28, and note on ix. n. Others again 
were content to say that Jesus was a 
prophet of the highest order, the equal 
of the Prophets of the 0. T. canon (ot 
irpo^rai, Tob. xiv. 4 (X), 5, Acts iii. 
21, 24 f.). Qs els ra>v irpo<f)r)Ta)v : cf. 
Jud. xvi. 7, 1 1 (codd. B A), CO-O/MU ok 
fls TI> dvQpwTrav, on a par with other 
men (D^H 1I1N3). In Lc. this belief 
takes another form : Trpo^rrjs ns TWV 
dpxaiav dvea-nj (cf. Sir. xlix. IO (12)) 
the name of Jeremiah was especi 
ally connected in the popular expec 
tation (Mt. xvi 14) with the hope of 
a revival of the prophetic order. This 
hope, which seems to have been based 
on Deut. xviii. 15, appears in the 
Maccabean age (i Mace. iv. 46, xiv. 
41), and was revived by the appear 
ance of the Baptist (Jo. i. 21). Jesus 
Himself claimed to be a Prophet (see 
note on v. 4). 

1 6. aKOvaas 5e o HpeoSr;? KrX.] 

A/covo-ay takes up the thread which 
had been dropped in v. 14, where 
instead of continuing /cat *\eyv *Ov 
KrX., the Evangelist goes off into 
the parenthesis fyavtpov ydp...Trpo<pr]- 
TOJI/. Herod was at first in doubt 
which of these conjectures to accept 
(Lc., SirjTTopfi), but finally decided in 
favour of the first. His conscience 
turned the scale in its favour. Lc. re 
presents him as still sceptical ^IvdvTjv 
e yoj a7reKe<aXra ris de ccrriv OVTOS ;} ; 
in Me. fear has changed a reasonable 
doubt into credulity : * I put John to 
death, and now he has risen to con 
demn me. This conviction is the 
more remarkable since Herod s frank 
worldliness probably predisposed him 
to Sadducean views (comp. Mt. xvi. 
1 1 with Me. viii. 1 5). Euth. : o <povevo-as 
(po/Selrat TOV irf)OVVfMfVOv* TOIOVTOS 
yap 6 KUKOS. For the construction 
ov... lo>dvr)v OVTOS see WM., p. 205: 
for the late verb dTroKecpaXifa cf. Ps. 
cli. 7 : Kennedy, Sources, p. 130. 
*Hyfp6r) : has risen (as a fact) : see 
note on v. 14. 

On the treatment of this verse in 
the Eusebian canons see Nestle, Text. 
Grit. p. 263 f. 

3 12; cf. Lc. iii 19 20). 

17. avros yap KrX.] Me. is here 
much fuller than Mt., while Lc. gives 
but a bare summary of the causes of 



TOV Icodvrjv Kai e&r}<rev CLVTOV ev <pv\aK^ Sta f 



ott/rou, OTI 

17 KCU e5. avrov ev ^uXaio?] ev <f>v\. KCLI e5. avTov A | ev <t>v\aKtj (ev Tt\ <f>. S" 
jniupaucvid)-] Kal f p a \ ev ls <f)v\aKr)v D 13 28 69 124 346 604 abf ff i syr hiercd arm | om 
TTJV yvvaiKa B* (hab B 1118 ) 

topography see G. A. Smith, //. G. 
p. 569 f., Schiirer i. ii. p. 250 f. n., 
Neubauer, G. du T. p. 40, Tristram, 
Land of Moab, p. 253 ff. Machaerus 
(-WDD, M khawr) overlooked the 
Dead Sea, perched on the wild heights 
opposite to the wilderness of Judaea 
(i. 4) ; the tragedy of the Baptist s 
death was enacted within view of the 
scene of his early work. The citadel 
stood on the summit of a cone, a 
small but almost impregnable circular 
keep, within which Tristram noticed 
two dungeons with " small holes still 
visible in the masonry where staples 
of wood and iron had once been 

dia Hpo)8ta5a TYJV yvvaiKa ^iXimrov] 
Her first husband was not Philip the 
tetrarch (Lc. iii. i, cf. Me. viii. 27), 
but another half-brother of Antipas, 
son of Herod the Great by Mariamne 
daughter of Simon. Joseph, ant. 
xviii. 5- 4> HpwStay Se avTwv 77 dde\(pr) 
yiveTai Hpwfii; Hpop Sov TOV p.eya\ov 
TTCttfil yeyovoTi etc. MapiapyiT?? TTJS TOV 

the imprisonment. Certain coinci 
dences (comp. vv. 17, 22, 23, 26, 28, 
29 with Mt. xiv. 3, 6, 8, 9, 21, 22) 
point to the dependence of Mt. and 
Me. on a common source which Mt. s 
sense of the secondary importance of 
the narrative has perhaps led him to 
abbreviate. A.VTOS answers to the 
emphatic eye* of v. 16 : the first step 
at least had been taken by Herod 
himself, who had sent (to Aenon ? cf. 
Jo. iii. 23; on the position see Tris 
tram, Bible Places, p. 234) to have 
John arrested. For this sense of 
Kparelv see xii. 12, xiv. i ff. The 
events can be placed with some pre 
cision. John was still baptizing 
during the Lord s early ministry in 
Judaea, after the first Passover (Jo. 
iii. 23 f.). But before Jesus left 
Judaea (Mt. iv. 12), certainly before 
He began His ministry in Galilee 
(Me. i. 14), the Baptist was already 
a prisoner. On the other hand his 
death had not long preceded the 
report of the new Prophet s successes. 
He was alive for some time after the 
beginning of the Galilean ministry 
(Mt. xi. 2 fi 7 ., Lc. vii. 18), and the tidings 
of the murder of the Baptist seem to 
have brought the recent circuit to an 
end (Mt. xiv. 12, 13). Hence, while the 
narrative of Me. vi. 17, 18 carries us 
back to the interval which follows 
i. 13, Me. vi. 21 29 is but slightly 
out of its chronological order. Ei/ 
(frvXaKTJ : cf. ev Trj (pvXaKy (v. 28) and 
ev TO) 8eoyzcoT77pia> (Mt. xi. 2). Josephus 
ant. xviii. 5. 2 gives the locality of 
the imprisonment : 6 p,ev viro-^ia rfj 
Hpcpdov deo-pios els TOV Ma^aipovvra 
7rep.(p6els TO Trpoeiprj^evov (ppovpiov 
TavTrj KTivvvrai. For a description of 
this formidable fortress see B. J. vii. 
6. i, and for the local history and 

yiveTai /ze0 77? TO.S yovas 
... Hp<u?7 (sc. raj Ai/riVa) -ya/zeirai, TOV 
dvftpos TOO o/to7rarpu dSeX<pa> Stacrracra 
O>VTOS. From the Gospels it appears 
that this Herod also bore the name 
of Philip, and it is arbitrary to assume 
with Holtzmann that this is an error. 
Herodias herself was a granddaughter 
of Herod the Great (child of Aristo- 
bulus, Herod s son by the other 
Mariamne), and therefore niece to 
both Philip her first husband and 

on avTTjv eya^rjo-ev] Tap-elv is used 

here in its proper sense =uxorem 
ducere: for yafjLelv=nubere see x. 12, 
i Cor. vii. 28, 34. Antipas so far 
yielded to public opinion as to divorce 


a\)TY\v e r ydfjir]<T.v ^eXeyev yap 6 Icoavqs TCO *Hpu>$ti 18 
OTI OVK e^ecTTiV croi e^eti/ TY\V yvvaiKa TOV d$eX<pov 
(TOV. I9 t) Se *Hpto$ids evel-^ev avTw Kai fiQeXev avTov 19 

Kai OVK 


d yap HpwSrjs e<po- 20 

19 rj6e\v] er)Ti C* abcdiq j aTro/cretvai] 

his first wife before he married He 
rodias. She was a daughter of Aretas 
the Nabathaean king of Petra, and 
her father subsequently severely chas 
tised Antipas for his faithlessness 
(Joseph, ant. xviii. 5. i). 

1 8. e\eyev yap 6 Icoai/iysj John 
was, like Elijah, no frequenter of courts 
(Mt. xi. 8), and the message was per 
haps sent by his disciples (cf. Mt. xi. 2) ; 
see on the other hand v. 20, which 
implies some personal intercourse be 
tween Antipas and John. That the 
Baptist should have visited the court 
at Tiberias is inconceivable, but he 
might have shewn himself more 
than once at times when Herod was 
at Machaerus (cf. i Kings xvii. i, 
xviii. i flf., xxi. 17 f, 2 Kings i. 15). 

OVK egeoriv *rX.] In Mt. the de 
nunciation is general (OVK e. o-ot e xeiv 
a\>Tr]v} Me. adds the principal ground 
on which the union is attacked. An 
tipas as a Jew was under the law of 
Lev. xviii. 16. John s conduct is a 
notable instance of "boldness in re 
buking vice" (1549 Collect for St J. 
Baptist s day). 

19. T/ de HpwStas ev(lx fv avTtp\ 
Herod silenced the Baptist by send 
ing him down to the dungeons, and 
dismissed the matter from his mind. 
Not so Herodias ; her resentment 
could be satisfied only by the Bap 
tist s death. Evel^ei/, Vg. insididba- 
tur. Wyclifle, "leide aspies to him"; 
Tindale, "layd wayte for him"; R.V., 
" set herself against him." For this 
intrans. use of eVe^eii/ cf. Gen. xlix. 
23, evflx ov avT< ? O^PP ^n, Anibr. in- 
tendebant in eum, Lyons Pent, insi- 
diati sunt ei) Kvpioi ro^ev/zarcoj/ (see 

Field, Notes, p. 28 f.) : Lc. xi. 53, 
Seii/<5s fvcxfiv, Vg. graviter insistere. 
The grammarians suggest an ellipsis 
of xoAov (Blass, Gr. p. 182, cf. WM., 
p. 742; cf. Herod, i. 118, vi. 119, 
viii. 27). Hesychius gives the general 

sense *. eW^ei pvr)o~iKaKel. Dr Plum- 

mer (J. Th. St., i, p. 619) compares 
the English provincialism to have 
it in with (or for ) a man, i.e. to 
be on bad terms or have a quarrel 
with him. AVTO> may be regarded 
as the dat. incommodi (WM., p. 265). 
*H0e\cv...Kal OVK rjdvvaTo the power 
was wanting, not the will. The im 
perfects indicate the normal attitude 
of Herodias toward the Baptist. 

2O. o yap HpojSqy e 0o/3f tro TOV lom- 

vrjv] The tradition in Mt. is strangely 

different : B\O>V avrov drroKTelvai, e(f)o~ 
Pr)0T] TOV OX\QV OTI coy Trpo$r]TT]V O.VTOV 

ftX^v. The end of this sentence oc 
curs again with unimportant varia 
tions in Mt. xxi. 26, and is perhaps a 
reminiscence of that context. Mc. s 
account has the ring of real life : 
Herod was awed by the purity of 
John s character, feared him as the 
bad fear the good (Bengel: "vene- 
rabilem facit sanctitas...argumentum 
verae religionis timor malorum"). The 
attitude of Ahab towards Elijah is 
remarkably similar ; it is Jezebel, not 
Ahab, who plots Elijah s death (i 
Kings xix. 2). "Avdpa dincuov Kai ayiov, 
blameless in his relations to his fellow- 
men and to GOD. The order is ascen- 
sive, as in Apoe. xxii. 1 1 ; for ayios K. 
see Acts iii. 14, Rom. vii. 12. 
is also coupled with 60-16- 
TTJS (Sap. ix. 3, Lc. i 75, Eph. iv. 24) 
and evo-cfieia (i Tim vi. n, Tit. ii. 12). 




<rvvTiipei avrov 9 Kai 

avrov 7ro\\a 

21 qTTOpei, Kai rjdeoos avrov faovev. 
r rijjiepas evKaipov, OT HpwSrj 

3I fcou 


eTrorjo ev TO?? fJieyuTTcriv avTOV Kai TO?S 

20 y-rropei KBL me] eTrotet ACDNAIIS<J> al min forteomn latt syrr arm go al ( 
13 28 69 346 556 (b) (c) (vg codd )) 21 yeveaiois] yevedXiois D a (-^Xtois D*) 
KBCDLA 13 28 69 124] eTroiet AIIS< al min? 1 

On etSa)? see i. 24 note. 

diKaiov Kai ayiov = ei. on St/caio? 771^ Kai 
ay toy. 

*cai crvveTTjpet avrov] protected him, 

Vg. custodiebat eum, Wycliffe, "kepte 
him," Tindale, Cranmer, Geneva, "gave 
him reverence," A. V. "observed him": 
R.V. "kept him safely" ("contra 
Herodiadem," Bengel). SvvrrjpeZi/, 
which belongs to the later Greek, is 
common in the Apocr. (Tob. 2 Sir. 14 i, 
2 Mace. 11 ), and occurs also in Prov.W, 
Ezek.* 1 ), and Dan. (Lxx. 4 Th. 2 ), meaning 
i to keep (e.g. rov v6fj,ov, ras eVroXas), 
or preserve (e.g. Sir. xvii. 22, ^apii/ 
. . . CM Koprjv ffvvrrjpifo-ei). Of the former 
meaning there is an example in 
Lc. ii. 19 ; the latter is illustrated 
by Mt. ix. 17, and is clearly required 
here. Possibly under the circum 
stances Antipas regarded imprison 
ment as the best safeguard. From 
time to time during his visits to Ma- 
chaerus he had the Baptist brought 
up from the dungeon, and gave him 
audience. These repeated inter 
views (iinperf.) pleased Antipas (jJoVoo? 
rJKovev, cf. Lc. xxiii. 8) at the time, 
bracing his jaded mind as with a 
whiff of desert air. At the same 
time they perplexed him (i^n-opei), 
leaving behind a tangle of confused 
thoughts and purposes which led to 
no definite course of action. This 
psychological picture the portrait of 
a dtyvxos avf]p (Bruce) is one of great 
interest for the Christian teacher and 
the student of human nature. For 
Tj-oXXci used adverbially see i. 45, iii. 12, 
v. ip, 43 ; and for the reading TroXXd 
fnoiei (Vg. multa faciebat] see WH., 
Notes, p. 25; Field, Notes, p. 29 f.; 

Nestle, Text. Crit., p. 264. 

is less usual than oVopeio-tfai, but see 

Sap. xi. 5, 17, and Lc. ix. 7 (StT/Tro pfi)- 

21. yfvop.evr)5 ^/J.epas ev/caipovj Vg. 

cum dies oportunus accidisset. He- 
rodias found her opportunity (cf. 

2 MaCC. xiv. 29, cvKaipov cTr/pfi, Mt. 

xxvi. 16, e lqrct evKdipiav: the adjective 
occurs again in Heb. iv. 16, els evKaipov 
/3o7/0etai/). It was supplied by the 
birthday of Antipas : cf. Gen. xL 20 ff. 
In Attic Gk. ra -yei/eVia is used of 
commemorations of the dead, the 
birthday feast of a living man being 
ra yev46\ia Or 77 yevfBXios ypepa 
(2 Mace. vi. 7); see Lob. Phryn. 
p. 103, Rutherford, N. Phr., p. 184. 
But the later Gk. neglects or even 
reverses this distinction ; cf. Polyc. 
TflCLTt. 1 8, eVireXeTv TTJV rov /xaprvpiov 
avrov rinepav yeveOXiov (see Suicer S.V. 
yevfdXios) ; Joseph, ant. xii. 4. 7, eop- 
ra^bi/res TTJV yeve&iov ^p.epav. An effort 
has been made in the interests of a 
particular scheme of chronology to 
interpret ra ycveaia as the day of 
Herod s accession (Wieseler, syn. p. 
266 ff.) ; on this see Schiirer i. ii. 
p. 26 n. 

rots fMeyto-Tao-iv KT\.] Vg. prindpi- 
bus et tribunis et primis Galilaeae. 
Meyio-rai/es (/xeyioTai/), freq. in the 
later books of the LXX., esp. i Esdr., 
Sir., Jer., Dan., in the N. T. used 
again Apoc. vi. 15, xviii. 23 ; cf. 
Joseph, ant. XL 3. 2, vit. 23, 31; a 
word of the later Gk. (Lob. Phryn. 
p. 147, Sturz, de dial. Mac., p. 182) : 
the Vg. equivalent is usually mag 
nates, but the Gk. word was taken 
over by later writers under the Em 
pire (Tac., Suet.). Cf. Dan. v. i (Th.), 



Kai TOM TTpwTOis Tfjs ra\i\aias, 2 *Kai 22 
ei(re\6ovcrris Trjs OwyaTpos avTrjs Trjs HptaSiafios Kai 
rjpecrev TW HpwSri Kai TO?? crvvava- 
6 3e /3acri\evs elirev TW Kopacriw AtTrja dv 
Kai SoJcro) cror^ * z Kat co/mocrei/ 

IUL b eav 



(rot ecos 

22 avnjs TV H/>. ACNrnZ* al m in fereomn lat^? 1 vg syr hcl (TTJS Up. i 118 209 b of 
sh arm me go a eth)] avrov Hp. KBDLA 2? 238 | rjpeaev KBC*L 33 c ff me 
arm] Kai apeo-aa-ys AC 3 DNmZ<l> al min? 1 a b f i q vg go | airyaat S (N) | o 0eXets D 

m j n pauc (l a tt) o eav 0eXets N om syr sin | /cat 5axra> (rot o eav 6. KIT* /c. 5. <r. 
/Saa. /iou syr 8in 23 co/ioo-ei ] ufj.o\<ryr)<rev F | ai;T77] + 7roXXa D 2^ 604 lat vt 
o/)Acou (om OTI...TTJS pa<r. /J.QV) syr sin | ort eaf BA 124 a^" ] ort o ec 
minP 1 latt ei n av D | om jj,e HL 13 69 al?* 110 b c q vg me | airT/o-T; N | ews 
e. Tjyiitcreos II 2 e. yiMaov K e. r]fj.iffv LNAS Kai TO T/JUKTU D Kay ro 77/11. 2 1 * 6 


24> al 

6 ftacriXevs CTroirjo ev bciirvov /zc ya rois 
fifytcTTao iv O.VTOV (LXX. roiff eTaipois 
avrov) = ljbyjpk The 
(Jo. xviii. 12, Acts xxi. xxv. 
^ w; see Blass on Acts xxi. 31) was 
properly the tribunus militum, who 
commanded a Roman cohort ; here 
he is doubtless the corresponding 
officer in the army of the tetrarch. 
As the nyi(rravs were the highest 
civil dignitaries, so the ^iXiap^oi were 
the chief military officers of Galilee 
and Peraea (cf. Apoc. vi. 15, ol /3ao-i- 
Xeiy rfjs yfjs <al ol peyio-raves KOI ol 
xikiapxoi). With these were invited 
the leading provincials, 01 7rpc5rot TTJS 
TaX., cf. ot Trpooroi TOV \aov, rfjs TTO- 
Xecos, rfjs vjfrov, T&V *Iovdaui> (Lc. 
xix. 47, Acts xiii. 50, xxv. 2, xxviii. 7, 

17), TO>V <frapio~a.ia)Vy rwv IfpocroXvfjLtToJv 

(Joseph, mt. 5, 7). The three classes 
are distinguished by the repetition of 
the article : cf. WM., p. 160. 

22. io-e\6ovo-r]s...Kal 6px r ]O a/jivrjs^ 
Antipas, true to the Greek tastes of 
his family, permits licentious dancing 
after the dflnvov (see reff. in Wetstein 
on Mt. xiv. 6), and the principal op- 
Xnorpis is the daughter of Herodias. 
Notwithstanding the weighty docu 
mentary evidence by which it is sup 
ported, the reading T^S 0vy. avrov 

(WH.), which represents 
the girl as bearing her mother s name 
and as the daughter of Antipas, can 
scarcely be anything but an error, 
even if a primitive one ; her name 
was Salome and she was the grand- 
niece, not the daughter of Antipas 
(see note to v. 17, and cf. Justin, dial. 
49, rf/s fa8f\<pr)s avrov TOV Hpwdov). 
AVTT)S TTJS Hp. yields an excellent 
sense, emphasising the fact that for 
the sake of gratifying her resentment 
this haughty woman, the daughter of 
a king and wife of a tetrarch, sub 
mitted her child to a degradation 
usually limited to eVatpcu. 

ilpearev T<U HpwS?? : the man who, in 
another mood, had found pleasure in 
the preaching of John (v. 20). Oi o-w- 
avaKCLUfvoi, his guests : cf. 3 Mace. v. 
39, Lc. vii. 49> xiv - I0 > IS- 

6 de (3ao~i\vs] See note on v. 14. 

T<a Kopcuricp : Cf. V. 41, 42. For KO- 

pao-iov used of a girl of marriageable 

age cf. Esth. ii. 9, ijpca-ev avroi ro KO- 

pdo-iov and see Kennedy, Sources, p. 
1 54. Salome was afterwards married 
to Philip the tetrarch, and after his 
death to another member of the 
Herod family (Joseph, ant. xviii. 5. 4). 

22, 23. aiTT/o-oV /ie o eai> 0e\rjs KrX.] 

Esther is still in the writer s mind; 



z4 Kat 


24 (3acri\eias JULOV. 

avTrjs Ti arrrfcrco/zat ; 1] Se eiTrev Trjv K6<pa\riv Iwdvov 

25 TOV (3a7rTi(^ovTO?. * 5 Kai el(re\6ov(ra evdvs /meTci 

Os TOV /3ao"L\a ffTtfiFaTO Xeyofcra 0e\ft> 
eV* irivcua TY\V K(f>a\r}v Icodvov 


24 77 5e eeX0. ACDrilabf syrr go ) avniffufuu KABCDGLNAS 28 33 124 346 
am7<royi4(u EFHKMSUVriI<i> minP 1 j rov ftairri^Tos KBLA 28 syr hcl go] TOU 
ACDNriI2<i> al min fereomn latt al 25 om ei/0us DL minP auc a b c i 1 q 

me | om pera o-Trovdrjs D a b C i q syr 8 * 11 | yrrjffaTo \eyovcra] enrev DA i 28 al 1 * 110 a b ff 
vg syrr" 11 ? 6811 arm | om 0eXw tva D 2? a bff iq | ^eXw tj/a...5ws] 5os D | om 
D minP auc c f go 

cf. Esth. V. 3 f., *cai eiTTfV 6 fiao-tXevs Ti 
6e\is, Eo-$r?p ; . . . ecos TOV qpio-ovs TIJS 
^Saa-tXeias fnov, Kal eVrat o-ot (A adds, 
V. 6, ri TO aiTTjjua crov Kal Sodijo-eTai croi). 
For atTeiv Tiva TI see WM., p. 284, 
and for ^io-ovs = fato-eos, Lob. Phryn. 
p. 347 ; cf. Blass, Gr., p. 27. ""Q/zo- 
o-ei/ avTrj : Mt. fzera op/cov (op.o\6yrj(TV 
avTy, cf. Heb. vi. 16. 

24. ^f\6ovo-a elrrV...Ti alT^o~o)pai ;] 
Leaving the banqueting room when 
her part was finished, Salome joins 
her mother in the women s apart 
ments and enquires eagerly What am 
I to ask for myself? With aiV^o-co/Mat 
(delib. conj., WM., p. 356, Burton, 
1 68 f.) comp. Herod s ainja-ov, atrT;- 
o-ys : in the girl s mind the uppermost 
thought is her own advantage. See 
James iv. 2, i Jo. v. 14, 15, with 
Mayor s and Westcott s notes; and 
cf. Blass, Gr., p. 186. The answer 
of Herod ias is ready: *the head of 
John. Thus, as Mt. says, in the out 
rage that followed the daughter was 

irpoftifiaa-Bflo-a VTTO TTJS fJ.T)Tpbs avTfjs 

not an uncommon feature in the 
history of crime. The unfortunate use 
of this incident by Chrysostom in his 
quarrel with the Empress Eudoxia is 
familiar to students of Church History 
(Socr. H. E. vi. 18). ToC /3a7rr/oi>ros, 
Vg. baptistae; see on v. 14, and cf. 

TOV /3a7rrrroC, V. 2$. 

25. eicreX^oCcra evOvs pfra o~7rov$fjs~^ 
The girl seems to have entered at 

once into the spirit of her mother s 
thirst for revenge, whether because 
she shared Herodias s aversion fo 
the stern preacher, or rejoiced in the 
opportunity of shewing the power she 
had gained over her stepfather. Mera 
<T7rovdris, Exod. xii. n, Ps. Ixxvii. 
(Ixxviii.) 33, Sap. xix. 2, Ezech.vii. n, 
Sus. 50 (74), 3 Mace. v. 24, Lc. i. 39 ; 
other phrases in LXX. and N. T. are 
ev o-7rov8fi, Kara o-Trovo rjv, eirl (nrovSfjs. 
ee Xco Iva (WM., p. 422 f.) occurs again 
in x. 35, Jo. xvii. 24 ; the conjunction 
is often dropped (x. 36, 51, xiv. 12, 
xv. 9, al.), the subjunctive being in 
such cases perhaps simply delibera 
tive ; see Burton, 171. E|aur^s-, 
i.e. e| avTfjs TTJS d>paff, at once, here 
and now ; elsewhere limited within 
the N.T. to Acts( 4 ) PauK 1 ), a word of 
the later Gk., see Lob. Phryn. 47; 
Wetstein ad loc. cites exx. of its use 
in Philo, Josephus and Polybius. This 
demand for the immediate delivery of 
the head seems to locate the banquet 
at Machaerus ; cf. Mt. code a suppo 
sition surely not excluded by the pre 
sence of the Trpeoroi TT^S FaXeiXaiaj. 
Herod the Great had built a large 
and splendid palace at Machaerus 
(Joseph. B. J. vii. 6. 2, cf. Schiirer 
i. ii. 27 n., Hastings, D. B. iii. p. 196 ). 
ETTI TTCVCIKI, Vg. disco : the word is 
used in the same sense in Lc. xi. 39, 


for other meanings cf. 4 Mace. xvii. 7, 

VI. 28] 



6 /3a<ri- 26 

Aei)s Sid roi/9 opKOvs Kai roi)s dvaiteifjievovs OVK q6e- 

d6Trj<rai avTtfV ^ K.CLL evdvs aTrocrre/Aas 6 27 


ev Trj (j)v\aKrj Kai 

Kai 6$coK6v ovTYiv TCO KOpacritt), Kai TO Kopdcriov 


1 5 /SttTTTtcrTov] (3aTTTioVTOS L 16 o fiaffiXevs] + a>s TjKovcrev D c ff i | 

BC*LA 42] ffwavaK. KAC 2 DNmS<l al min fereomn | T/^eXei/ II* i 209 1071 27 om 

evdvs c flf i vg syr 8in | om o jSao-iXeus D i 28 604 al pauo latt syr sinhier | (TTre/couXarw/ja T 
m i n8 atmu i V y Kal NBCA] evexdrjvai ADLNriIS^> j avroi;] + e7rt Trti/a/ct C A minP auc c g vg 
28 /cat i] o 5e ADFII al | om avryv i LA i b e q syrP 6811 arm 

Lc. i. 63 (nivaKtSiov). The banquet 
suggested the use of a plate, but this 
piece of grim irony was due, it may 
be hoped, to the older woman (cf. Mt. 
xiv. 8 ; Justin, dial. Lc.}. 

26. TrepiXviros yevopevos o /3.] The 
sense of rrepiXviros is well illustrated 
by the following passages where it 
occurs : Gen. iv. 6, i Esdr. viii. 71 
((Tvvvovs KOI TT.), 72, Dan. ii. 12 (o-rvyvos 
Kai TT., LXX.), Lc. xviii. 23. Mt. has 
merely \virr)0eis. Herod s grief was 
genuine, if shallow : it is unnecessary 
to suppose that he was dissembling 
(Jerome, "iustitiam praeferebat in fa 
cie, quum laetitiam haberet in mente"). 
Ata TOVS opicovs : for the pi. see 2 Mace, 
iv. 34, vii. 24. Thpht., edei 8e einop- 
Kri<rat...ov Travraxov yap TO evopKclv 
/caXoi/. Jerome asks, "Si patris, si 
matris postulasset interitum, facturus 
fuerat an non?" OVK rjdeXrja-ev ddc- 
rrio-ai avrrjv, would not break faith 
with her, set aside her claims, "dis 
appoint her" (Field): cf. Lc. x. 16, 
i Th. iv. 8; the word is more com 
monly used of things than of persons, 
e.g. aOfTelv TTJV evroXriv (Me. vii. 9), 

TT)i> x<*P lv (Gal ii. 21), diaOr/Kriv (GaL 
iii. 15), Tria-Tiv (i Tim. v. 12), op/ao>toi/ 
(i Mace. vi. 62). For the sense to 
break faith cf. Ps. xiv. (xv.) 4, 6 


where the P.B. version 
renders " disappointeth him not." 

27. a7ro(rrfiXa?...(r7re/coi;Xaropa] Mt. 
7re /x\^as (omitting CTTT.). STrcKovXaroop, 
speculator or less accurately spicu- 

lator, in the later Heb. "l^pSD 
(J. Lightfoot and Schottgen ad loc.\ 
is (i) a spy or scout, (2) an officer 
attached to a legion for the purpose 
of keeping the look-out and of carry 
ing dispatches; (3) since such military 
officers were frequently employed to 
carry out a sentence, an executioner 

(CTTT. d BrjfjLios Xeyerai (rTpaTiwrrjs, 

Thpht.). The word occurs in the N.T. 
here only, but is of fairly frequent 
use in pagan and Rabbinic literature, 
and in the Ada Marty rum ; see the 
reff. in Wetstein ad loc. or in Schiirer 
I. ii. 62 f. n. As illustrations of the 
meaning which the word bears in 
Me., it may be sufficient to quote 
Seneca de ira i. 16, "centurio supplicio 
praepositus condere gladium specu- 
latorem iubet": de benef. iii. 25, 
" speculatoribus occurrit . . . cervicem 
porrexit." See the full discussion in 
Archbp Benson s Cyprian, p. 505 n., f. 

E7T6 raei/ eWy/ceu. On the V. L 

evex^vai cf. Blass, Gr., p. 230. 

28. a7reX$60J/...T77 p/rpl avTr/s] For 
t a> see v. 1 6 : for iriva, v. 



[VI. 28 



avTriv TV 

l avTOV rj\6ai/ Kai rjpav TO 

29 Kai aKOvcravTes ol 

avTO ev 
3 Kai crvvdyovTai ol a.7r6a"ro\oi 

avTOV Ka 

TOV Irj(rovv 7 

Trdvra o<ra 


28 eSw/cev 2] yveyicev C 33 53* me cod syr sin (arm) om avrijv 2 D 33 256 acf i 
vg syrP 6811 arm aeth 29 auro ABCLrAIIS<I> al] avrov K 346 om 556 | /iVT^eiw] 

pr rw D< min mu 30 ocra i] pr Kai Arn< al min? 1 go syr hcl | e5i5. /ecu e7roi?7<raj> 

EH* eTTonjaev Kai edtdagev syr sinvid | om o<ra 2 K*C* i al** 110 latt(exc e) syr sin 

burnt and the dust was scattered by 
the pagan party (Thdt. H. E^iii. 3) ; 
some portion of the remains, however, 
were secured by Christians, and pre 
served as relics (H. R. xxi.). Both 
the Baptist and our Lord received 
honourable burial; contrast the fate 
of the two Apocalyptic witnesses 
(Apoc. XL 9). 

Mt. (xiv. 12, 13) adds that after the 
burial the disciples of John made 
their way to Jesus with the tidings, 
and that the Lord s movements were 
affected by what He heard from them : 
see note on the next verse. 

(Mt. xiv. 13 21 ; Lc. ix. 10 17; Jo. 

vi. 113); 

30. KOI <rvvdyovrai ol aTroVroXot] 
The Twelve have now earned the title 
aTTocrroXot which had been given to 
them apparently at the time of their 
selection (iii. 14); "apta huic loco 
appellatio" (Bengel). Me. does not 
use it again; in the later narrative 
of Lc. it becomes an official name 
(Lc. xvii. 5, xxii. 14, xxiv. 10, Acts 
passim). See Hort, Ecclesia, p. 22 f. 
Their present mission fulfilled, they 
return from various parts of Galilee 
to headquarters, i.e. the place where 
the Master had probably arranged to 
be, and reported (Me. aTr^yyetXap, 
Lc. Sirjyyo-avTo) particulars (oo-a...oo-a) 
of their work and teaching. For the 
combination Troielv (re) KOI 8i8do-KLv 
cf. Acts i. i ; Lc. omits edidagav here. 

25 : for Kopao-tov, v. 22. The Evan 
gelists draw a veil over the treat 
ment which the head received from 
Herodias and Salome. For the legends 
connected with its subsequent fate 
see Sozom. H. E. vii. 21, Papebroch, 
Acta Sanctorum. The * Decree of 
Gelasius mentions an anonymous 
writing "de inventione capitis beati 
Johannis baptistae," adding "non- 
nulli eas catholicorum legunt." The 
Cathedral Church of Amiens claims 
to be in present possession of the 
head. In the Sarum Calendar Aug. 
29 is marked Decollatio Jo. Bapt. 
the Inventio capitis was sometimes 
identified with the Decollatio (see 
Bede ad loc.\ but more commonly 
observed on Feb. 24. On the cause 
of John s martyrdom Victor quaintly 
remarks : /xoi^eia ical opxw LS 

TOV jSaTTTtO-ToO d(j)el\V TT)V 

KCU TrapaiTTjTea ye ravra rois ev (ppo- 

29. Kai a.Kov<ravTs...V p,vrjiJ.fia>] For 
other notices of the disciples of John 
see ii. 18, Jo. i. 35, iii. 25, iv. i, Acts 
xix. i f. To 7rra)/xa (Mt. Me.), the 
headless body, the corpse, cf. Mt. 
xxiv. 28, and Apoc. xii. 8, 9; TTT. is 
also used in this sense by the LXX., 
see Ps. cix. (ex.) 6 ( = n>1|), Ezech. 
vi 5 (AQr,=">J|). It was probably 
buried in one of the rock tombs 
round Machaerus (Me. eV fj.vrjij.eim) ; 
but it was believed to have been 
found at Sebaste (Samaria) in the 
time of Julian, when the bones were 





AevT i)juele avToi K.O.T 31 II 

iSiav ets eprifjiov TOTTOV, Kai dvaTrava ao de oXiyov. 
rjcrav yap ol ep^ofmevoi Kai ol VTrdyovTes TroXXoi, Kai 
ovfie (f>ayeiv evKaipovv.^ 33 /ccu a7rrj\6ov ev TW TrXoico 32 
ek eprjjuiov TOTTOV /car* i&iav. 33 /cca eiSav avTOvs 33 

31 Xe7ei] etTreit ADNFII al | Seirre v. a. /car idtav] wrayw/m-ef D C f i | ets] eir 

| ai>airav(ra<T6e ABCMA min nonn ] ava7ravea6e KDLNm2<l> al minP 1 | 
(rfVK. CKMUIH? al)] evKcupws (-/>os D*) eixov D 32 Kai a,Trrj\dov...Tr\oi(a\ 

avafiavres ets TO ir\oiov air. ets eprj/nov TOTTOV D latt (exc b) 

Their return seems to have syn 
chronised with the arrival of John s 
disciples (Mt.), and to have helped to 
determine the Lord s course. 

31. Kcit Xcyei avrois AevTe KrX.] 

Come apart by yourselves away from 
the crowd and rest for a while. 
Two things pointed to a temporary 
withdrawal from public work, (i) the 
danger of arrest by order of Antipas, 
who might think it desirable to follow 
up his murder of John by silencing 
John s successor ; (2) the Apostles 
need of rest. Me. recognises only the 
latter. On SeCre see i. 17, and on tear 
I8iav, iv. 34. Y/xety avVoi, ye by your 
selves (cf. Jo. vi. 15) ; or perhaps, ye 
yourselves even workers must now 
and again halt to take breath. Ai>a- 
yrauo-ao-^e gives the idea of the momen 
tary rest better than the present (see 
vv. 11.) ; the verb is well illustrated by 
Exod. xxiii. 12, Job x. 20 (LXX.). 
oX/yoi/, of time here, as of space in 

C. i. 19. For els eprjuov TOTTOV (Mt. 
Me.), Lc. has els TTO\LV K.a\ovp.vr]v 
B77$(rai5a, and Jo. rrepav rfjs 0a\do-crr]s 
rrjs ruXetXcuas TTJS Tifiepiados. The 

pT)p.os TOTTOS may well have been in 
the neighbourhood of a town (see 
i- 35> 45)5 t ne conflate reading in 

Lc., els r. ep. TroXeooy KaXovp-ev^s BT/^O-., 
is probably right as an interpretation. 
Jo. s recollection that the spot lay 
across the Lake shews that Bethsaida 
Julias is intended ; see note on v. 45. 
ol fp^opevoi Ka\ ol VTT.] The articles 
distinguish two distinct streams of 

S. M. 2 

people : cf. xi. 9. The departures 
and the new arrivals left no intervals 
for refreshment, and not even leisure 
for a meal ; cf. iii. 20. EvKaipew was 
condemned by the purists (Lob. 

PJlTyn., p. 125, evK. ov \en.Teov dXX ev 
cr^oXr/s *X iV > c Sturz, dial. Alex. 
p. i68f.); it occurs again in Acts 
xvii. 21, i Cor. xvi. 12; cod. D sub 
stitutes evKaipas e^etj/ here. The 
word seems to be found first in 
Polybius (Blass on Acts I.e.) and is 
common in Philo, but has no place in 
the LXX. Comp. the interesting prac 
tical reflexion in Bede : " magna 
temporis illius felicitas de labore 
docentium simul et discentium studio 
demonstratur : qui utinam nostro in 
aevo rediret ! " 

32. a.7rr)\6ov ev TOO TrXoico] The 

rendez-vous was therefore close to 
the Lake, probably near Capernaum, 
as TO> ?rX. suggests. The boat took 
an easterly course and they landed 
perhaps a little south of Bethsaida, on 
the edge of the plain now known as el- 
Batlhah (Schumacher, Jauldn, p. 106, 
Butaiha, Smith, H. G. p. 457) 
"a part of the old lake basin... sown 
two or three times during the year. . . 
and grazed by the buffalo herds... in 
its north western part. . .covered with, 
ruins." For ep^os TOTTOS see i 35, 45. 

33. /cai fldav...Kal eyvao-av TroXXoi] 

Many witnessed the departure; the 
course of the boat could be seen by 
all, even perhaps the landing of the 
party on the opposite shore. The 




xal eyvwcrav 7ro\\oi, KCLL Tre^fj OLTTO 
TroXewv (ruve^pajjiov e/cet Kai 7rpofj\6ov 
CIVTOVS. 34 Kai eeX6(LV eiSev TroXvv o^Aoi/, KO.I 34 



33 VTrayovras] + 01 o%Xot (S~) 13 69 124 al nonn | eyvwffav B*D I 118 209] 
KAB 2 LrAIIS<l> al min? 1 + aurou? KAKLMNUAIIS min mu f q syrr me aeih + avrov 
EFGHSVr* min 8 tmu (om aur. BD i 13 28 118 131 209 alP uc a ff vg) | e/cet /cat 
jrporj\doy avrous KB (TT/HKT. LA) alP 61 "** 110 vg (arm) me] /cat TrpvrjKdov avrov e/cet syrP 68 * 1 
e/cet /cat o~vvri\6ov avrov D (28 604) b e/cei AC. rjKQov avrov 2 pe (a) (d ff i r) /cat fj\6ov e/cet 
I om 209 alP 611 * 110 ?r/)os ayroi/s /cat <rvvt)\6ov Trpos avrov 33 e/cet /cat TrpotjXdov avrovs /cat 
ffvvrj\6ov (ffvve8pa/ju>v A) ?r/)os aurov (A)EFGHKM(N)UV(r)n(2)^> min fereomn f q 
S yr hcl aeth 34 etdev] + o I-rjvovs (A)(D)EFGHKMNS(U)VA(n) al | CTT avrovs 

] ew avrois ALrAII2<l> al minP 1 | om ws Tr/ao/Sara fc<* (ha 

Lord was recognised, aiid the report 
of His return spread rapidly (Mt. 

irf^rj ... 0-vvedpap.ov . . . KOI -irpori\6ov\ 

The crowd went round by land 7refj 
as contrasted with eV rw TrXoi w c 

Acts XX. 13, /ntXXeoi/ auroff Tre^eueii/, 

where Blass remarks, " irefrvetv de 
terrestri (non necessario pedestri) 
itinere." Across the Lake from Tell 
Hum or Khan Minyeh is scarcely 
more than four miles; by land the 
distance to the upper part of Batihah 
could hardly be above ten (Sanday, 
Fourth Gospel , p. 120), unless they 
went by road and crossed the Jordan 
by the bridge. If there was little 
wind, it would be easy to get to the 
place before a sailing boat. On the 
reading Kai TrporjKBov avrovs see the 
important discussion in WH., Intr. 2 , 
pp. 95 f., 327 ; for the construction 
i7poe\6elv Tiva cf. Lc. xxii. 47 : Vg. 
praevenerunt eos. Me. alone has 
preserved this interesting detail 

34- ^f\6a)V l8fV 7TO\VV O^Aoi/] It 

was not till He had landed (cf. v. 2 ; 
Dr Hort (I.e.) prefers "came out of 
His retirement in some sequestered 
nook") that the crowd came into 
sight. He knew then that His effort 
to find a retreat had failed, yet no 
impatience revealed itself in His 
manner. On the contrary, He was 

touched (f(nr\a.yxvi<r6r], cf. i. 41) by 
their earnestness of purpose, and 
bade them welcome (Lc. airo^a^vos 
avTovs), as if their presence had been 
desired. STrXa-y^i/t ^eo-^at eVt rii/a OC- 
curs also in Mt. xv. 32, Me. viii. 2, ix. 
22 ; other constructions are o-TrX. ewt 
TIM Mt xiv. 14, Lc. vii. 13, nepi ni/off 
Mt. ix. 36. ETT avrovs = * towards 
them/ as those to whom His com 
passion went .forth ; eV avrols- would 
represent the multitude as the object 
on which it rested. 

OTI r)<jav ws TrpofiaTa /crX.] The 

ground of His compassion. The blind 
zeal of the common people shewed 
both their need of a leader and their 
readiness to follow one who offered 
them what their official teachers failed 
to supply. The phrase ok irp. p.rj e^oi/- 
ra TTot/zeVa occurs also in another con 
text (Mt. ix. 36). It is based on the 
O.T. (Num. xxvii. 17, 3 Regn. xxii. 17, 
2Chron. xviii. 1 6, Judith xi. 19) where 
however HITl DnS pK 1^ fK*3 is 
uniformly rendered irp. ols (Troipvtov &>) 
OVK eo-riv 7roifj,^v. The implied contrast 
between the false pastors and the 
True is worked out in Jo. x. n 16; 
for other references to the pastoral 
character of our Lord cf. Ma xiv. 27, 
Heb. xiii. 20, i Pet. ii. 25. "Hpgaro 
avrovs TroXXa : Lc. e XaXet 
nfpl Trjs fiacriXeias TOV 6eov 9 



Troifjieva* Kai fip^aTO $L$dcrKeiv 
TToAAct. 2S Kai tjSrj utpas TroAA^s yi>r>jUw;s Trpocr- 35 
\66vTes avTco ol /maOrjTal avTOv e\eyov OTL 

<TTIV 6 TO7TO9, Kai tjStJ WpCt TToXA-f/* ^aTToXvCTOV 36 

d7re\66vT6s ek TOI)S KVK\W 

yopcrworiv eawros TL 


e 37 

ls eiTrev avToTs AOTC avTots ty/ue?? <pa<yelv. 

34 om TToXXa Syr 810 35 yevo/jievrjs ABLrAIIZ<I> al m i n forteomn ] yurofterqs KD 

latt | irpo<rr}\0ot ...\yoi>Tes N om auro> K*ADKL minP auc ab iff^ vg syr" in arm aeth 
(hab fc^BFAS^ al minP 1 syrr me al) | 6X670^] \eyowriv aura 1071 36 aim>us] rous 

oxXous arm | /cu/cXw] 77t(TTa D 604 latt | /cat /cw/xas] om A syr sin /cat ets ros K. D | 
ayopacrwcriv pr tva D j Ti <j>ay(t)(riv B(D)LA 28 aff i syr 81 " me] pr {Spu/mara X aprovs TL 
yap (fraywffiv OVK exowiv AN (K Qayovviv) TITS* al min? 1 (b) f gyrrP 6 " 111101 (arm) aeth 

adding KOI rovs \pfia.v e^ovras 
ireias (cf. Mt.). "Hp^aro : ** denuo, 
ut si antea non docuisset" (Bengel). 
Their first need was teaching first at 
least in His sight; but teaching, as 
at other times, brought opportunities 
of healing disease. The Lord, as He 
taught, sat on the rising ground above 

the plain (Jo. dvrj\6fv els TO opos /cat 

cf. Mt. v. i). 

35* 7^*7 ^P as ToXXiyp yfvofJLfirrjs] Vg. 

cum ianti hora multa Jieret; Mt., 

o\lrias 5e yfvofjifvrjs, Lc., T) 8e qpepa 

rfpgaTo K\iveiv, cf. Bede, "horam mul- 
tam vespertinum tempus dicit." Mc. s 
phrase, which is repeated at the end 
of the verse ij^rj o>pa TTO\\IJ, occurs 
also in Dion. Hal. ii. 54, cpaxovTo a%pi 
iroXXrjs copas, " to a late hour." That 
Lc. s interpretation is right appears 
from v. 47. Since the passover was 
at hand (Jo.), it was near the time 
of the spring equinox, and the sun 
set about 6 p.m. ; the miracle was 
probably wrought an hour or so be 
fore sunset. Hpo(re\66vTs eXeyoi/ KT\. 
According to Jo. the thought of pro 
viding for the multitude had presented 
itself to our Lord some hours before, 
when He first saw them coming to 
Him (vi. 5j OfCHrdfievos OTL TTO\VS o^Xof 

36. diro\\)<Tov avTovs] For aTroXveo 
= dismiss, see Tob. x. 12 (K), Me. 
vi 45, viii. 3, 9, Acts xiii. 3, xv. 30, 
33, xix. 41. Ets TOVS KVK\(O dypovs KOI 
K^nas does not exclude the suppo 
sition that Bethsaida was near, cf. 
Jos. xxii. 12, TOVS dyp. TTJS TroXeco? Kai 
ras Kfopas avTfjs. The Western text 
(WH., Notes, p. 25) substitutes ey- 
yia-To. for KVK\(O ; cf. Vg. in proximas 
villas et vicos. Aypot, villae, are the 
scattered farms, cf. v. 14; for the 
single article in the gender of the 
first noun, see WM., p. 158. Tt (pdyu- 
o-iv (WM., p. 210), Mt. jSpw/xara, Lc. 
eTricrtritr/ioi/. Lc. adds (tW) KaTaXixra)- 

criv, a necessity scarcely less pressing, 
considering the time of year, and 
that the crowd contained women and 
children. For this our Lord provided 
shortly afterwards in the way pro 
posed by the disciples (vv. 45, 46). 
Food was a more immediate want, 
and more difficult to supply. 

37. Sore avTols vpfls <ayeu>] Mt. 
prefixes ov xpe*ai> e^ovcrtv drreXdelv 
an answer to direKdovrfs of v. 36, as 
the emphatic vfie is (WM., p. 190) 
replies to 1va...dyopaa ci)(riv favrots. Of 
this conversation between our Lord 
and the Twelve we have two inde 
pendent accounts, St Peter s (Me., 
abbreviated in Mt., Lc.) and St John s. 



[VI. 37 

Xejowiv avTto A7re\66vTes dyopdcrwfjiev Srjvapicov 


<pa<ye?v ; 3 6 

/Sere, Kta 7i/oVres Xeyovarw Rev-re, Kai Svo l 



37 Swa-wfiev KBD 13 33 69 124 346 2P] dw<ro/j.ev ALA alP" 5 latt vid 5wp.ev TIIS al 
tjxiyew 2] + tw e/cacrros j3pa%w Xa/fy 13 69 124 346 tva <t>ayw<ru> 2*** 
38 tSere] pr /cat AFAH al | yvovres] eX0oi>res K* (7^. K c - a ) eiriyvovres 1071 | Xe-you- 
ADM m s j 3 69 al | Treyre] + aproi/s D 2? a c f syrr 

KO/AOI/ (Jo. xii. 6). Yet even this outlay 
would have been inadequate : Jo. o\>< 
dpKova-iv avrois Iva fKaaros /Spa^u Xa/Sfl. 
Aa>o-oo/zei/ is possibly an aor. conj., cf. 
WSchm., pp. 107, 120. WH. prefer 
dwa-ofiev, on which see Blass, 6?r., 
p. 212. 

38. TTOO-OUS e^ere aprovs;] This ques 
tion interprets the previous one. They 
were not called to imagine imprac 
ticable schemes of charitable action, 
but to give what they had (cf. 2 Cor. 
viii. 12). Bede: "non nova creat 
cibaria, sed acceptis eis quae habue- 
rant discipuli." 

yvovrcs \cyov<riv] The discovery 
was made (Jo.) by Andrew, and the 
supply belonged, it appears, not to 
the Twelve, but to a lad in the crowd 
(eo-rtv Traiddpiov <Se 6s e ^et...). Jo. 
alone (Orig. in Mt. xi. 2) mentions 
that the cakes were made of barley- 
flour (aprot KpiQivot), i.e. of the coarsest 
and cheapest kind, the food of the 
working man : cf. Jud. v. 8 (A), vii. 13, 
4 Regn. iv. 42 : for the relative cost 
of wheat and barley see 4 Regn. vii 
1 8 and Apoc. vi. 6 (x^ vl ^ <TITOV $771/0- 
piov Kai rpels x iVtKfS KpiOav drjvapiov). 
For Ixflvas, Jo. has o^apta (cf. Num. 
xi. 22, rrdv TO otyov Tfjs 0a\do~(rr)s). The 
fish two to five loaves were a mere 
relish, and probably pickled or cooked : 
for the use of cooked fish with bread 
see Jo. xxi. 9, 13. Taricheae at the 
S.W. corner of the Lake derived its 
name from the curing of fish. Some 
of the older commentators find mys 
teries in the numbers: e.g. Thpht. 

TreVre aproi ot MoocraiKOt Xoyot, I) 

A comparison shews that the words 
aTTfXdovTfs dyopdcr(op.fv KT\. belong in 
part to Philip, and vcvre KOI 8vo 
Ix&vas to Andrew. On the whole 
"the superiority in distinctness and 
precision is all on the side of St 
John" (Sanday, I.e. p. 121 ; cf. Light- 
foot, Bibl. Essays, p. 182). For an 
attempt to bring the two accounts 
into precise agreement see Aug. de 
cons. ev. \\. 96. With his conclusion 
we may heartily concur: "ex qua uni- 
versa varietate verborum, rerum au- 
tem sententiarumque concordia, satis 
apparet salubriter nos doceri nihil 
quaerendum in verbis nisi loquentium 

a.TTf\66vTs dyopd(ra>iiV KT\.] A con- 
flation, as appears from Jo. vi. 5 7, 
of the Lord s question voQev dyopd- 
cra>/iei/ aprovs Iva (j)dya)(nv ovrot; and 
Philip s answer dia.Ko<ria>v fyvapicw 
aproi KT\. Arjvapiav diaKoa~icoVj at 
the cost of 200 denarii, the gen. of 
price, WM., p. 258. On the denarius 
see Madden s Jewish Coinage, p. 
245 if., Hastings, Z>. B. iii. p. 427 f. ; 
the mean value at this time is stated 
to have been 9^. It was the la 
bourer s daily wage (Mt. xx. 2 ff.) : 
two denarii were sufficient to pay the 
expenses of a iravdo^e iov for at least a 
day or two (Lc. x. 35) ; the costly oil 
of spikenard poured on the Lord 
by Mary of Bethany was worth three 
hundred or more (Me. xiv. 5, note); 
five hundred was a typically large debt 
(Lc. vii. 41). Two hundred of these 
silver pieces may well have been more 
than the Twelve had in their yA 


Z9 Kai 67T6Taev avToIs avaK\iQ\]vai 

Crv/ULTTOCTLa 67TI TW ^(XwpCO %OpTto 

Trpacriai TTpacriai KCITO. exaTOV Kac KCLTO, 


4 KCtt 


39 avaK\i6-rjvaL KB*G<i> i 13 28 64 604 107 1 2Pal nonn Or] am/cXwu AB 2 DLNrAII2 
al minP 1 Or | cvfjiir. <rv[iir.] Kara. rrjv vvviroffiav D om a syr 8inTid | eirt] ev B* 
40 om trpaffiai 2 KLA minP auc | Kara bis ttBD ^ me] ava bis ALNrAnZ<i> al 

m i n fereomn ( Qm am 2 o 33 jjpauc Or) 

duo, 01 T<OV oXie coi/ Xo-yoi, o ATTO- 
Kal TO T,vayyf\iov. Similarly 
Aug. in Jo. tract, xxiv. 

39. f7rTafV avrols dva.K\i0r}vai] The 
command was given through the 
Twelve (Lc. KaraK\iWre avTovs, Jo. 
TTonjcrciTe TOVS avflptoTrovs avairecrfiv). 
For dva.K\iv(r6ai. and dvaTriTrreiv used 
of taking places on a couch before a 
meal see Mt. viii. n, Lc. xiii. 29; Lc. 
xi. 37, Jo. xiii. 12. Order was secured 
by breaking up the crowd into com 
panies (a-vfi7ro<ria, Me., K\icrtas, Lc.). 
In the LXX. (rvpiroa-tov oivov = 

]?_} (Esther, Sirach), but 
occurs without olvov in the first three 
books of Maccabees, and apparently 
in the wider sense. The form pre 
ferred by B (<rvfjL7roo-ia) is also to be 
found in Sirach and 3 Mace. ; Lc. s 
more precise term occurs in 3 Mace, 
vi. 31. The construction <rvn7r6ana 
(rvfinocria. = ava or Kara <m/z7ro(ria is 
Hebraistic : cf. Exod. viii. 14 (10), <rwj- 
yayov UVTOVS Qip.a>vias OifjLfovids (D")lpn 
D^O"!), and Trpaaial irpaviaL in the 

next verse : see also Me. vi. 7 (WM., 
pp. 312, 581, Blass, Gr. p. 145). On 
the construction dva<\. irdvras crv/iTroo-ta 
see WM., pp. 282, 663 ff. 

errl rw x\a>pa) XP T( ?] ^ ee n te On 

t>. 32. The place supplied in the 
early spring a natural carpet on which 
thousands could recline in comfort ; 

Cf. JO. Tf]V de %6pTOS 7TO\VS fV TO) TO7TO). 

XXeopo? xP TOS > faenum viride, is 
* green food, i.e. growing grass or 
crops, as contrasted with dry fodder : 
cf. Gen. i. 30, Isa. xv. 6, xxxvii. 27, 
Apoc. viii. 7. The epithet is not 
otiose or merely picturesque ; it indi 

cates the season of the year, and thus, 
so far as it goes, supports the existing 
text of Jo. vi. 4 (cf. WH., Notes, p. 
77 ff.). ^ 

40. dvfTTfa-av Trpaa-ial TrpaoW] The 
act implies trust on the part of the 
crowd (Bengel : " fides populi "). The 
o-v/nTToo-ia took the form of rectangular 
garden beds. Ilpao-uu occurs in Ho 
mer, Od. viii. t 127, where the Sch. 
interprets at r<5i/ (f)vTiu>v rerpdycovoi 

o-^e o-ets, and reappears in Theo- 
phrastus and in the LXX. (Sir. xxiv. 31 
fj.e&v(T<i> pov rfjv Trpaa-idv) : cf. Euth. : 
Trpao-ial at rerpayeoi/oeiSeTs- [a-uvaycoyai] 
TotavTat yap at TU>V KTJTTCOV Trpaonai. 

Me. probably uses the word to convey 
the notion of regularity of form, not 
of variety of colouring (Farrar, Life, 
i. p. 402) ; the vrpao-ta, unless otherwise 
defined (np. dvQ&v) is the bed of 
garden herbs (Xa^ai/ta, Hesych.),asits 
probable etymology shews. See the 
somewhat similar comparison, quoted 
from the Talmud by J. Lightfoot ad 
loc., of Jewish scholars to the rows 
of vines in a vineyard, planted 

Kara fKarbv Kal Kara 
The groups consisted roughly of fifty, 
in other cases of a hundred each; 
cf. Lc. o5(rei ai/a TrevrijKovTa. Mt. omits 
all these details the greenness of the 
grass, the orderly distribution of the 
crowd, the size of the groups ; nor do 
they find a place in the recollections 
of St John, though he remembers the 
number of the party as a whole (oV- 
7re<rav...(c>s Trei^raKio-^tXioi). The pur 
pose of the arrangement was probably 
to prevent a dangerous scramble for 
the food, or at any rate, confusion and 

4 1 A 



\Ct/3d)V T-Ol)^ 7T6J/T6 apTOVS KCtl TOfS 

sas eis TOV ovpavov, ev\6yr](rev Kat KaTK\acr6v 

TOVS apTOvs KCLI eSidov TCHS /ULa6r]Tcus iva 7rapaTc6cocrii/ 


43 (pa < yov TrdvTes KCU e 


41 Ka.TK\a.ffV T. a. Kcu] AcXa<7as T. a. K* 33 | rots /i0.] + aurou ADFII al | Trapan- 
K*BLM*AIT minP auc ] irapaduffLv K c ADM 2 NriI 2 23> al min* 1 | avrots] Ka.Teva.vTL 
D latt rw o%Xw M* 42 om Travres i* 33 (209*) arm 

disorder (cf. i Cor. xiv. 33, 40), and 
to secure an easy and rapid distri 
bution: twelve men could serve fifty 
to one hundred companies in a com 
paratively short time. Incidentally 
the division into companies made 
the counting of the multitude a 
simple matter, and accounts for the 
same number being given by the 
four evangelists. 

41. KCU Aa/3<BI> TOVS 7TVT apTOVS 

KT\.] The cakes and fish were 
brought to Him (Mt. xiv. 18), pro 
bably in a Kofavos (cf. v. 43), and the 
Lord took the basket, or one of the 
cakes, into His hands. The action 
marked Him as the Master and 
Host; cf. xiv. 22, Lc. xxiv. 30, Acts 

xxvii. 35. Ai/a/SAe ^as els TOV ovpa- 

vov (Me. Mt. Lc.): the attitude of 
prayer (vii. 34, Jo. XL 41 ; for the 
O.T. see Job xxii. 26, and cf. i K. viii. 
22, Ps. xxviii. 2, Ixxiii. 4, cxxxiv. 2), 
specially characteristic of Him Who 
knew no sin (contrast Lc. xviii. 13). 
The ancient Liturgies have trans 
ferred this feature to the institu 
tion of the Eucharist (Brightman, 
Liturgies, pp. 20, 51, 133, & c . ; cf. 
the words of the Roman canon, " ele- 
vatis oculis ad te," &c.). EvX6yrj<rev 
(Mt. Me. itC.) = fvxapi(TT^a-as ( Jo.) ; a 
similar variation occurs in the ac 
count of the first Eucharist, where 
cvxapio-Teiv is used of the blessing of 
the Bread by Lc., Paul (i Cor. xi.), 
and of the blessing of the Cup by 
Mt, Me., Lc. ; the two verbs are 
practically synonymous, the blessing 

being in fact in the form of a thanks 
giving (c i Tim. iv. 3, 4) ; the Cup, 
in reference to which the three Syn- 
optists use euxapio-reii/, is called by 

St Paul TO iroTripiov TTJS evXoyias o 

v\oyovfj.v. The recognised form of 
blessing was (Edersheim, i. p. 684) : 
" Blessed art Thou, O Lord our God, 
King of the world, Who bringest 
forth bread from the earth." Kare - 
K\aa-v : SO Lc. ; Mt K\d(ras. The 
simple verb is used in all our ac 
counts of the Eucharistic fraction (cf. 
7) K\a(Tis TOV apTov, Acts ii. 42) ; per 
haps the compound points here to 
the breaking of each cake into seve 
ral pieces (cf. /cara/con-TO), V. 5). The 
distribution was entrusted to the 
Twelve: e & dov (Me. Lc.) may imply 
that they came to Him at intervals to 
be replenished, but is perhaps more 
naturally understood of the repeated 
action involved in the gift to each 
of them severally (cf. Jo. Sie ScoKei/). 
The fish was no doubt distributed 
in the same way, though Me. for the 
sake of brevity writes epepio-ev iraa-iv : 
cf. Jo. ofjLoiais Kal CK r<3i> otyapiwv. 
"iva TrapaTiOaxTiv = Lc. irapaOeivai : for 

this sense of the verb cf. Lc. x. 8 

eo-diTf TO. TTapaTidffieva vfuv. Cf. Ori- 
gen in Jo. t. xiii. 34, \a^avei de TO. 

drro T<0>v fiadrjTav *Ir)o-ov...oi de TOV 
lr)o~ov padrjTal OTT avrov TOV Irjaov. 

42. e^oprao-^a-av] Vg. saturati 
sunt. The food more than sufficed 
(contrast Jo. vi. 7). All had as much 
as they would, even of the fish (Jo. 

VI. 45] 




44 Kai ri<Tav ol 
45 Kal evdvs rivdyKacrev TOVS 


irevTa- 44 
avTOv ep.- 45 

43 /cXaoTtaTd BLA] /cXaoyiaraji fc< 13 69 124 209 346 TO Trepi<r<rv<Tav TWV K\a<r/j.aTuv 
604 | Ko<ftt.vwv TrXT/pw/taTa KB I 13 69 124 209 346] KO<J>LVOVS TrXT/pw^tara LA Kotpivovs 
ir\rjpeis ADriIS< rell min? 1 44 om TO us aprovs KD i 28 604 i** vg (syr sin ) arm | 

us (vel wcrei vel ucrirep) \ 
+ ceyep6eis D a b c ff i q 

oa-ov TI&C\OV). E^opT. is common to 
the Synoptists; Jo. uses evc7r\^a-dr]- 
a-av. For the former word cf. Light- 
foot on PhiL iv. 1 2, Kennedy, /Sources, 
p. 82 ; it is fairly distributed in the 
N. T. (Mt. 4 Me. 4 Lc. 4 Jo. 1 Cath. 1 Paul 1 , 
Apoc. 1 ), but in the LXX. limited to 
Pss. 9 , Job 1 , Jer. 1 , Lam. 1 (=ynb),Tob. 1 . 
43. rjpav AcXao-^aTa] Mt. TO Tre- 
picro fvov TO>I> /cX., Lc. TO TTfpicro fvo av 
avTols (sc. TO) o^Xco) K\. So the Mas 
ter directed : Jo. (rvvaydyeTf TO rre- 
pKro~evcra.vTa /cXacr/zaTa Iva p.ri TI OTTO- 
X^Tai. For /cXa(r/xa (apTOf) cf. Jud. 

xix. 5 (A, =-^o) dpTov B), Ezech. 
xiii. 19. Aeo&eKa KO(f)iva>v TrX^pco/naTa, 
in apposition to *X., wherewith were 
filled twelve hampers : cf. Mt. 8. 

KOfpivovs TrX^pets, Jo. eyep-taav 5. Ko<p{- 
vovs K\ao~p.dTa)v. Me. uses vrX. <o(p. 
again in viii. 20 : for a discussion of 
TrXr/pco/za see note on ii. 21. Kocptvos 
is common to the four accounts. The 
word is used by Aq. in Gen. xl. 16 for 
a bread-basket (?P), and by the LXX. 
in Jud. vi. 19 (B, =<avovv A) for the 
basket (also ?p) in which Gideon places 
cooked meat; in Ps. Ixxx. (Ixxxi.) 6 
it is the pot-shaped basket (TH) in 
which the Israelite during the Egyp 
tian oppression carried his clay or 
bricks. A "stout wicker basket" 
appears to be intended, "as dis 
tinguished from the soft flexible 
* frails " (Westcott, on St John). The 
xcxfrivos is contrasted in the Gospels 
with the <r<frvpis (viii. 19, 20), for 
which see note on viii. 8. In Rome 



45 ev6vs] 

it was the characteristic appendage of 
the poorer class of Jews (Juv. iii. 14, 
vi 542, "quorum cophinus faenum- 
que supellex"; see J. E. B. Mayor s 
note). The twelve Ko(pivoi were pos 
sibly those in which the Apostles 
had carried what they needed for 
their recent circuit of Galilee; c 
Euth., SwdeKO. Ko(pivoi... iva Kai ol &B- 
aTTooroXot dia/3ao-Tao-a>o-/ TOVS 
With the excess of the 
miraculous supply above the require 
ments of the people comp. 4 Regn. 
IV. 44, e(payov KOI KarfXmov Kara TO 
pfjfjui Kvpiov. 

44. yaav . . . TrcvTaKio-xihioi avftpes] 
The number was doubtless roughly 
calculated by counting the a-v^noo-ia 
(note on v. 39) ; cf. Mt. Lc. were/, 
Jo. cos-, TTfvr. The men perhaps alone 
composed the groups, but the wo 
men and children were not neglected 

On the miracle as a whole Victor 
well remarks : Bavfj-do-tov ptv ovv TO 
Trpax&ev-..0avfid(nov Se OVK \arrov TO 
pr] del TTJ 

(Mt. xiv. 22 33, Jo. vi. 16 21). 

45. evdvs ijvdyKaa-v...els TO irepav] 
For once the Lord put a severe strain 
upon the loyalty of the Twelve. His 
command was in direct conflict with 
all that seemed to be reasonable and 
right. He had led them to the place 
that very day, and now required them 
at once to leave it. On other occa 
sions He led the way (see x. 32, 



fifjvai as TO TrXoTov Kai Trpodyeiv ek TO Trepav 
46 Br]6<rai$dv, ews aiy-ros ctTroXveL TOV 

45 om ets TO Trepan i 118 209 syr Bin | irpos] s i 28 209 2** Or a bi q in contra a | 
Br/flcrcuSai KBLII<I> al min& cfffq vg arm] Bi^o-otSa A (8170-.) S min nonn | aTroXuei 
KBL i] aTToXwo-et E*KF 28 69 604 min nonn cwroXwn? AE 2 FGHMNSUVIIS<i> minP 1 | TOUS 

stood his source, the starting-point 
of the boat was near this town (Lc. 
ix. 10, see note on v. 32), and the 
Lord directed the Twelve to cross to 
the town in the first instance (Ben- 
gel : " terminus navigationis non to- 
tius sed ex parte "). In this case TO 
n-fpav is here not the Western shore, 
but the opposite side of the little bay 
which lay between the sloping ground 
where the miracle was wrought and 
Philip s new city an alternative which 
presented itself to Bede (ad l.\ To 
-rrepav is interpreted by irpbs B?7$- 
a-aiddv. Why they did not reach 
Bethsaida, but landed on the Western 
shore, appears as we proceed. On the 
form ~BT)6o-aiddv see WH., Notes, p. 
1 60, WSchm., pp. 62 f., 91 ; and for 
the question of locality, the articles in 
Hastings, D.B., and Encycl Bibl. 

ecus O.VTOS aTroXvet TOV o^Xov] While 
He for His part dismisses the multi 
tude. Mt. a>s ov dnoXvo-rj : see Burton, 
321 ff., esp. 326, 330; Blass, Gr. 
p. 219. The shortness of the interval 
suggested agrees with the view that 
the original destination of the boat 
was Bethsaida Julias. 

46. Kai diroTa^dfievos} Mt. has 

d-n-oXvo-as. Me. changes the word. 
The dismissal (v. 36) was friendly 
and courteous, if peremptory; no 
thing in His manner betrayed anx 
iety or consciousness of their inten 
tions. ATrorao-o-eo-^at is (in late Gk., 
see Lob. Phryn. p. 24) to bid fare 
well to friends; cf. Lc. ix. 61, Acts 
xviii. 1 8, 21, 2 Cor. ii. 13. It is 
possible that avTols may = TOIS na6r}- 
TCUS avTov, and that Mt. has mis 
interpreted the pronoun ; but if so, 
Me. omits altogether the dismissal of 

xiv. 28, Jo. x. 4); now He would 
only undertake to follow them. The 
Synoptists throw no light on the 
situation, but it is explained by St 
John (vi. 14, 15). The enthusiasm of 
the multitude was not limited to a 
recognition of the Lord s prophetic 
office : they were on the point of 
seizing His person and proclaiming 
Him King. " No malice on the part 
of the Scribes could have been so 
fatal... as their giving of a political 
turn to the movement... He hurried 
the disciples on board that they might 
not catch the contagion of the idea " 
(Latham, Pastor p., p. 307). Origen 
in Jo. t. xxviii. 23 : ^ rrapx a > v /-"?^ e 
TOVTOIS d(popfjLrji>, (pi\ovo-iv OVTOV KOI 
av pera rStv 6\6vTo>v 


Trpos Brjtio-aiddv] Mt. stops short at 
irepav ; Jo. says, rjp^ovro irpav TTJS 
6a\do-o-r]s els Kacpapvaovfj.. Both Me. 
and Mt. represent the Twelve as 
landing eventually els Tevvrjo-apfT (vi. 
53, Mt. xiv. 34). The direction of the 
boat was therefore ultimately west 
wards, and this fact has led to a 
conjecture that there was a Western 
Bethsaida (Reland, Stanley, Tristram), 
which has been identified with Ain et- 
Tabigha (Tristram, Bible Places, p. 
315); in support of this theory it has 
been urged that Jo. (xii. 21) mentions 
a BrjQo-. TTJS TaXciXaias (see, however, 
Merrill, Galilee, p. 27). But there is 
no direct evidence for the existence 
of two Bethsaidas on the Lake, and 
the Bethsaida of which Josephus 
speaks (ant. xviii. 2. i, B.J. ii. 9. i, 
iii. 10. 7) was in Philip s tetrarchy 
and therefore on the East bank of the 
Jordan. Unless Lc. has misunder 


avTols aTrfjXBev eis TO opos 



47 Kai 


TJS 6a\dcrorr]<2, Kal CCVTOS JULOVOS CTTI Trjs yfjs. 4 *Kai 48 

rjv TO TrXolov ev jmecrw 47 X 

idcov avrovs /Sacravi^ofJievov^ ev TCO eXavveiv, t]v yap 
6 aVe/xos evavTios avTols, Trepi T6TctpTtiv (pvXaKrjv 

46 avrj\6ev I 209 47 /cat o^.] o^. 5e N | r)v] + Tra.Xai D i 28 209 251 iam 

a b i | ev fjiea-rj rrj BaXawrj D 2^ | om fj,ovos arm 48 tdwv] iSev AKMVXH* etSev 

EFGHS 8il Um 2 alP 1 | /3a<r. ev ra> eXauj/ew] /3a<7. KCU eXawovras D 2 1 * 5 abff iq eXavvovTas 
K. /Sao-. 604 | irepi rer. <f>v\. r. WKTOS] om syr 81 " 1 pr /cat ADXFII al pl 

the people, which was the next step 
and an important one. On the whole 
the Vg. is probably right in referring 
both a7ro\vi and a7rora^ap.vos to the 

crowd (dum dimitteret populum... 
cam dimisisset eos), though it misses 
the significant change of verb. Upocr- 
fvaa-0ai, inf. of aim or object; cf. 
Blass, Gr. p. 223. 

dnfjXdc v els TO opos] When all were 
gone He returned to the higher 
ground (cf. Jo. vi. 3, 15), partly to 
escape the crowd (di/e^copr/orei , Jo.), 
but chiefly to pray (ola avtipviros, Vic 
tor ; xP*} <Tl f J ov y&P rc " ff irpoarcvxais KCU 
TO opos KOI 77 vv Koi TI fj.6v(t)o~iS) Euth.) ; 

cf. i. 35. Another crisis had come; 
the way to further usefulness in Gali 
lee seemed to be blocked, partly by 
the attitude of Antipas, partly by the 
unreasoning enthusiasm of the people ; 
He needed counsel and strength for 
the immediate future. 

47 48. 6-^ias yevopfvys KT\.] More 
than an hour must have passed since 
the conversation before the miracle 
(see note on v. 35), and the sun had 
now probably set : cf. Jo. vi. 17, 
a-KOTia 77617 eyeyovfi. Meanwhile a stiff 
breeze had sprung up, and it was 
against the rowers (Me. Mt.), blowing 
probably from the N. or N.W. and 
raising so much sea (Jo.) as to distress 
them (pa<ramopcvovs) as well as to 
alter their course. The Paschal moon 
gave light enough to reveal the boat 
struggling with the waves (/3ao-ai>io- 
Mt.), and well out to sea (Me. 

, Mt. 

a.7ro Tr]s yrjs . foY the read- 
ing of D in Me. (77^ TraAcu) see 
WH., Notes, p. 25). The Lord, who 
was now alone on the land, realised 
their position and, breaking off His 
vigil, went down to the sea and took 
the direction of the boat. 

For ox/^ta = the early hours of the 
night see Judith xiii. i, Me. xiv. 17, 
Jo. xx. 19. Bao-ai/i o> has already 
occurred in v. 7 (q.v.) ; the different 
applications of the word in this con 
text by Mt. and Me. are instructive 
as shewing the degree of latitude 
which the Synoptists allowed them 
selves in dealing with the common 
tradition, even when they retained its 
actual terms. For a metaphorical 
use of the verb cf. Sir. iv. 17, 2 Pet. 
ii. 8. On /Sao-, ev TG> e X. see Blass, 

Gr. p. 237. "Avepos evavrios, cf. Acts 
xxvii. 4. 

48. Trepi reTaprrjv (pvXaKrjv KrA.] The 

Lord reached the boat about 3 a.m. 
(cf. WM., p. 506); Mt., more precisely, 
TeTaprrj (pvXaicf}. Cf. Macar. Magn. 
iii. 6, reraprrj rfjs WKTOS (pvXaKJ eo-Ttv 
77 SeKaTTj TT)s WKTOS o>pa, ped* TJV VTTO- 
AeiTTOiTai Tpels ixrTepatai eopai. Me. 

and Mt. count four watches in the 
night after the Roman system ; see 
Me. xiii. 35, and cf. Acts xii. 4 (Blass). 
Lc. on the other hand (xii. 38) seems 
to follow the Jewish division into 
three. QvXaKri occurs in this sense in 
the LXX. (Jud. vii. 19, i Regn. xi. n, 
Ps. Ixxxix. (xc.) 4, cxxix. (cxxx.) 6, cf. 



[VI. 48 


49 a 



49 cu 


50 OTI (fxivTaorfjid ea-Tiv, Kai dveKpa^av s 7rdvTes yap 
avTOV ei&av Kai erapd^Brjcrai/. 6 Se ei/0i)s eXa 

48 ydeXev] i)0e\t]a ei D | om Kai yd. Trap, aurous G 49 <m (pavTa<r/j.a 

KBLA 33] tf>avr. eivat, ADNXmS<l> al min? 1 latt me 50 eidov ATAII 2 idov 

KLMX VII* | om /ecu era/xi;^. Syr 81 " | /cat eutfews eXaX. /i. a. o ITJO-OUS N 

Thren. ii. 19). *Epxereu npos CLVTOV?. 
Jo. says that when they caught sight 
of the Lord they had rowed o>s ora&iovs 

f lKOO-l TTVT Tf TplCLKOVTa. SinCC the 

lake was forty stades broad (Joseph. 
B. J. iii. 10. 7), this agrees fairly well 
with Mc. s ev fj.eo-0) TTJS BaXcuro-rjs, if 
we allow for the tortuous course of 
the boat, her general direction (N.E. 
to S.W. by W.), and the interval be 
tween the Lord s departure from the 
hill and arrival at the spot where 
they saw Him. IIepi7rarc5v eVi rfjs 
6a\d(T(n)s, Me. and Jo. ; Mt. TT. enl 
TTJV tiaXao-a-av. The gen. points to 
the apparent solidity of the water 
under His feet (cf. eV! T^S yr/s, v. 47), 
the ace. to His progress implied in 
TrepnraTcov ; in v. 26 where the order 
is different Mt. also prefers the gen. 
The reader is left to complete the 
picture ; the Lord must be imagined 
as walking on a seething sea, not 
upon a smooth surface (Jo. 77 GaXao-o-a 
...Sieyetpero : cf. Victor, TO>V dvepav 
evavria irveovrav Kai TCOV KVpartDv Kara 
%/j.evfv eVt TUV 
; now on the crest of 
a wave, now hidden out of sight. It 
was the darkest hour of the night, 
and the moon had probably set ; only 
the outline of a human form could 
be seen appearing from time to time, 
and approaching the boat. The con 
ception is found in Hebrew poetry, 
but only in connexion with Divine 
prerogatives, e.g. Job xxxviii. 16, 

T]\des Se eirl irrjyrjv 6a\d(T(Tr]S fv Se 
djSvo-arov TrepieTrarqcray ; in Sir. 

TOV vp.ov 
vdartov a 

xxiv. 5 Wisdom says eV ftdOci 
TrepicTrdTrjo-a. For a mystical appli 
cation see Aug. in Jo. tract, xxv. : 
"venit...calcans fluctus, omnes tumo- 
res mundi sub pedibus habens...quid 
ergo timetis, Christiani ? Christus lo 
quitur Ego sum, nolite timere" Cf. 
serm. 75. 

rjdfkfv irapeXGelv avrovs] Vg. vole- 
bat praeterire eos; the imperfect is 
conative (Burton, p. 12); for the ace. 
cf. Lc. xi. 42, xv. 29, Acts xvi. 8. 
With the feigned purpose comp. Lc. 
xxiv. 28, and see Me. v. 36, vii. 27. 
The purpose in each case was to try, 
and by trial to strengthen faith (cf. 
Jo. vi. 6). 

49- eSof-av OTI <pdvra(r^d ecrrtv] 
Wycliffe, "thei gessiden that it were 
a fantum " ; Tindale, " they supposed 
it had been a sprete." Cf. Lc. xxiv. 
37, edoKovv TrvfVfjia deo>pfiv. AoKetv in 
this sense is followed almost indiffer 
ently by on or by ace. and inf. ; for 
. on see Mt. vi. 7, xxvi. 53, Lc. xii. 51, 
xix. n, Jo. v. 45, &c. ^airaoTia, an 
apparition : here only and in Mt. ; 
cf. Job XX. 8 (A) coo-Trep (pdvTacrfj,a 
wKTfpivov. 3>. CCTTIV i the present re 
presents the thought as it took shape 
on their tongues : it is a phantom > 
(cf. Mt.). For earlier evidence of a 
popular belief in apparitions among 
the Hebrew people see Job iv. 1 5 ff., 
xx. 8, and esp. Sap. xvii. 4, 1 5. 3 Ave- 
Kpagav : the appearance drew forth 
a shriek of terror : cf. i. 23. 

50. Trdvrcs yap avTov eldav] It was 
not the fancy of an individual ; all 




fjL6T avTcov, Kal \eyei CCI/TCHS QapcrelTe, eyw el/ut, jmrj 

a Be. 5I Kai ave/3ri rrpos ai/roi)s ek TO TrXoiov, 51 
eKOTracrev 6 ayeuos. Kal \iav ev eat/Tor? e- 

5 * 


(TVWKair eir TO s 

, a A/V 

ai/Tfc)i/ 17 KapSia 

51 Xiai>] om D i 28 2** b syr sin arm + e/c Trcpicra-ov (vel cKTrepurffus 
ADNXrnS^ al minP 1 syr hcl arm (om NBLA syr? 6 " 11 aeth) | erra? ro] 
i 118 209 + /cat eeavftaftv ADNXPHS^ al minP 1 abf q syrr? 6 " 1 ^ 1 arm aeth (om KBLA 
i 28 118 209 c i vg syr 8 * me) 52 rois aprots] rots avrois A | aXX t]v KBLM 2 SA 

33 alP auc syr^ 1 ^) me] tjv yap ADM*NXm2<i> min pl latt vtply s syr hcl ( ut ) arm aeth 

stead of the usual evefirj, perhaps to 
depict the climb from the hollow of 
the wave over the side of the boat. 
Mt. avaftdvTtov avr&v, i.e. the Lord 
and Simon Peter. The latter had 
gone down (Karapds) into the water 
and attempted to walk on it to the 
Lord: Mt. (xiv. 28 31) alone relates 
the incident. Upon the return of 
Peter to the boat accompanied by the 
Lord the wind at once fell : cf. iv. 39 
(where see note on KOTrdfciv}. 

fv eavrols egitrravro ] The astonish 
ment did not express itself in words; 
for ev tavrols see ii. 8, v. 30. Mt., 
however, represents them as falling 
at His feet with the exclamation 
AX^^cos 6fov vibs ei. If this con 
fession is in its right place, it antici 
pates St Peter s (Mt. xvi. 16, Me. viii. 
29) . The excitement of the moment 
may have given voice to a growing 
impression which had not yet reached 
the maturity of a definite judgment. 
Victor points out that on the previous 
occasion when a storm was stilled 
they had been content to exclaim Tis 
apa OVTOS e<mv ; (iv. 41). 

52. ov yap a~vv^Kav eirl rols aprotf] 
Vg. non enim intellexerant de pani- 
bus. Their amazement would have 
been less had they realised the won 
der of the preceding miracle ; " de- 
buerant a pane ad mare concludere " 
(Bengel). Somehow the miracles con 
nected with the multiplication of food 
failed to impress the Twelve (cf. viii. 

the Twelve saw the Form on the 
water, as all the Eleven afterwards 
saw the Risen Christ. The fear was 
momentary : it was relieved at once 
by the well-known voice ; cf. the simi 
lar circumstances in Lc. xxiv 37 ff., 

ApOC. i. 17 ff For XaXeii/ /ifrd TIVOS 

cf. Jo. iv. 27, ix. 37, xiv. 30: the 
phrase is probably preferred here to 
the more usual X. rwi or npos riva, as 
implying familiar intercourse. Mera 
implies "mutual action" (WM., p. 471), 
and with XaXeli/, the exchange of con 

Qapo-elre, e yco ei/L"] For this USC of 

the imper. of Gapo-clv (so always in the 
Gospels and Acts, Oappeiv in Epp. ; 
WH., Notes, p. 149) cf. x. 49, Mt. ix. 
2, 22, Jo. xvi. 33, Acts xxiii. n. 
Eyoi clpi = ( It is I, cf. Lc. xxiv. 39, 
eyo> el/j.1 aurds, and the use of "OXj 
LXX. eyco, in the O.T. (BDB., p. 59). 
In the Fourth Gospel the phrase 
sometimes (viii. 24, 28, 58, xiii. 19) 
rises to the level of its use in Deut. 
xxxii. 39, Isa. xliii. 10; see Westcott 
on Jo. viii. 24. M?/ 0o/3eIo-& : see 
Burton, 165. Augustine points the 
moral of this little episode : "quomodo 
eos volebat praeterire quos paventes 
ita confirmat, nisi quia ilia voluntas 
praetereundi ad eliciendum ilium cla- 
morem valebat cui subveniri oporte- 

51. dvfftr) irpos avrovs fit TO n\OLOv] 
Cf. Jo. vi. 21, rj6f\ov ovv Xa/3eti/ avrov 
els TO likolov (Westcott). Ai/e /3?7, in 


53 53 Kai SiaTrepdo-avres ITTI Triv <yr\v n\Bov ets Fevvrj- 

53 SictTreyoacraj Tes] + eKeidev D45abcffiq| e?rt TTJV yrjv TJXdov eis Yew. KBLA 28 
33 2 pe ] 17X0. em TT\V y-rjv T. ADNHIS al min? 1 latt syrr 17X0. eis rrjv y-rjv Tew. Xf> 
jjrinpauc arm zoh om T7]V yy V me arm codd om ^ VVt j j Tevvrj&apeT (Tevija: FHN 69 al nona 
ff q V g coddaU i) KAB 2 LMrAS<i> 33 al a] TevrnffapcO B*(N)XH al min? 1 f q vg me 
D b c (ff) syrr 8111 ^ pr e:s 604 

a few miles to the south of the 
latter town, on the edge of the 
plain from which the lake took 
its usual name (Lc. v. i, TTJV \Lp.vr]v 
TfvvT)(rapT, I Mace. xi. 67, ro vdup 
TOV TevvTjo-ap, Joseph, ant. xviii. 2. i, 
\ipvr] Tevvrjo-aplTis). On the form Tev- 

vrjo-dp which occurs in D (Mt. Me.), 
in many MSS. of the Old Latin and 
Vg., and in the Syriac versions, see 
Chase, Syro-Latin Text of the Gos 
pels, p. 105. Gennesaret is usually 
identified with the present el-Ghu- 
weir, a semi-elliptical plain on the 
West shore between Ain-et-Tin and 
Mejdel, three miles long and rather 
more than one mile in breadth. Jo- 
sephus, who is enthusiastic in praise 
of the fertility of this district, writes 
(B.J. iii. 10. 8) TrapaTeivft de TTJV Tev 

17 ff.) ; perhaps their administration 
of the food diverted their thoughts 
from the work wrought by the Lord. 
ETTI * in the matter of/ in reference 
to, WM., p. 489, Blass, Gr. p. 137 ; 
(Twiivai eiri (but with gen. or ace.) 
occurs in Dan. xi. 37 (Th.) ; cf. a-, els, 
Ps. xxvii. (xxviii.) 5 ; eV, 2 Esdr. xviii. 
(Neh. viii.) 12. 

aXX TJV avrajv T) Kapdia TreTrco/ato/xevT/] 

Vg. 0ra enim (see w. 11.) cor illorum 
obcaecatum; Wycliflfe, "her herte was 
blyndid." For TrcopoOo-^ai see note 
on iii. 5. The xapfiia (ii. 6) includes 
the intelligence considered in its re 
lation to the moral and spiritual life 
of men; cf. 2 Cor. iii. 14, c 
voYjp.ara avraiv : Rom. i. 21, e 
rj d(rvvTos avTtov Kapdia. Both a~vv- 
eo-is and <pp6v7)o-is (for the distinc 
tion of these synonyms see Lightfoot 
on Col. i. 9) depend for their right 
exercise upon moral conditions. 

OF GENNESARET (Mt. xiv. 34 36). 

53. diaTrepdo-avres eVt TTJV yijv jJX- 
6ov\ Jo. remembers another inci 
dent of this voyage which appears 
to be miraculous. When Jesus and 
Peter entered the boat and the wind 
ceased, they found themselves at once 
close to shore, fvdea>s eyevero TO ir\olov 
ffrl TIJS yijs els r)V virrjyov : see West- 
cott s note; Euth. explains: TrX^o-ioi/ 
rrjs yfjs yevopevov TOV TrXotov. The 
phrase used by Mt., Me. (dtair. ^X- 
6ov) merely sets forth the welcome 
ending of a laborious and hazardous 
crossing. Cf. Ps. cvi. (evil) 24 ff. 

ETT! rr)V yrjv : cf. Acts XXVli. 44. 

els Tewrja-apeT] In the end they 
landed neither at Bethsaida (. 45) 
nor at Capernaum (Jo. vi. 17), but 

T Ka /caos.../LiKOff e TOV 
TrapaTeivet Kara TOV aiyia\ov TTJS o/z- 
vvfjiov Xip.VT)S eirl oradiovs TpidicovTa KCU 
fvpos fiKoo-i. For the descriptions of 
recent travellers see Stanley, / and P., 
PP- 374, 3 82 ; Wilson, Recovery, p. 338 ; 
Tristram, B. P., p. 313 ; G. A. Smith, 
H. G., p. 443 n. ; Merrill, Galilee, p. 
32 f. The place has lost the glories 
which Josephus praises; towns and 
villages, cultivated lands and vine 
yards are gone. But the visitor still 
finds much to admire the pearly 
whiteness of the shell-strewn beach, 
the thickets of oleander blossoming 
along the watercourses, the profusion 
of wild flowers, the fine cliffs which 
guard the two extremities of the 
plain, and then recede to join the 
Galilean hills. In extent el-Ghuweir 
corresponds very nearly to the Batihah 
which the Lord had just left; but 



VI. 56] 

crapeT, v TrpocrcopfULKrurja av. " Kai e^eMJovTiav avTcov 54 8 
IK TOV 7T\oiov evdvs eiri yvovTe^ avTOv 55 7repi6$pajuov 55 
o\nv TY\V -^(jopav eKeivt]V, Kai f/p^avTO erri TO!S Kpa- 
TOVS /ca/ccos e ^oi/Tas TrepKpepeiv OTTOV ijKOvov 



56 Kai OTTOV av ela-eTTOpeveTO ek 

53 om Kai irpoo-upiuo-d-riffav D i 28 209 604 a b c ff i q r syrr Bin P e " h arm 54 avTov] 
+ 01 avdpes TOV roirov e/cewou (/cat) AGA(3>) i 13 28 33 (69) (604) 1071 (2^) al nonn c 
arm (syr? 6811 ) 55 Trepi5pa/j.ovTes (om /cat seq) ANXTTI al? 1 | x w P a - v ^BLA 33 

me] Trepixwpov ADNXmZ<f> min? 1 vg syr hcl arm | /c/aa/Sa/crots tf, Kpaparots F*XA 
Kpa(3j3a.Tois B 2 EH | oirov TJKOVOV] r}Kov(r6r) ^ Trepte<j>epov yap avrovs o. av yKowav 
D a (b ff i q) aeth | on ecrrti/] TOV Iv eivat, D a ff o. e/cet e<TTiv ANXm2* al min? 1 
Byr hci me arin 5 <5 av ABDLNH] eav 

while the scene of the miracle was 
little more than a waste of pasture 
dotted with an occasional village or 
homestead, the plain to which He 
had now come was densely populated. 
The retirement and rest He had 
sought were at an end, as soon as 
He was seen on the beach of Gen- 

7rpo(T(op^i<rdrja-av\ Vg. adplicue- 
runt ; they brought the boat to her 
moorings, casting anchor, or lashing 
her to a post on the shore. The 
word is CLTT. Xey. in Biblical Greek, 
but both act. and mid. are classical, 
and there are examples of the ist 
aor. pass, in a middle sense in late 
writers, e.g. Aelian and Dio Cassius. 

54. evdvs fTTiyvovres avrov] It 
must have been early and hardly 
daylight (comp. vi. 48 with Jo. vi. 
21 ); yet, as on the previous day 
when He left the neighbourhood of 
Capernaum (v. 33), there were peo 
ple about who recognised Him and 
spread the news. For tVi-yu^o-Keu/ 
in the sense of personal recognition 
cf. Mt. xvii. 12, Lc. xxiv. 16, 31, Acts 
iv. 13. 

5 5. 7TfpiedpafJ,ov o\rjv rrjv ^copai/] Mt. 
TTJV irepix<pov: the news was hastily 
carried round to all parts of the 
plain. Hepirpexeiv is GOT. Xcy. in 
the N. T. ; but occurs in the LXX. 
(Amos viii. 12, Jer. v. i, 

Here it vividly depicts the circula 
tion of the tidings throughout the 
Ghuweir. As the result, there came 
from every quarter streams of people 
bringing their sick for healing. For 
Trfpxfrepfiv see 2 Cor. iv. 10. With 

7Tpt8pafj.ov...rjp^avTo nepK^epftv COinp. 
Mt. s tamer aTreVreiAai/. . .irpoo-rjveyKav. 

The sick were carried on their pallets 
(eVi Toty KpapcLTTois : Me. only, see note 
on ii. 4); the course of the bearers was 
shaped by the reports that reached 
them from time to time as to the Lord s 
movements (onov TJKOVOV OTL e<rrti>). 
"EO-TIV, the present, as if one caught 
the reply of those of whom inquiry 
was made : he is here, or there. 

56. OTTOV av el(T7ropfVTO KrA.] 

Whenever in His progress He en 
tered a village, He found the sick laid 
in the open spaces ready for His 
healing. In strictness dyopai would 
exist only in the towns, at Magdala 
and Capernaum and Chorazin and 
Bethsaida; but the word is appa 
rently used here loosely to include 
other open spaces. Ei> rals TrXareiats 
(D), Vg. in plateis, which is followed 
by all the English versions except 
R.V., is perhaps from Acts iv. 15. 
IloXets and c3/zat are classed together 
in Mt. x. n, Lc. viii. i, xiii. 22, KOJ/ICU 
and dypoi in vi. 36, Lc. ix. 12 : the 
combination of the three covers every 
collection of dwellings large and 



[VI. 56 

TroAets rj ets dypovs ev TCUS dyopdis eTideorav TOVS 
, Kal TrapeKaXovv CIVTOV iva KCLV TOV Kpa- 

VII i 

TOV i/maTiov avTOV a^covTac Kal ocroi av 
avTOu ecra)(^ovTO. ./ 
x Kai crvvd yovTai Trpos O.VTOV ol <Papi<raioi Kai 




ov avTOV OTL 

56 cv TCUS ayopacs] pr t] K ev rcus TrXaretcus D 604 2^ b C f f i q vg go 

minP er pa uc ] endow A(D)NXTIIS<I> min? 1 | -rj^/avro biBDLA i 13 28 33 69 124 
346 2 pe a] IJITTOVTO ANXriIS4> min pl tangebant latt^P 1 ^ syrr a\f/wvrai 604 
dteo-ufovTo NS i 69 604 alP auc dieffwdrjffav A cffudijaav 33 2 pe VII 

NS qui venerant abf (q) 2 idovres] eiSores D | oTi...<r6iov<riv KBLA 33] ea-diovras 
ADNXmS^> al min pl a go | KOLV. %. r. e. avnrr.] non lotis manibus b c ( S yrr sin P esh aeth) 

small. On the construction see WM., 
p. 384, Burton, 315 f., Blass, Gr. 
p. 207. 

KOL irapcK.ah.ovv avrov /crX.] Again 
and again the entreaty was heard. 
The fame of the healing of the af- 
fj.oppoovo-0. had spread (Victor : 77 yap 
alfioppoova a iravras eSi Sa^e 0tXo(ro- 
(peiv) ; so simple a means of obtain 
ing a cure appealed to the popular 
imagination, and under the circum 
stances the Lord permitted its use. 
Of. Acts iv. 15, xix. ii f. On the 
Kpdo-Trcdov, and on <av t see v. 27, 28 

ocroi av r/^ai/ro avrov <ra>ovrd] 
For the construction see the refer 
ences at the end of the last note. 
The aor. (see w. 11.) points to the 
momentariness of the touch in each 
case ; the imperfect which follows, 
to the rapid succession of the cases. 
Mt. again is less picturesque (oa-oi 
TjtyavTO 8ia-<a0T](rav). For o-<e(r0cu in 
reference to physical restoration 
see v. 28 ; on the orthography cf. 
WSchm., p. 41. 

MONIAL WASHINGS (Mt. xv. i 9). 

I. o-vvdyovrai] See iv. I, V. 21, 

vi. 30. The Lord s person is the 
rallying-point for both friends and 
enemies ; cf. Mt. xxv. 31, 32. Of the 

Pharisees there has been no mention 
since iii. 6 ; during the interval they 
may have been occupied by their 
intrigue with the Herodians, of which 
perhaps we see the fruit in vi. 14. 
Now that Jesus has returned to the 
W. shore, they fall back upon their 
old policy of insidious questioning. 
The Scribes from Jerusalem (iii. 22) 
are still with them, unless, as nvcs... 
c\66vTcs suggests, these are another 
party, newly arrived. Mt. is less pre 
cise : Trpoo-epxovrai r<5 I. OTTO lepocr. 
<bapioraloi Kal ypaufiarels. Cf. Bede : 
"non ad verbum audiendum...sed ad 
movendas solum quaestiones pugnae 
ad Dominum concurrunt" 

2. idovres Tivas...oTi..,O 0iov(riv] A 
mixture of the two constructions Idov- 

Tfs Tivas...or6iovras (cf. i. IO, vi. 48, 
49) and 18. on ccrdiawriv rives (ii. 16, 
ix. 25). The opportunity probably 
arose during the passage of the party 
through the plain (vi. 56) ; the loaves 
were very possibly some of the K\a- 
o-jLiara with which their baskets had 
been filled the night before, and 
which now served them as an e<p6diov. 
Koivals Xfpa-lv, TOVT fcrnv aviTTrois] 
Koii/o?, * polluted, ceremonially un 
clean/ occurs in i Mace. i. 47 0veiv 
veia Kal K-rrjvr) Koivd (A, V : N*, TroXXa), 
ib. 62 <f>ayelv Koivd (for Kptp? see ^ u ^" 

VII. 3] 



z ol yap <Papi(Taioi KCLI 


ol lovScuoi eav LLT 

2 TONS (om TOUJ AXm al) aprons] + c^e^avTo KMNSUIIZ3? al min? 1 Kareyvwo-av 
D vituperaverunt latt^P 1 ^ ( S yrrP eshhcl arm) 

lemard on Mt. xv. 1 1), cf. 4 Mace. vii. 6 
yaorepa fKoivaxras (^ : A, Koiva>vrjo~as} 

fjuepocpayta : in the N.T., outside this 
context, KOIVOS is similarly used in 
Acts x. 14, 28, xi. 8, Rom. xiv. 14, 
Heb. x. 29, Apoc. xxi. 27, and KOIVOVV 
or Koivova-dai (mid. and pass.) in 
Acts x. 15, xi. 9, xxi. 28, Heb. ix. 13. 
This use of KOWOS corresponds to the 

Rabbinic Vin, fc^-in (Edersheim, ii. 
9 n.) ; the KOIVOV is the opposite of the 
ayiov or tadapov (Westcott on Heb. 
x. 29). Hence Mc. s explanation, T. e. 
dvijTTois, must be taken to interpret 
the word only in reference to the 
particular case ; unwashed hands 
were, for the purpose of eating, Koivai. 
For TOUT eoTiv as a formula of in 
terpretation cf. Mt. xxvii. 46, Acts 
i. 19, Rom. vii. 18, Heb. ii. 14 ; on the 
question whether it is to be written 
as two words see WSchm., p. 37, Blass, 

GrT., pp. 1 8, 77. On eo-0ifiv rovs ap- 

TOVS (rov apTov, v. 5) see Dalman, 
Worte, p. 92. 

3 4. Another apparently editorial 
note. There is no trace of it in Mt. 
Cf. Zahn, JZinleitung, ii. p. 241. 

3. ol yap 4>. KOI rrdvTes ol lovdcubf] 

Except in the phrase 6 ftao-i\evs 

ra>v *Iovo a.i(0v (XV. 2 ff.), ol lovSaiot is 

used by Me. here only; in Mt. with 
the same exception it is limited to 
xxviii. 15, and in Lc. to vii. 3, xxiii. 51. 
On Jo. s use of the term see Westcott s 
t John, Intr. p. Ix. ; ot lovoaloi are 
in the Fourth Gospel the opposite of 
the o^Xo? : " as the multitude re 
flect the spirit of Galilee, the Jews 
reflect the spirit of Jerusalem " ; they 
are "the representatives of the narrow 
finality of Judaism." In some such 
limited sense the term is probably 
used here by Me. and Mt. ; "the Jews* 

who "all" hold the tradition of the 
Elders are not the masses, but the 
strict and orthodox minority who 
supported the Scribes. Yet ceremo 
nial purification was usual in religious 
households (cf. Westcott on Jo. ii. 6), 
and the Lord had probably conformed 
to it at Nazareth ; He resists merely 
the attempt to enforce it as an essen 
tial (Hort, Jvd. Chr., p. 29 f.). On the 
origin and extent of these practices 
see Schiirer n. ii. p. 106 ff. 

fav p.r) irvy vfyavrai ras ^ 

(Exod. xxi. 1 8, Isa. Iviii. 4, = sfnj 
is the closed hand, the fist a-vy- 
K\fio-is Sa/cruXa>i/, Suid. ; cf. Find. Ol. 
7. 30, TTvyp-TJ viKijcravTa. The word is 
used in late Gk. for the length of the 
arm between the fist and the elbow ; 
hence Euth. and Thpht. interpret 
here a^pi dyicwvos, i.e. thrusting the 
arm into the water up to the elbow. 
Cf. J. Lightfoot ad L, and Eder 
sheim, who renders P}SH *W ? "to 
the wrist"; but it is difficult to see 
how Trvypfj can be made to bear the 
meaning of ecos- rfjs 7rvyp,fjs. The 
reading Trvicvd (Vg. crebro, Wycliffe 
and the other English versions exc. 
R.V., "oft") may be a gloss bor 
rowed perhaps from Lc. v. 33, if it 
be not due to corruption (cf. Try/t/i^, 
D) ; the rendering of the Pesh. 
s, see Lc. 

xv. 8) is another gloss which we have no 
means of verifying (see however Morj- 
son, St Mark, ad I.); for the marginal 
gloss in Syr. hcl - see Field (Notes, p. 
30 f.), who renders it a7ro/Xvbi/res r<5 
vdan TOVS 8aKTi>\ov$ avr&v. On the 
whole it is perhaps best to take Trvynfj 
literally, with the fist, i.e. either 
with the hand held out with clenched 
fingers while the attendant pours 



OVK. ecrOiovcriv, K 

[VII. 3 


4 TY\V 



3 AB (D TTV/C/XI?) LNW d XriI2^> al min omnvid pugillo cffiqr (momento a 
subinde b primo d) arm Or] irvKva K vg me go diligenter syrrP 6 * 1101 ^*) om A syr 9 " 1 | OVK 
e<?0.] + (TOP) aprov D(M 2 ) al abcffi syr sin arm 4 air ayopas] + 

abcffilqr (arm) 

water over it (2 Kings iii. 1 1 ) ; or as 
Meyer- Weiss explains, "so dass sie 
die geballte Faust in die hohle Hand 
stecken, erstere in der letzteren reiben 
und drehen." In the first case the 
dat. is modal, in the second instru 
mental. A possible alternative is to 
treat as the dat. of measure 
by elbow-length (see above). But 
it must be confessed that no ex 
planation hitherto offered is wholly 

NtTrreiz/, vLTrreffBai are used of the 
feet (Gen. xviii. 4, 2 Regn. xi. 8, Jo. 
xiii. 5 ff., i Tim. v. 10), the hands 
(Exod. xxx. 19 ff., Lev. xv. n, Ps. 
xxv. (xxvi.) 6), the face (Mt. vi. 17, Jo. 
ix. 7 ff.), in contrast to XoiW&zc, to 
bathe the whole body : cf. Jo. xiii. 10, 

TTJV Trapocriv T&V irpeo"- 
ftvTepa>v\ Cf. Joseph, ant. xiii. 10. 6, 
vofjiifjui TroXXa riva Trapedocrav rai 
ot Qapio-aioi etc irarepav diado^s 
OVK dvayeypaiTTai cv rots 
vo^ois. The rule, at least in its de 
tails, belonged not to the Torah, but 
to the Qabbalah (Taylor, Pirqe Aboth, 
pp. 1 20, 128), and to its non-canoni 
cal part (Edersheim, ii. p. 9). The 
Elders (D*3i?.J) are here of course not 
the officers of the synagogue or mem 
bers of the Sanhedrin, but such great 
teachers as Hillel and Shammai, or 
the scribes of former generations (cf. 
Heb. xi. 2, where ot irp. = oi Trarepes, 
i. i), perhaps especially the members 
of the Great Synagogue, see Aboth, 
i. i ff., and Dr Taylor s account, p. 124 ; 
the trapaSoo-is T. irp. is the sum of the 
7rapa86o-is TrarpiKaL (Gal. i. 14) after 

wards embodied in the Mishnah, which 
every Pharisee and disciple of the 
Pharisees sought to keep inviolate. 
On St Paul s attitude with regard 
to tradition cf. Hort, Jud. Chr. y 
p. 1 1 8, and cf. Lightfoot on 2 Th. 

ii. 15. For Kparelv irapdboviv see 
2 Th. I.C., and cf. Kparelv SiSaxnVy 

Apoc. ii. 14, 15, or with the gen., p. 
ofjioXoyias, Heb. iv. 14, where see West- 
cott s note. The affection with which 
even the Egyptian Jews in the second 
century before Christ clung to a 
similar tradition is illustrated in the 
Sibyllines, iii. 591 sq., aXXa (j.ev deipovo-i 

Trpos ovpavbv coXevas dyvas | opBioi e 
fvvfjs del X*P as dyviovTfs | vdart. See 

J. Lightfoot on Mt. xv. 2 ff, and espe 
cially Edersheim, Life, ii. p. 9 ff. 

4. KOI an dyopas KrX.] After min 
gling with men of all sorts in the open 
market, they purified the whole person 
before taking food. The Apostles had 
been ev rais dyopals (vi. 56), jostled by 
a mixed crowd, yet they had not even 
washed their hands. ATT dyopas, Vg. 
a foro, after market ; a pregnant 
construction, see WM., p. 776 n., and 
cf. Theophrast. char. 16, Trfpippavdpevos 
OTTO lepov. The purification was ef 
fected by sprinkling (cf. the vdutp 
pavTio-pov of Num. xix. 9 ff., and the 
metaphorical use of the verb and 
substantive in Ps. 1. (Ii.) 7, Zach. xiii. 
i, Heb. x. 22, Apoc. xix. 13), or, 
according to the alternative reading 
(see vv. 11.), by dipping (cf. 4 Regn. v. 
14, Judith xii. 7). But fiaTrTia-avrai 
suggests a standard which is Essene 
rather than Pharisaic, unless, as J. 
Lightfoot suggests, an immersion of 
the hands only is intended. Cf. how- 

VII. 5 ] 





a 7rape\a(3ov 

/3a7TTia*/zoi)s TTOTrjpiwv 

4 pa.vTi.auv7 -at KB 40 53 71 86 237 240 244 259 Euth] /3a7rrj-u>z>rai (-cro^rat, 
/Tat, -{OVTO.I) ADEFGHKLMNSUVXrAIISS latt syrr arm Or | a irape\apov] curep 
B | Kpareiv ] TTjpeiv D servare latt vtplvg | /cat xaX/ctwp (-/ceiwi AL min 8 ** 11111 )] om 
syr Bin + /cai /cXtPwi ADXmS< al min? 1 latt syrrP 6 " 111101 go arm Or (om KBLA mini*"-puc 
syr sin me) 5 /cat i] eTretra A corr XTnS($) al min? 1 S yrr( 6in ) hcl go arm eiretra Kai A 

ever Justin, dial. 46, where Trypho 
mentions among ordinary Jewish prac 
tices TO /3a7TTieo-#at atyapfvov TWOS coi/ 
aTnyyopevTai IITTO Mcotrecas. 

aXXa Tj-oXXa] I.e. in the way of 
lustration or ceremonial purification, 
besides the purification of the person. 
For TrapaXaftetv as the correlative of 
irapadovvaL see i Cor. xv. i, 3, 2 Thess. 
iii. 6 : Kparelv is the inf. of purpose 
(Burton, 366), cf. WM., p. 401. 

Panno-poiis TroTTjpitov KrX.] Cf. Heb. 
ix. 10, diacpopois fiaTTTio-fjiols, on which 
see Westcott s note; the word does 
not occur in the O.T., but parrTigfo-Qai 
d?ro veKpoii is used in Sir. xxxi. (xxxiv.) 
30 in reference to the law of Num. 
xix. For Talmudic directions as to 
the dipping of vessels see Chagigah 
(ed. Streane, p. 1 1 5 ff.). The vessels 
specified are (i) Tror^pta, ordinary 
drinking cups (cf. ix. 41, xiv. 23, Lc. 
x i- 39)) whether of earthenware or 
metal (Esth, i. 7, Apoc. xvii. 4), (2) 
eVrai, Vg. urcei, pitchers or ewers, 
possibly of wood (Lev. xv. 12) or of 
Stone (Jo. ii. 6, \i6ivai vdptat), (3) ^aX- 
ja a, vessels of brass or copper, as pots 
used in cooking (i Regn. ii. 14, 2 Chron. 
xxxv. 13, i Esdr. i. 12). Sfa-rrjs (sex- 
tariiis) occurs in two MSS. of Lev. xiv. 
10 (see Hastings, D. B. iv., art. 
Weights} and in Joseph, ant. viii. 2. 9 
(d de fiaros dvvaTai eoras e/SSo/ZT/Kot/ra 

8vo) as a measure; the word passed 
into Rabbinic (Ntppp). The Western 
addition KOI K\IVG>V (vv. 11.) is interest 
ing and possibly genuine, though (3cnr- 
vs...K\ii>o}v seems an incongruous 

S. M. 2 

combination; the mention of K\ivai 
(whether beds or triclinia) may have 
been suggested by the legislation of 
Lev. xv. See WH., Notes, p. 25. 

5. KOI fTTfpcurwcrtv avrov] The sen 
tence broken off at the end of v. 2 is 
resumed, but /cat is repeated in for- 
getfulness that <al Idovres remains 
without a finite verb. The R.T. gets 
rid of the anacoluthon by adding 
e/if /i^ai/ro to v. 2 (Vg. cum vidissent. . . 
vituperaverunt}. ETTfpwTai , supra 
v. 9; cf. vii. 17, viii. 23, &c. The 
word does not imply hostility, but the 
question itself leaves no doubt of the 
attitude of those who put it; cf. ii. 
1 8, 24. The Pharisees and the Scribes 
(oi *. ai of yp.} are distinguished as in 
v. i ; they formed on this occasion two 
parties, distinct though allied. IleptTra- 
Tflv, here only in the Synoptic Gospels 
in the ethical sense, which is fairly 
common in St John (viii. 12, xii. 35 
bis, i Jo. i. 6, &c.), and frequent in 
St Paul; the idea is found in the 
O.T., see Gen. v. 22 (where for the 
LXX. fvT)pe<rrr)(rei> TO> $eo>, Aq. renders 
literally Treptfn-aTet ovv T<B 6.\ Prov. 
viil 20, Eccl. XL 9. For irfpiir. Kara 

(4! ^?n) see Rom. viii. 4, xiv. 15, 2 Cor. 
x. 2, 3, Eph. ii 2 ; Kara indicates con 
formity with a rule or standard, WM., 
p. 500. The standard maintained by 
the Scribes was that of the Halachah 

the rule by which men must 
walk ). Mt, less idiomatically, irapa- 
ftaivovcrw r. irapd8o<riv. For T. 7rapd~ 
do<riv T. irp. see note on v. 3. 




[VII. 5 


ol < PapL(raloL Kai ol y pafJLfjLaTeis Aid TL ov TrepL- 
TraTOVcrtv ol /mad^Tai <rov KCITCC TYIV 7rapd$o(riv TCOV 
TT peer (3vTep tov, d\\d KOIVCUS -^epalv ecrBiovcriv TOV 
6 dpTOV ; 6 6 Se eiTrev avTols KaXtos 7rpo(priTevcrev 
Hcraiccs Trepi vfjiiiov TWV VTTOKpiTtav &>s yeypaTTTai OTL 

5 om /cat OL ypapfj,. A | KOIVCUS fct*BD i 28 33 118 209 604 2 pe aiq vg me arm] 
K c - a ALXTAIIZ<l> al minP 1 b c f ff eyrr go | xe/xru ] pr rats D 28 60 5e] 

+ a.TroKpi9eis ADXm al min? 1 latt syr hcl arm go | /caXus] pr on ADXm al min? 1 | 
KB*DLA i 13 33 124 346 1071] Tr/>oe0. AB 2 Xm2<l> al min? 1 | om rtav 
syr" 11 j ojs yeypaTrrai] /cat eiwev D ws eiirev i 2 pe arm \eyuv 604 e f i qui dixit 
a b | om OTL ADXTAH al min omnvid 

dXXa Koivais KT\.] Mt. paraphrases, 
ov yap viTTTovrai ras x f ^P as orav aprov 
fo-ditoo-iv. Me., after the explanation 
of vv. 2, 3, is able to give the words 

as they were uttered. Toy apTov = 
aprovs, v. 2 ; for the sing, with art. cf. 

Jo. vi. 23 ; (payciv aprov (EH? 7OX) 
is usual, but the article points to 
what is passing before the eyes. 

6. 6 de flirfv avTols KT\.~\ The 
time had come for plain speaking, for 
the Scribes had called attention to 
the very heart of the controversy 
between Jesus and themselves. The 
answer consists of two parts, (a) vv. 
68, (5) 913; Mt. has both, but 
inverts the order perhaps rightly, 
for the sharp retort dta TL KOL vpcls... 
is lost in Me., and the stern vTroKpirai 
seems to come better after the ex 
posure of their inconsistency than at 
the outset. 

I.e. l Isaiah s denunciation of Israel 
in his own day is admirably adapted 
to your case. For this sense of KoX&s 
cf. xii. 32 (where it is followed by eV 
a\T?0eias), Jo. iv. 17, viii. 48, xiii. 13, 
and see Schottgen ad I. ; for Trpocprj- 
revfiv Trepi with gen., i Pet. i. 10, other 
constructions are Trp. eW with ace. 
(Am. vii. 15, 16, Jer. xxxii. 16 (xxv. 
30)), ?rp. Ttvi ( Jude 14) ; on the position 
of the augment (eVpocp.) cf. WSchin., 

p. 102. 

The charge of hy 

vii. 5. 

is here for the first time 
laid at the door of the 
yet see Mt. vi. 2, 5, 15, 
TTOKptTT? s P]3n occurs in Job 
xxxiv. 30, xxxvi. 13 (LXX.), and in Job 
xx. 5 (Aq.). In the Pss. of Solomon 
vTTOKpto-Ls is a charge constantly 
brought against the Sadducees by 
the Pharisaic author, e.g. iv. 7, e - 

dpai 6 0eos TOVS ev inroK.pLcTL (avras 

fj.Ta oa-L&v (see Ryle and James, 
ad 1.). The Scribes may well have 
been startled to hear the reproach 
cast back upon themselves. 

(Of ycypaTTTdi ort] Cf. Kadas ytyp., 

i. 2 (note), and for on as introducing 
a citation see ii. 17. The passage 
quoted is Isa. xxix. 13. In the quo 
tation Mt. and Me. agree, whilst both 
differ from the LXX. in two points. 
(i) The LXX. gives (with M.T.) : eyyi&i 

fioi 6 Xaos ovros fv ro) crrd/u,an avrov 
/cat eV rots 1 ^etXecrtf avraiv Tip-axriv p.e 
(B), or in the shorter text of NA, e yy. 


LL : in Mt., Me. the sentence is ab 
breviated still further. (2) The LXX. 

has : StSaovcoi/res 4 eVraX/zara av6pa>7ra>v 

KOL 8idaarK.a\ias. Here there is no 
important variant in the MSS., yet 
Mt., Me. omit KOL and place dida- 
a-KaXias before eVr., without approach 
ing nearer to the M.T. which gives 
(R.V.) "their fear of me is a command 
ment of men which hath been taught 
them " (cf. Aq. Symm. Th., eyevero TO 



Aaos OVTOS TO?? 


Y Se 

7TOppC*} 7T6^L O.7T 6/ULOV jULaT^V CTeoVTa J 

jULCy &Sa<ncoyT9 SiSacrKaXias evTaXfjiaTa dvBpcoTrcov. 
s d(pevTes TY\V evToXqv TOV 6eov KpaTelre TY\V Trapd- 8 


6 o Xaos ovros BD b cf iq. vg] our. o X. KALXrAII al | rt/ui] ayaTra D a b C (cf. 
Clem-Al) rtytca /cat a*ya7ra aeth j arrest] CKpeffrrjicev D aTrecmv L aP" eart^ Clem-Al 2 est 
lattP 1 Clem-R Clem-Al 1 aireffTfj A 7 ejraXyuara] pr /cat a c f (vg) | avdpuirwv] 

+ /3a7TTto-yC40us %(TT(av Kai. 7TOTtjpi.wv /cat aXXa irapo/JLOia a Trotetrat rotaura TroXXa D 
8 totum versum om syr sin | a^ei/res] + 70/3 AXriI2^> al minP 1 f vg syrr go | av- 
Qpwirtav^+paTTT. effr. K. TTOT. K. aXXa (om aXXa A al pauc ) Trap, roiavra TroXXa Trotetre 
(A)(F)(W d )XriI2<i> al minP 1 f vg syrr go arm aeth 9 om /cat eX. aur. 28 syr sin 

studied in juxtaposition in Tit. i. 9 (see 
Hort, Ecdesia, p. 191). Ei/raX/iara 
is in apposition to 5tS., inasmuch 
as they teach doctrines (which are) 
commandments of men 3 ; cf. vi. 43, 
ripav K\aa-p.aTa...7r\r)pa>fjLaTa (WM., p. 
664 f.) . The pi. perhaps points to 
the multiplicity of the details, and the 
absence of an underlying principle: 
contrast eWoXi?, v. 8 (note), and c 

Tit. i. 14, eVroXat dv6pwTra)v. 

8. d(f)(VT(s TTjv evroXr/v /crX.] Per 
haps a doublet of v. 9; Mt. has an 
other form of the saying, correspond 
ing more nearly with the next verse. 
The Law of GOD (17 cWoXi;, Ps. cxviii. 
(cxix.) 96, cf. i Tim. vi. 14, 2 Pet. ii. 21, 
iii. 2) is regarded as an unit ; eWoXi; is 
properly a single commandment, but 
seems to be here used in opposition 
to cWaX/Liara (o. 7) for the Law as a 
whole, the manifold expression of the 
one principle of love (Rom. xiii. 8 ff., 
Gal. v. 14). The evroXij is here the 
Torah as contrasted with the Hala- 

chah. Tot) 6eov...TU>v dvdpwTTcov . the 

Elders were but D^3N. (Isa. I.e.) ; the 
Torah was, as the Scribes themselves 
believed, of GOD. A like claim is 
made in the Talmud for the oral 
tradition (cf. Taylor, Abolh, p. 119 ff., 
Streane, Chagigah, p. vi.), but this 
does not seem to have been openly 
maintained in our Lord s time. 

10 2 

e/ie eWoX?) 

St Paul (Col. ii. 22) seems 
to follow the LXX. ; Justin has both 
forms (dial. 78, 140, see Resch, Par- 
alleltexte, p. 170). The facts are per 
plexing, but a solution is perhaps to 
be sought in the direction to which 
reference has been made in the note 
on i. 2; see Hatch, Essays, p. 117 f. 
The readings of D and some of the 
Old Latin texts are interesting : see 
VV. 11. ; with ayana cf. Ps. Ixxvii. 
(Ixxviii.) 36. On the readings of 
Clement of Rome see Intr. to O.T. 
in Greek, p. 408, and on those of 
Clement of Alexandria, Barnard, Bib 
lical Text of Clement, p. 30 f. 

7. fiaTrjv 8e (reftovrai jze /crX.] MCITTJV 
oV represents -in HI, which the LXX. 
read in place of M.T. ^njjll ; see Nestle 
in Eap. T. xi. p. 330 f. The fruitless- 
ness of the Pharisaic religion was due 
to its self-imposed and external cha 
racter. Ai6W/taXt a, a rare word in 
Biblical Gk. (Prov. 1 Sir. 2 Rom. 2 Eph. 1 
Col. 1 ), except in the Pastoral Epp. 
(i Tim. 8 2 Tim. 3 Tit. 4 ), is a doctrine, a 
definite piece or course of instruction, 
as contrasted with 8t8axr], which is 
properly an act or line of teaching (i. 
22, 27, iv. 2), though SiSa^?; sometimes 
(Rom. vi. 17, xvi. 17) is used in a 
sense scarcely distinguishable from 
The two words may be 




^v TOV 6eov, iva TY\V Trapa&ocriv 

10 v/ucov TrjprjcrrjTe. M(*)V(rrjs <ydp eiirev 77/za TOV 
TraTepa crov Kai TY\V imrjTepa crov Kai O KaicoXoycoi/ 

11 TraTepa rj jULrjTepa Qavourw TeXef Terror XI i5/>ie?9 Se 
Ae^eTe Gcti/ eiTrrj avOptoTros TCO TraTpl rj Trj jmrjTpi 
Kop/3dv (o e&Tiv Acopov), o edv e IJULOV (*)(pe\r]6rjs, 

9 evTO\r]i>] (3ov\ir)V A | TTjprja-rjTe (njprjTe B)] ffTr}<r-r]T D I 28 209 2 1 * statuatis lat vt 
syrr sin P esh arm go 1 Cypr 10 MUXTTJS ALXP al min pl n eav\ os av A 33 | 

om avdpuiros 33 o avfy). 1071 

though ??i? has this meaning (e.g. in 
i Regn. xvii. 43 where the LXX. renders 
KaTTjpdo-aTo), yet in Deut. xxvii. 16, 
which closely corresponds with Exod. 
xxi. 1 6, iyj?D is represented by a 
an^a^W (cf. Guillemard on Mt. xv. 4). 
The correction is clearly important in 
view of the Lord s argument. Gamro) 
reXeurareo (Me. Mt.) = D-1D* JTlO ; SO 
codd. AF in Exod. xxi. 16 (17), where 
cod. B has reXevr7;o-et 6. 

1 1. vfAfls $ Xcyere AcrX.] You. 
(emph.) set yourselves against Moses. 
(cf. Jo. v. 45 if.), for your tradition 
(v. 9) permits, and under certain cir 
cumstances requires, a son to dis 
honour his parents. Eaj/ fiir-g avQp. y 
1 suppose a man shall say, Mt. os av 
e lTTT]. The apodosis would naturally 
be, as in Mt, ov ^ Tifjujo-ei (see 
Burton, 260), but Me. cuts the 
sentence short in order to proceed 
with the Lord s comment on the rule 

(oVKfTl d(j)lTf AcrX., V. 12). 

Kop/Bdv (o eo-Tiv ScSpov)] Another 
Marcan Aramaism(butseeDalman, Gr. 
p. 139 n.), with its explanatory Greek ; 
cf. v. 41. Awpoi/ represents \2~$ Lev. 35 , 
Num. 39 , 2 Esdr. 1 (|3T) ; the trans 
literation does not occur in the LXX. 
or apparently in the later Gk. ver 
sions of the O.T., or again in the 
N.T., but cf. Joseph, ant. iv. 4. 4, 

KOp(Bdv...8(0pOV $ TOVTO O~T)p,aiVl KUTO. 

c "E\\rjV(i>v y\a>o~o-av : C. A.p. i. 167, TOV 

KaXov/jifvov opKov Kopfidv (citing Theo- 

9. KO\O>S aOerflre KrX.] KaXto? is 
in part ironical (cf. Jo. iv. 17), but see 
v. 6. For dderelv see vi. 26 ; and for 
the sense it bears here (nullify, eva 
cuate, reduce to a dead letter) cf. Isa. 
xxiv. 16 (oval rols dQfTovo-iv ol dOf- 
Tovvres TOV vop.ov\ Gal. lii. 1 5 (ad. Bta- 
6r)K.rjv\ Heb. X. 28 (ad. VO^JLOV Mootxrecos ). 

The oral law was professedly a fence 3 
to the written law; in practice it 
took its place and even reversed its 
decisions. When the two were in com 
petition, the tradition was preferred : 
cf. the frank saying of R. Jochanan 
quoted by Dr Taylor I.e., "words of 
Soferim. . .are more beloved than words 
of Torah." With the Western read 
ing o-Tijo-r)T cf. Exod. vi. 4, 2 Esdr. 
xix. 8, Heb. x. 9. 

10. Mcovcr^y yap elTrev xrX.] An 
instance of the tendency censured 
in v. 9. Mt. o yap debs tlirev. The 
first citation is from the Divine Ten 
Words, incorporated in Moses/ i.e. 
the Pentateuch ; cf. 2 Cor. iii. 1 5, 
jJi/iKd av dvayivfoa-KTiTat Meoixnjy. The 

passages, which follow the LXX. with 
some slight variations, are from Exod. 
xx. 12 (Deut. v. 1 6), xxi. 16 (17); cf. 
Victor : e< Svo vo/xt/xcov aTrairel rqv els 
yoveas TL^V Kara ftov\r)o-iv $eov, evos 


TOV Tip,a)povfJ.Vov TOV evavTiws TTOI- 
In the second passage o a- 
(?.?i5P) is scarcely (as Vg., 
Wycliflfe, and the other English ver 
sions, exc. R.V.) he that curseth ; 



d(pL6T6 CLVTOV ovSev TTOLrjcrai TU> TraTpl rj Trj 12 

*TOV \6<yov TOV 6eov Trj Trapa- 13 n 


12 ou/cen] pr /ecu AXm2<I> al min? 1 f vg syrr arm go pr on L | om TW Trarpi 17 
TT; /i7/r/)t A j rw Trarpt] + auroy AXII al minP 1 | TTJ f*.r)Tpi] + aurou AXm al minP 
13 rov Xo7o ] rrjv evroXrjv i | TT; TrapaScxra UyUWJ/J + TT/ yuwpa Dabcffinq syr hcl ( m s) 5to 
TT\V Trapadoa-LV V/JL. 1071 

phrastus). A qorban is a consecrated 
gift; the Temple treasury is called 
Kopfiavas in Mt. xxvii. 6, Joseph. B. J. 
ii. 9. 4: cf. Cyprian, de op. et el. 15, 
" Dominicum celebrare te credis quae 
corban omnino non respicis 1" In 
Syriac r^iranoa is the Eucharist 
itself, as the Christian offering. The 
Scribes held that the mere act of de 
claring any property to be qorban alien 
ated it from the service of the person 
addressed ; cf. Edersheim, Life, ii. p. 
19 : "it must not be thought that the 
pronunciation of the votive word qor- 
ban.. necessarily dedicated a thing to 
the Temple ; the meaning might be that 
in regard to the person or persons 
named the thing [so] termed was to be 
considered as if it were qorban, laid on 
the altar and put entirely out of their 
reach." A son who took this way of 
relieving himself from the support of a 
father or mother was not only justified 
in his unfilial conduct, but actually 
prohibited from returning to his duty. 
Victor : e ins drtfiia yovewv 6v<riav 

jcai 6vaias a Trarpl Trape^eiv 
TOVTO[I/] Xe yere p.rjde e^flvai 

TOV Trarepa. Origen (in Matt. t. xi. 9) 
mentions a somewhat similar case 
which had been reported to him by 

a Jew : ea~6* ore, (prjaiVj ol daveioral 

KCL vvafifvoLS pev /XT 

aTToSi&omi ro XP* S o.veTi6f(rav TO ofpei- 

X6fJ.VOV iS TOV TWV 7TV1JT<0V \6yOV - B, 

proceeding which prevented the debt 
or s escape. For to<pc\elo-dai, pass., 
see v. 26, Heb. xiii. 9; CK. points to 
the source of the expected profit, cf. 
WM., p. 458. The Vg. gives the 
general sense of o cav e / 

\r)6f)squodcumque ex me tibi pro- 
fuerit ; cf. Euth. : a</>te /ja>rai TO> ^eai 
o av e efjLov Kfpftavf is. The son speaks 
from the parent s point of view, which 
regards his support as practically 
secure : the assistance which thou 
lookest to receive from me is now 
irrevocably alienated. For the Rab 
binical formulae see J. Lightfoot and 
Schottgen ad I. 

12. OVKCTI d0iere *rX.] Mt. ov 
Ti/jLijo-fi : see last note. Origen : TTJS 
Trpos TOVS yoveis Tip.fjs /nepoy rjv KOI TO 
Koivatvelv avTo is rcof ^ICOTIKWV xpeuav. 

Comp. the English Ch. catechism: 
"my duty is... to love, honour, and 
succour my father and mother." In 
illustration of this use of Tipav Jerome 
produces i Tim. v. 3, 17; cf. Theod. 
Mops, ad I. : "honora, hoc est, dili- 
gentiam illis adhibe." With OVKCTI 
ovdev cf. v. 3, ix. 8, xii. 34, xiv. 25, xv. 
5. The o edv of v. ii excludes in the 
hypothetical case all hope of material 
assistance from the moment the qor 
ban is uttered. Iloielv TI TIVI, sc. 
aya&uv, cf. v. 19, 2o ; the phrase may 
have, as in English, an opposite sense, 
cf. ix. 13. Thpht. points out that the 
Scribes may have often been not dis 
interested in their judgement : avrol 
ra d(pipa>6evTa KaT^o-dtov (cf. xii. 

13. aKvpovvTfS /crX.] A/a>po{}i> is 
stronger than dQcTelv v. 9; but he 
who habitually dOcTei, practically d/w- 
pol, invalidates and, so far as in him 
lies, repeals a law. The distinction 
is well seen in Gal. iii. 15, 17, 

pa>p,evr)v diaB^Krjv ov8e\s ddeTfl... 
OVK aKvpol. Cf. aKvpov "iroifiv in Prov. 
i. 25 (=^|), v. 7 ( = >1D): dKvpovv 
occurs in i Esdr., i, 4 Mace., and is 


VJJLWV r) TrapeScoKaTe- Kai TrapofJLOia 


14 **Kal TrpocTKaXecrdiuLevos TraXiv TOV o^Xov 

15 avTols AKOvcraTe JJLOV Wi/res Kai owere. * 5 ov$ev 

e(x)6ev TOV dvQpcoirov elcriropevofjievov ek avTov 

13 om 97 TrapedwKare syr 850 yv IT. 1071 14 ira\iv KBDLA b ff i n q vg syr hcl < m 5> 

me aeth] iravra AXmS3> al min? 1 f S yrr Bin P 8hhcl ( tIt ) arm go | a/coixrare BDHL 2^ 
jjpaucj aKovere KAXrAnZ< al min? 1 | om pov A | om Travres KLA al me | ffvvere 
BHLA 238] avviere KAXriIZ<t> al min fereomn 

cisely d/covere Kai o-wi ere : cf. WM. r 
P- 393 f-> an d contrast Me. iv. 23, ix. 
7, Eph. v. 17. 

15. ovdev eoriv J-G>6cv KT\."\ A 
fundamental canon, differentiating the 
Kingdom of GOD from Pharisaic Ju 
daism. Victor : evTfvOev o KCUVOS ap%- 
rat v6p,os 6 KCLTO. TO Trvcvpa. The merely 
external cannot defile man s spiritual 
nature (Euth., ovde yap aTrrerat rfjs 
^vxrjs ) the converse of the principle 
that the merely external cannot purify 
it (Mt. xxiii. 25, 26, Heb. ix. 9 ff.). 
For ovoev e o>0ei/ Mt. substitutes the 
explanatory ov TO flo-cpx6p(vov els TO 
o-rop-a, nothing in the way of food ; 
and similarly to ra eKTropevo^fva he 
adds e fc TOV oT-o/xaros-. Even when 
thus limited the canon goes much 
further than a protest against the 
unwritten law of Scribism ; its logical 
effect was to abrogate the Levitical 
distinction of meats clean and unclean. 
In defence of this distinction the 
Maccabean heroes had given their 
lives (i Mace. i. 62 f., 4 Mace. vii. 6), 
and a Jewish crowd, even in Galilee, 
would probably have resented the 
principle now asserted by the Lord, 
had they understood it. But it was 
not understood even by the Apostles 
until long afterwards, Acts x. 14 ff.; 
for the time the Lord was content 
to drop the seed and leave it to ger 
minate. Koivovv is used in the N.T. 
only in the technical sense (v. 2 note), 
though the Vg., which renders it coin- 

fairly common in Aq. ; in the N.T. it 
is limited to the context (Me. Mt.), 
and Gal. I.e. 

TTJ irapa86o~ei v. fj TrapeSwKare] Ap 
parently the dat. of instrument, but 
cf. Mt. fiia TTJV irapabocriv, for the 

sake of your tradition. For irapa- 
bibovai irapadoo-iv see "WM., p. 282, 
and for jj, WM., p. 202 f. The * Wes 
tern text glosses again, adding rrj 
fteopa ; see VV. 11. Ilapd/zoia rotaCra, 
such like things ; the Vg. keeps 
the tautology, similia huiusmodi. 
Tlapo/Jioios is air. Aey. in Biblical Gk., 
though frequent in class, and late 
writers; for its exact meaning cf. 
Pollux cited by Wetstein : o -yap vrapo- 

fj.oios irap o\iyov o/xoios CCTTCV. Euth. 
adds the wholesome reflexion : <poftr]- 


QUESTION (Mt. xv. 10 20). 

14. fat 7rpocrKa\ecraiJ.evos iraXiv TOV 
o^Xov] The question of v. 5 had been 
put and answered at a time of com 
parative privacy, which the Twelve 
had used for snatching a hasty meal. 
But the principle which had been 
asserted was too important to be 
dropped. It touched the heart of 
things, and was necessary for all. 
For Trpoo-KoXela-dai see note on iii. 13 ; 
TraXiv (omitted by Mt.) points to an 
unnoticed dispersion of the Genne- 
saret crowd (vi. 55 f.). For dicovo-aTe 
P.OV 7j% KOI o-vi/ere Mt. has less pre 


o SvvaTai Koivwcrcu avTOV d\\d TO. e/c TOV dv6po)7rov 
eKTTopevojULevd eo~Tiv TO, KOtvovvra TOV dv6pa)7rov. 
17 /ecu ore ei(rfj\6ev ek OIKOV OTTO TOV o^Xoiy, 67rtj- 17 
pcoTwv avTOV ol jmadrjTat avTOV Trjv TrapafioXtiv. 
**Kai \ej6L avTols OVTCOS Kai v^ets dcrvveToi ecrTe\ 18 
ov voeiTe OTL 7rdv TO e^w6ev elcTTTOpevofjievov ek TOV 

150 Svvarai ACOIVOJCTCU] TO KOLVOVV B | ra e/c TOV avdp. CKTT. KBDLA 33 2 pe latt me 
go aeth] TO, CKTT. air avrov AXm al eynveshhci arm e<mv 2 o] pr Keu , a ADXriI2$ 
al minP 1 latt | TOV ai 0/>w7roi ] + (i6) et rts c^ec (o e^w 1071 g) wra aicoveiv a/couerw 
ADXrA corr 2f> al min? 1 latt syrr arm go aeth (om XBLA* 28 me) 17 OIKOV] pr 

TOJ> t<A rninP* 110 nqv oiKtav D 2^ al 1 *" 10 | TT/V Trapafto\r)v] -n-ept TTJS Trapa.po\T)s AXriI2<l> 
minP 1 arm go 18 ov] oviru t<LUA i 604 al nonn f syr hcl (g) | om e |w^ev A syr sin | 

om ets TOV 

quinare in Mt. xv. and on its first 
occurrence in Me., retains the O.L. 
communicare (Ronsch, Itala, p. 354) 
throughout the rest of this chapter ; 
cf. the confusion of CKOIVOHTCIS, fKotvw- 
vrjo-av in the MSS. of 4 Mace. I.e. 

dXXa TO. CK TOV dvOptoirov KT\.] The 
positive side of the canon ; the source 
of human defilement is internal to the 
nature of man. C O avOpcairos, as in iL 
27, Jo. ii. 25, i Cor. ii. n, =man, i.e. 
men regarded as a generic unity. Ta 
KOIVOVVTO. : on the art. with the predi 
cate see WM., p. 141 f. For v. 16 of 
the R.T. see vv. 11. It has been intro 
duced as the proper sequel to v. 14 ; 
cf. iv. 9. 

17. teal ore clo-r}\6ei> KT\.] A third 
stage in the incident. To the crowd 
the new law was stated in a parabolic 
form; to the disciples it is now in 
terpreted (cf. iv. 10 ff., 33 f.). Et? OIKOV, 
whether Simon s house at Capernaum 
(i. 29, ii. i, &c.), or the house of some 
disciple in one of the Gennesaret 
villages, does not appear; in either 
case it supplied a temporary rest. 
For dn-o away from 3 see WM., p. 463. 
This detail is wanting in Mt., who on 
the other hand is alone in attributing 
the question of the disciples to Peter. 
Whether from his position 

Mt. x. 2) or from natural readiness to 
speak, St Peter seems to have been 
the usual spokesman, cf. Me. viii. 29 ff., 
ix. 5, x. 28, xi. 21, xiii. 3, Mt. xv. 15, 
Lc. viii. 45, xxii. 8. With 

...TTJV Trapa/SoX^i/ cf. iv. IO; Mt. 

Qpacrov r]\iiv TTJV TT. : the parable is 
here little more than a proverbial 
saying, as in Lc. iv. 23. See the 
conversation which precedes this re 
quest in Mt. (xv. 12 14). 

1 8. OVTCHS Kal vfjifls do~vvToi eWe;] 
For OUTCOS Mt. has oKfj^v^ert: OVT&S 
is sic (Vg.) or siccine (Field) rather 
than tarn i in Gal. iii. 3, Heb. xii. 21 
the juxtaposition of the adv. with the 
adj. decides for the latter meaning. 
Kat i5/ueTff, ye (emph.) also 3 (Jo. vi. 
68) as well as the crowd (cf. iv. n). 
A.O-VVCTOS looks back to ^ O-VVL&O-IV 
(Isa. vi. 9, cited Me. iv. 12) : the word 
occurs also in Rom. i. 21, 31, x. 19. 
The ao~uveTos is the man who lacks 
the discernment (ff Se o-vvfo-is KpiTturj, 
Arist. Eth. Nic. vi. ii, cited by 
Lightfoot on CoL i. 9) which comes 
from the due use of the illuminated 
intelligence ; hence he is near of kin 
to the dvorjTos (Lc. xxiv. 25, GaL I.e. ; 
cf. Me. viii. 17, 2 Tim. ii. 7). Thus 
do~vvToi prepares for ov voeire which 
immediately follows (Mt. Me.). 



19 av6pu)7Tov ov StWrcu avTOV KOLvaxraL, I9 OTt OVK. eicrTro- 
peveTai avTOV els TY]V KapSiav d\\ ek TYIV KOi\iav, 
Kal els TOV d(f)e$pa)va eKTropeveTai ; Kadapifav Travra 

20 TCC flpw/maTa. ^eXeyev Se OTL To e /c TOV dvBpcoTrou 

1 8 ov dwarai avrov /cotyaxrcu] ov /coivoi TOP avdpwirov & syr sin 19 on OUK] ov 

yap D a b i n q | eunropeveTai] eicrepxerai D | om ets T. afadpwva syr 8 " 1 arm | a^eSpwi a] 
o%ero D | eKTTOyoeverat] e/c/3aXXerai K<I> minP*" syr sin e^epxerai D | Kadaptfav KABE 
FGHLSXA i 13 28 69 124 1071 2? al Or] Kadapifrv KMUVrilS* minP 1 
go /cat Kadapifa z 8Cr arm 20 ro...e/c7ropevo / uei oi ] gwae exeunt latt 

the distinction between clean and 
unclean food. The true reading and 
interpretation were known to Origen 
(in Mt. t. xi. 12, Kara TOV Map/coi/ e Xeye 
TaCra o o-a>r7}p KaBapifav Trdvra TO, 
/Speo/iara, drjXnv OTL ov KoivovpeQa p.V 
tff&ioVTfS a loi/fialoi (pacri KrX.), who is 
followed by Gregory Thaum. and 
Chrysostom : see Field, Notes, p. 32. 
This interesting reference to the inter 
pretation put upon the Lord s words 
by the Apostolic age (cf. Acts x. 1 5 a 

o 0eo? fKaddpio-ev] is lost in the R.T. 

(see vv. 11.). In support of KaOapifav 
see Scrivener-Miller, ii. p. 336 f., and 
for a defence of Ka6aptov Burgon- 
Miller, Causes of Corruption, p. 61 f. ; 
but few students of St Mark will 
foUow Mr Miller in rejecting KaOapifav 
on the ground that its distance from 
Xe yei (v. 1 8) is inconsistent with the 
style of this Gospel. Field ad loc. 
rightly points to iii. 30 for another 
instance of a brief explanation paren 
thetically added by Me. For the 
interpretation which the supporters 
of the R.T. propose to give to Kadapi- 
ov cf. WM., pp. 669, 778 ; the view 
that Kadapifav is a nom. pendens in 
agreement with 6 acpeSpeov scarcely 
calls for consideration. 

2O. TO K TOV dvdptoTTOV KrX.] See 

v. 15 b. Mt. narrows the statement 

(f < TOV O-TOfJLdTOS for K TOV dv6pU>1TOV\ 

and anticipates the explanation (c 
TTJS Kapo ias f^epxeTat). E/ceTvo, that, 
in contrast with TO egntifv (v. 1 5) ; see 
Blass, Gr. p. 172. 

l8 19. ov 

Me. only. The words state ex 
plicitly the principle involved in v. 
15. Pollution (TO Koivovo-dat) in the 
sense contemplated by the Scribes 
can be predicated only of that which 
affects man s moral nature. There 
was no question between Christ and 
the Scribes as to external cleanliness, 
for their censure rested purely on 
religious grounds. It is therefore of 
spiritual pollution only that He speaks. 
The two spheres of human life, the 
physical and the spiritual, are here dis 
tinct ; to confuse them, as the Scribes 
did, is to ignore the commonest 
facts of daily experience. A$eSpow 
is the class. a(f)odos or aTTOTraros, Vg. 
secessus] the word occurs in Biblical 
Gk. only in this context (Mt. Me.); 
the LXX. use y a^eSpos- in another 
connexion (Lev. xii. 9), employing 
\vrpwv in this sense (4 Regu. x. 27). 
Cod. D substitutes O^TOS- in Me., re 
taining d(f>. in Mt. 

Origen in Mt. t. xi. 14 has an in 
teresting reference to the Eucha 
rist: K.CLI TO ayia6[j.cvov /3p/xa...AcaT > 
avro (jiev TO V\IKOV els Tr\v KoiXiav ^eopet, 
Kara de TTJV fTrtyivojjievrjv avra> fv^v... 
o5(peAt/zoi> ytWrat...ou^ rj v\rj TOV aprou 
aXX o eV aurai flprjfjievos \6yos f<TT\v 
o <u(peXc5t TOV firj dvaf-ias TOV Kvpiov 
eo~6iovra avTov. 

19. Ka6apia*v irdvra TO. /Spaj/uara] 
A note added by a teacher or editor 
who has realised that in the preceding 
words the Lord had really abrogated 


K7ropev6fjLevov, eitelvo KOLVOL TOV av6pu>7rov ^ecrcoOev 21 N 
*yap K Tfjs KapSias TWV dvdpcoTTtov ol ^LaXoyLcrjULOi 
ol KaKoi eKTropevovTai, Tropveicu, /cAoTra/, (povoi, 

20 e/fetm D latt 21, 22 iropveiai /cXoTrcu (povot /ioixetcu fctBLA 604 me aeth] 

iropveia /cAe^ara /uoixeicu <j>ovos D fioixeicu iropveuu <povoi K\oirai ANXriI24> d minP 1 
f vg syrr smhcl /A<UX. K\OTT. iropv. <pov. a bcdff iq p>oLfc iropv. K\OTT. (pov. syr? 6811 arm 

21 22. c<r<i)0fV yap C K TT)? 

ICT\.] J "EO-C>$> answers to eo>#ft> (00. 
15, 1 8) ; for the contrast in this 
reference see Mt. xxiii. 25, 26 (r6 
Wos, TO euros), Lc. xi. 39, 40, 2 Cor. 

iv. 1 6 (6 eo> ai/$po>7ros, o e<Ta>). Bede s 

remark needs modification, but is just 
on the whole : "animae principale non 
iuxta Platonem in cerebro, sed iuxta 
Christum in corde est." For /capSia 
see ii. 6, 8, iii. 5, vi. 52, vii. 6 ; the 
seat of the moral nature is in man 
the source of moral defilement. The 
Lord states the fact without explain 
ing it ; into the question of the origin 
of evil in man He does not enter. 
His teaching stands midway between 
the O.T. doctrine of sin (e.g. Ps. li. 5, 
Isa. liii. 6, Jer. xvii. 9, cf. Schultz, ii. 
p. 292 ff.), and the Pauline doctrine 
(cf. SH., Romans, p. 143 ff.). AtaXo- 
yia-p-ol, thoughts, elsewhere chiefly in 
Lc. and Paul 

The list of sins which follows is 
twice as full as in Mt., who, while 

adding i/feu&o/zaprvpuu, omits TrXe- 
ove^iat, irovrjpiai, SoXos, acre Xyeta, 
o0$aX/zoff TrovrjpoSj virfprjcpaviaj afppo- 
<j\)vr] (Euth. : o &e MapKos airapiQiLtirai 
Kai erepa, 7rXeoi/fi ai>, Trovrjpiav, do\ov, 

ao-e Xyetai/ /crX.). Moreover, in those 
which are common to both the order 
differs: Mt. seems to follow that of 
the Decalogue as arranged in the M.T. 
and in cod. A of the LXX., whilst Me. 
is in partial accord with cod. B (ov 

K\e\lsi$, oil (f)ovev<Tis). While both 
lists begin with the SiaXoyioyioi, in 
the specification which follows Mt. 
limits himself to external sins, whilst 
Me. passes from these to mental acts 
or habits (ir\oveiai...a<f)po(rvvr)}. It 

is instructive to compare with both 
the catalogues of sins in Sap. xiv. 25 f., 
Rom. i. 29 ff., Gal. v. 20 f., Eph. iv. 
31, v. 3ff, Col. iii. 5 ff., Didache 5, 
Hernias mand. viii. 5 ; cf. Harnack, 
T. u. U. v. i. p. 86 f. The last two 
shew the influence of the Gospel lists, 
whilst Wisdom has possibly suggested 
some of its details; but in the Pauline 
passages we strike a new vein ; such 
Gentile sins as etficoXoXarpeia, (papp.a- 
Kia, and such peculiarly Greek vices 
as Ke3p.oi, eurpaTreXi a, atcr^poXoyia, are 

naturally not represented in our 
Lord s enumeration. 

21. ol dtaXoyto-fj-ol ol Ka<oC\ Mt. 
dia\oyia-fj.ol Trovrjpoi. The commission 
of any sin is preceded by a delibera 
tion, however rapid, in the mind of 
the sinner ; cf. ii. 6 ff., Lc. v. 22, Rom. 
i. 21, James ii. 4. On dta\. see Hatch, 
Essays, p. 8. Ot 8., such inward de 
liberations regarded as a class of 
mental acts ; the addition of 01 KUKOL 
marks off a part of the class, such as 
are evil in themselves (xa/coi), or mis 
chievous in their effects (-rrov^poi) see 
Trench, syn. xi. 

Tropvelai KrX.] The plurals indicate 
successive acts of sin, as they emerge 
from the inner source of human cor 
ruption ; the more subtle tendencies 
to evil which follow are in the sin 
gular (v. 22). Cf. Gal. v. 20 77X0?, 
dv/iot , the spirit of rivalry, * outbursts 
of wrath (Lightfoot), and see WM., 
p. 22O. KXoTrai : cod. D, AcXe/z/iara, cf. 

Herm. Lc. For this combination of 
sins cf. Hos. iv. 2 <f>6vos K<U K\onfj KOI 
t TT/S y^s. 



y TrXeove^iai, Trovrjpiai, SoXos, d(re\yeia 9 

Tr\eoveta SoXos Trovrjpia D \ SoXot irovrjpicu. aveXyeiai 2^ | SoXoi a<r\yeiai arm 

22. 7rXeoi>euu] Yg. avaritiae ; rather, 
impulses or acts of self-seeking. Cf. 
Plat. resp. ii. 3590 rr\v 7rXeoi>etW, o (pvcrts diwKetv ne<pvKV cos dyaoov. 
This commonest corruption of human 
nature is not spared by our Lord (Lc. 
xii. 15), or by St Paul (CoL iii. 5 rfv 
TT\. rJTis C(TT\V etStoXoXarpia) : the TrXco- 
vfKTrjs is classed by the latter with 
the Tropvos (i Cor. v. 10, 11, Eph. v. 5), 
the KXe TTTjjs, the ptdvo-os (i Cor. vi. 
10), as his vice is here mentioned 
in the same breath with <p6voi and 
poLxelai ; see also 2 Pet. ii. 14. 

novrjpiai] Vg. nequitiae, purposes 
or acts of malicious wickedness, cf. 
Mt. xxii. 1 8, Lc. xi. 39 ; in Rom. i. 29 
Trovrjpia is in the same company as 
here (novrfpia Tr\eoveia KUKLO). 

d6\os] A besetting sin of Orientals, 
repeatedly illustrated and condemned 
in the O.T. (e.g. Gen. xxvii. 35, Deut. 
xxvii. 24, Ps. ix. 28 (x. 7)), and charac 
teristic of our Lord s opponents (Me. 
xiv. i) ; its absence was a note of the 
true Israelite and of Christ Himself 
(Ps. xxiii. (xxiv.) 4, xxxi. (xxxii.) 2, 
Jo. i. 48, i Pet. ii. 22). It appears in 
Rom. i. 29, but not in the lists of 
sins which occur in Epistles addressed 
to Churches in which Gentiles largely 
predominated (GaL Eph. Col.). 

do-e Xyeia] Vg. impudicitia. Cf. 
GaL V. 2O Tropveia aKadapcria dcreXyeia, 
on which Lightfoot remarks : "a man 
may be aKadapros and hide his sin ; 
he does not become do-eXy^s, until he 
shocks public decency." The word, 
which is class., finds no place in the 
LXX. exc. in Sap. xiv. 26, 3 Mace, ii 
26, where Gentile habits are in view ; 
in the KT. it is used in the same 
connexion (Eph. iv. 19, i Pet. iv. 3). 
Here the reference is probably to the 
dissolute life of the Herodian court, 
and of the Greek cities of Galilee and 

the Decapolis; if SoXo? characterised 
the Jew, his Greek neighbour was yet 
more terribly branded by dcre Xyeia. 

o<pda\p.os irovTjpos] On the Hebrew 
belief in the evil eye see Lightfoot on 
GaL iii. i. The dvw pdvKavos (B$ 
py jn Prov. xxviii. 22) was a dreaded 
enemy (Sir. xiv. 10, xxxiv. 13 (xxxi. 

14, 15) KO.KOV 0(p6a\fJLOS TTOVTJpOS 7TOVTJ- 

poTfpov 6(p6a\fj.ov TL eKTiorai ;). Hence 

1 the evil eye became a synonym for 
jealousy, or a jealous grudge ; cf. 

Deut. xv. 9 TDK? *\?y nirn :} LXX., /*$ 

...TTovrjpeixrrjTai 6 d(pda\p6s (rov TOJ 
dSeX$&> (rou, i.e. * lest thou grudge him 
his due ; Tob. iv. 7 (B), w tpdoveo-d 
o~ov 6 6(pda\p.os tv Tea Troielv ere eXerj- 
fwcrvvrjv : cf. Mt. vi. 23, xx. 1 5. OcpQ. 
Trovrjpos is thus akin to (pQovos, but wider 
in meaning; the self-seeking which, 
not satisfied with appropriating more 
than its share (nXeovet-ia), grudges 
and, where it can, withholds, diverts, 
or spoils that which falls to another. 

j3Xa.(r(pT) p.ia\ Mt. /3Aacr077)Luat. Slan 
der, detraction; cf. Eph. iv. 31, CoL 
iii 8, i Tim. vi. 4- The Lord may 
have had in view the slanders per 
petrated against Himself (Me. iii 28, 
cf. Mt. xii. 32). 

vneprjcpavia] Theophr. char. 24 rrt 
8e v. KO.TcXppovrjo is TIS TT\T]V avrov TCOV 

aXXcoi/ a Pharisaic sin (Lc. xviii 9). 
The noun, though common in the LXX., 
occurs here only in the N.T., but the 
vTrepr/cpavos appears in company with 
the vftpio-Trjs and the dXa< i/ in Rom. 
i. 30, and with the d\anv and the 
^Xda-(pT)fj.os in 2 Tim. iii. 2 ; see Trench, 
syn. xxxix., and cf. Theod. Mops, on 
2 Tim. I.e. d\a6ves, Kav^co/>icz/ot e^eti/ 
a fj-r] exovcrw VTTfpyfpavoi, p,eyd\a (ppo- 
vovvres enl TOLS ov(riv. The sin of the 
latter lies not so much in exaggerating 
their endowments, as in claiming for 
themselves the merit of them. In 





TctvTa TO, TTOvrjpd ecrcodev exTropeveTat 23 

k TOL opia Tvpov 24syr hier 

23 om TTavra. L I om ra irovijpa. i 604 2*" al**" | fKiropevovTaa GKNA 28 736 y 8 ** 
alP* ue 24 /cat e/eei0ep ewao-ras A(D)NXm al min fereomn | ainiKdev] efr\0ev LA 

t]\dev M 28 al syrP 68 * 1 arm Or | opia. KBDLA i 13 28 69 209 346 604 2^ Or] 
rnin? 1 

The departure was a retreat. Not 
only were the Pharisees scandalised 
(Mt. xv. 12) by His denunciation of 
the unwritten Law, but the discourse 
in the synagogue of Capernaum, which 
immediately followed or preceded it 
(Jo. vi. 59 ff.), had alienated friends, 
and Capernaum was again hostile and 
perhaps unsafe; cf. iii. 7, vi. 31. The 
policy of withdrawal from danger was 
criticised by Celsus (Orig. c. Gels. i. 
6$ = Philoc. p. 107); Origen replies: 
TOVS jJiaOijTas (Mt. X. 23) 
avTols eyeveTo fvaraBovs 
ftiov otKovopovvTos prj LKrj p.r)de dxaipajs 
Kai d\6ya>s o/xoa-e x<opeZi> roiy Kivftvvois. 
The earliest withdrawal, as Celsus 
pointed out, was during the Infancy 
(Mt. ii. 136.); the Lord s life was 
threatened from the first. If He 
safeguarded it, the motive was that it 
might be freely given in due time 
(Jo. x. n, 15, 1 8). It was saved for 
the Cross. 

cis TO. opia T. /cat 2.] On opia see 
v. 17. The word may mean either 
the boundaries or borders of a district, 
or the territory of a city ; see for the 
former sense Gen. x. 19, xlvii. 21, and 
for the latter Num. xxxv. 26, Jos. xiii. 

Biblical Gk. the opposite of virepr/cpavos 
is rcnreivos (^V)) see Prov. iii. 34, 
James iv. 6, i Pet. v. 5. 

d(ppo<rvvr)] The list culminates in 
a word which may seem to imply a 
relatively low degree of moral culpa 
bility. But a(ppo>i/ like do-vveTos is a 
word of strong censure on the lips of 
Christ; see Lc. xi. 40, xii. 20 (cf. 
/Luapdy, Mt. v. 22, vii. 26, xxv. 2). His 
a(ppa>v is the ^33 of Ps. xiii. (xiv.) i, 
and the ^IN. or ^p? of Proverbs; cf. 
Schultz, ii. p. 284. y A.(ppoa-vvrj is in 
its Biblical use moral and not in 
tellectual only the shortsightedness 
and wrongheadedness of unbelief and 
sin ; " a rooted incapacity to discern 
moral and religious relations, leading 
to an intolerant repudiation in prac 
tice of the claims which they impose " 
(Driver, on Deut. xxii. 21). Euth. is 
substantially right : d<pp. 8e Kvpias TO 

prj eldevai TOV 6f6v. 

23. Travra TavTo. KT\.] These vicious 
acts and principles constitute a real 
profanation of human nature, and 
they come from man himself. Euth. : 
dpxai yap TOVTCOV at eTridvur/o-eis as T) 
KdpSm irrjydfciv cl&Qtv. Mt. adds TO 
de dvtTTTOis \cpa\v (payclv ov Koivol TOV 
avdponrov, but it seems more after our 
Lord s manner to stop abruptly when 
He has affirmed a great principle, 
than to revert to the circumstances 
which led Him to enunciate it. 


24. eKcWev 8f dva<TTas dnfj\dfv^ Mt. 
/cat eeA#a>i/ cKfWev 6 *I. 

26, and cf. BDB., s. vv. 
Here, if we accept the reading of 
NAB, TO. opia T. K. 2. (cf. iii. 8) appear 
to be equivalent to the entire district 
(Mt. p-fpr)} dominated by the two cities, 
i.e. the coast of Phoenicia. Poli 
tically Phoenicia had formed part of 
Syria since the days of Pompey: 
geographically and ecclesiastically it 
remained distinct (Acts xi. 19, xii. 2of., 
xxi. 2, Blass). According to Josephus 





25 yv&vai, KCLI OVK 

cracra yvvr] Trept avTOv rj 

\a6eTv 2<5 aAA evdvs CIKOV- 
TO duyaTpiov 


y e\6ovo a 7rpocr67re(r6v 

*9, Cvpa <PoiviKicro a 


24 om /ecu ZiSwos DLA 78 2** a b ff i n r S yr 8inhier Or (hab KABNXriIS<l> al 
f q vg syrri** 111101 arm go) | oiKiav] pr r-rjv D<i> al Or | -rjOeX-rja-ev NA 13 69 124 
346 a 1 * Or | T]dw curdy KB] i)dvi>T)0-rj ADLNXr al min? 1 e8wr)8ri KAII23> minP* 110 
25 aXX eu0vs a/eoucr. 71^17 (N)BLA 33 f syr hcl ("ng) m e] 7. 5e evOeus ( + ws D*) a/cou<r. 
D Syr 8 arm O.KOVCT. yap y. ANXm*Z$ al minP 1 a n syrr? 68111101 ^) al | ev TTVL aKaBaprw 
13 28 69 346 2 pe (arm** 1 ) | e\dov<ra] etcreX^oucra NLA 604 ]att vt P lT me 26 2upa 

QoLviKiffffa BEFGHMS txt V txt XrS 604 1071 al mu ] 2iy>a Qoiviaea U minP* uc a q 2i;/>o0oi- 
j/t/cttrcra AK(L)S m sV m An* i al mu go Z^o^oivtcrcra minP* 110 ^ bdf ff vg ^otvtcrcra (D) i 

(5. 7. iii. 3. i, cf. ant. xix. 5. 6) it 
embraced the whole seacoast and 
plain at least from Carmel north 
wards. Phoenicia, like the Decapolis, 
was frankly pagan, and the Tyrians 
bore a special illwill towards the Jews 
(Joseph, c. Ap. i. 13). In crossing the 
border the Lord passed into a Gentile 
land. Phoenicians had sought Him 
in Galilee (iii. 8), but He had no 
mission to their country; His purpose 
in entering it was retirement and not 
public work. EiVeX&oj/ els oiKiav : cf. 
v. 17; on ov8. rjdf\fv yv., see ix. 30, 
and for ?i6f\cv, cf. vi. 48. 

KOI OVK TJdwdcrdT) \a.6fiv\ On the 
quasi-adversative sense of KOI see 

\VM., p. 545. H8vvd<r8r)v or edwdo-fyv 

is frequent in the LXX., cf. Gen. xxx. 
8, Exod. xil 39 (A), Jos. xv. 63, xvii. 
12, Jud. i. 19, 32 (A), 2 Regn. iii. n ; 
in the N.T. T)8wd<r6r)v occurs here 
(N B), and Mt. xvii. 16 (B). See 
WSchm., p. 208 n. Aavddveiv is one 
of the rarer words of N.T. Greek, 
occurring elsewhere Lc. 2 Heb. 1 2 Pet. 
The aor. inf. is usual after dvvaa-dai 
(Blass, Gr. p. 197). 

25. aXX evBvs aKovcracra KT\.~\ Cf. 
vi - 33> 54 f- Even in Phoenicia He 
was recognised. To QvyaTpiov, cf. v. 
23, 42: another child-applicant for 
healing. Children as well as adults 
were liable to the inroads of unclean 

spirits, cf. ix. 21. The phenomena 
and the belief which assigned them to 
the agency of evil spirits were, as 
it appears, not limited to Jews or to 
the laud of Israel (Acts xvi. 16 f.). 
On $s...avT?is f cf. WM., p. 185; Blass, 
Gr. p. 1 7 5. npoo-e rreo-ei , see iii. 1 1 , v. 33. 
26. E\\T)v[s, Svpez QoiviKiaro-a TG> 
yfVfi] Mt. Xavavaia. The woman was 
a Gentile (/, vg., gentilis\ probably 
Greek-speaking, but descended from 
the old stock of the Phoenicians of 
Syria, who belonged to the Canaan- 
ites of the O.T. "EXXrjv in the Acts 
and Epistles is contrasted sometimes 
with lou&uoff (Acts xiv. i, Rom. i. 16, 
ii. 9 f. &c., i Cor. i. 24, GaL iii 28), 
sometimes with /3ap/3apo? (Rom. i. 14), 
i.e. it represents either the Gentile as 
such, or the civilised and generally 
Greek-speaking Gentile (see Light- 
foot s note on fiapfiapos, CoL iii. n). 
In the Gospels "EXX^v, EXXrjvis 
occur only here and in Jo. vil 35, 
xiL 20, and the word must in each 
case be interpreted by the context 
The Phoenician language may have 
lingered in country places round Tyre 
and Sidon, as the Punic tongue was 
still spoken in Augustine s time by 
descendants of the old Phoenician 
colony in N. Africa (Aug. ep. 209). 
But in EXX., 2vpa 3>. ra) yevei there is 
surely an implied contrast between 




TO) yevet KCLL qparra CLVTOV iva TO ScufAomov eK/3a\n 

wyaTpos avTtjs. a7 Kal e\e<yev avTrj A(J)es 27 
xopTacr6fjvai TO. TKva* ov yap e&Tiv KaXov 
\a/3elv TOV dpTov TCOV Tewwv Kal TO?? Kvvapiois 

16 e/c] OTTO D 1 15 c ff om L g 

syr hcl (arm) go 

Phoenician extraction and Greek 
speech ; cf. Euth., who however partly 
misunderstands his text : 
TTJV 6pTj(TKfiav f 2upa de TTJ 
^oivLKKra a 8e ra> yevei : correct, E. fi. 
r. 6. Kal TTJV didXeKTOv, 2i pa "I oii . 5e T. y. 
The fern, of "EXXrjv occurs again in 
Acts xvii. 12 ; cf. 2 Mace. vi. 8. 
2vpa 3>otz/i/ao-(7a (also 2. 3?oivi(r<ra, 2vpo- 
(j>oivLKi<r<ra, 2upo0ot ifr(ra, see W. 11.), an 
inhabitant (or as here, a descendant 
of the old inhabitants) of Syrian Phoe 
nicia (77 SvpoffroiviKT), Justin, dial. 78), 
so called in contrast to the Cartha 
ginian seacoast (Strabo xvii. 19 ) rSi> 
Ai/3v<poi/i<Q)i yr)}. 2upo(po i occurs 
in Lucian deor. eccl. 4, and Syro- 
pJutenix in Juv. sat. viii. 1 59 ; on the 
late and rare form of the fern, see 
"VVSchm., p. 135 n., Blass, 6rr., p. 63. 
The Clementines (horn. ii. 19, iii. 73) 
name the mother Justa, and the 
daughter Bernice. With ro> ywei c 
Acts xviii. 2, 24. 

yptoTa...iva] Ct 7rapfKa\i...ivaj V. 

io. Mt. gives the words : eXerjaov /ze, 

, vios Aavei S* r/ dvyarrjp pov *ca*cc5s 
i : cf. Mt. ix. 27, XX. 30, 31 

(Me. x. 47, 48). Such a formula as vios 
A. once used in public would soon 
become customary, but its occurrence 
in this narrative is remarkable; as 
yet, so far as we know, the title 
had been applied to Christ only once 
even in Galilee. On the contrast 
between this mode of addressing Him 
and that adopted by the daipovia and, 
with an added aXrj&os, by the disciples, 
see Origen in Mt. t. xi. 17 : 

27 /cat e\.] o 5e I. fnrev 

e diro TCOI/ euayyeXiW rives fiev avrov 
KaXovcriv vlov Aa/Si S-.-nW? 5 vio> 

0COV... TivCS &* p.TO. 

0r]KT]s. Kal yap 

<70i ?/ TOVTW (rvi>ay<ayr) npos TO Idflv 

rrjv dia(popav Ttov Trpocriovraiv. 

27. a<p(s TrpoJroi/ xopracrtirivai ra 

TCKVCL] The TfKva are of course the 
Jews; cf. Isa. i 2, Lc. xv. 31. They 
had the first claim, and by this prin 
ciple not only the Lord s ministry, 
but the subsequent mission of the 
Church was regulated ; see Mt. x. 5, 
23, Acts L 8, iii. 26, Rom. i. 16, ii 9, 
io. To Marcion, in whose Gospel 
this incident had no place, Tertullian 
(adv. Marc. iv. 7) well replies: "de- 
trahe voces Christi mei, res loquen- 
tur. JJ The conversation with this 
Phoenician woman merely calls atten 
tion to a rule which is everywhere 
apparent. Yet if the Jew justly 
claimed precedence, he had no ex 
clusive right to the Gospel; rrpcSroi/ 
implies that the Gentile would find 
his opportunity; cf. Mt viii. u, Acts 
xiii. 46, xxviii. 28. For acpes with 
the inf. cf. Mt. viii. 22, Me. x. 14; the 
subjunctive follows in Mt vii. 4, Me. 
xv. 36. For xopraeo-0ai saturari, see 
note on vi. 42. 

Mt, who in the early part of this 
incident is on the whole much fuller 
than Me., relates the circumstances 
which led to this reply (xv. 23, 24), 
but omits the words a<pes...ra TCKVO. 

ov yap ecrriv KaXov KrX.J So Mt, 
Me. Ta Kvvdpia are TO. Kvvidta TT)? 
oiKias (Origen) the housedogs (rpa- 
n-f^TJfs Kvves Horn. IL xxii. 69), as the 
dim. possibly indicates; though not 
children of the house, they have a 
place within its walls, and are fed, if 
not with the children s bread. Thus 
the term, which on Jewish lips was 


28 /3a\eTv. 38 jj Se aTTCKpiOrj Kai \eyei avTco Nai, Kvpie, 
Kai TO, Kvvdpia vTTOKaTco Trjs TpaTretys ecrOiovcriv OTTO 

29 TCOV \lsi%ia)v TCOV Trai&iwv. ^Kal ebrev avTrj Aid 
TOVTOV TOV \6<yov vTraye* e^e\ti\v6ev e/c Ttjs 6wya- 

30 TJOOS (rov TO Sai/uLoviov. z Kai aTreXQovcra ek TOV 

28 om vai D 13 69 604 2 pe b c ff i syr ain arm | /ecu] /cat 70/9 ALNXmSf> al minP 1 
a f n q vg syi* 01 go aXXa Kai D b c ff i r | e<r0ii ANXFII al | ^i^twv] -^^(av D pr TTITT- 
TOVTWV 1071 | TrcuStwj ] iratdwv (D) minP* 110 om 1071 +/ccu ^w<7t^ syr hier Tat diafcarab 

The woman accepts and affirms the 
Lord s saying about the dogs; it serves 
her purpose; there is that in it on 
which she can build an argument; 
Euth., eVei TOLWV Kvvdpiov efyu, OVK 
elpl d\\oTpia. For vai see 2 Cor. i. 
20, Apoc. i. 7, xiv. 13, xxii. 20; KOI is 
here simply even, as in i. 27, not 
and yet, yet even ; for Kai yap (the 
reading followed by A.V.) see Bp 
Ellicott on 2 Th. iii. 10. Eo-<9iW OTTO 

usually a reproach, is used by the Lord 
to open a door of hope through which 
the suppliant is not slow to enter 
(v. 28). On ra Kvvdpia = Ta e 6vr] see 
J. Lightfoot and Schottgen on Mt. 
xv., and Bp Lightfoot on Phil. iii. i. 
Jerome, after observing that the re 
lative positions of Jew and Gentile 
have been reversed, exclaims "0 
mira rerum conversio! Israel quon 
dam filius, nos canes." Origen sug 
gests that the saying may have its 
application still: ra^a fie /cat r<3i> 
Xoycoj/ irjcrov fieri rives apron ovs rols 
\oyiKa>Tepois cos TfKVOis e^eoTi didovat 
p-ovois Kal aXXot Xoyoi olovel \^t^ta a?ro 
rfjs p.fyaXrjs etrrias...ois ^prjaaLVT av 
rives ^svxai w Kvves. Tertullian thinks 
(de orat. 6) of the Bread of life which 
only the faithful can receive : " cetera 
enim nationes requirunt...ostendit 
enim quid a patre filii expectent." 

28. 77 8e aTreKpidrj KOL Xe -yet] Her 
saying was in the strictest sense an 
answer: she laid hold of Christ s 
word and based her plea upon it. 
The usual phrase in the Synoptists is 

arroKpidels Xeyet (eiVep), Or aTreKptOrj 
Xeycoi/, but direKplOrj KOI flirev is common 

in St John. Aeyet, the historic present 
(Hawkins, H. S. p. ii3ff.); on its 
combination with an aor. see WM., 
P-350- / 

vaij Kupte, *cai ra Kvvdpia KrX.] True, 
Rabbi ; even (Mt. KOI yap, for even ) 
the dogs (of the house) are fed with 
the crumbs which the children leave. 

Mt.,reoj/ TWTTOVTCOV aTTOTrjs rpcnrefrs TWV 
Kvpiatv ai/rcoi/, with the crumbs which 
their masters let fall (cf. Lc. xvi. 21). 

= |p 75^ a Hebraism common in Bib 
lical Gk. from Gen. ii. 16 onwards; 
cf. WM., p. 248 f. Two early variants 
are of interest ; the Western text 
begins Kupte, aXXa KOI , sed et at the 
end of the verse Tatian and the 
earlier Syriac versions in Mt. add 
"and live." 

29. 8ia TOVTOV TOV \oyov vrrayc KrX.] 
Mt. co yvvai, peyaXr) trov 77 Tri&Tis 
yevr]drjT(ji trot coy 0\eis. Cf. Victor: 
o (J-fV ovv Mar^aioff TO TTJS TTiOTecos 
fa^]fJi^vaTo...6 8e MapKO? TOV Xoyou TTJV 

dpcTijv. Tatian gives both answers, 
placing Mt. s first. Throughout the 
incident Mt. and Me. seem to de 
pend on different sources, the only 
strictly common matter being the 

Saying OUK ecrriv KO\OV KrX. On e^eXry- 
\v6ev TO daip,6viov Bede remarks (with 
a reference to the baptismal exor 
cism of the Latin rite) : "per fidem et 
confessionem parentum in baptismo 
liberantur a diabolo parvuli." 

30. Kai a7reX$o{)cra KrX.] Mt. Kai 
Iddr) TI QvyaTTjp avTrjs OTTO TTJS copay 

eKcivqs. The result finds a parallel 
in the miracle of Jo. iv. 46 ff. 


OIKOV avTrjs evpev TO TraiSiov fiefiXrjpevov eTTt Trjv 

r \ \ Q ^ / X* "V "\ /3 8 W^ 

KXtvrjV KCU TO ^oai/uLOVLOV e^e/Yf/AfC/os. 

31 Kal TrdXiv e^eXdcov e/c TWV opitov Tvpov r)X0ev 31 
CtSo>t/O9 ek TY\V 6dXacro~av Trjs FaXeiXaias dva 

30 evpev Trjv BvyaTepa pepXrjiJievrjv e?rt /crX. D evpev TO Sou/*. eeX. /cat TTJV 0iry. 
K\Lvr]s ANXriIZ<l> al minP 1 a n syr hcl arm go evpev TTJV 6vy. /eat TO 5at/t. 
eeX. /eat avrtj pepX-n/Jt-evr) eiri T. /cX. syr sin ( vid > 31 e/c] OTTO 1071 | 7/X^ev Sta 

NBDLA 33 604 2P latt vt ( exc i) vg syr Wer me aeth] /cat SiS. TjX^e^ ANXriIS^> al 
gyrrsinpeshhci arm g | ets t^BDLA i 33 69 124 209 282 346 604 i**] -rrpos ANX 
ms$ al minP 1 

11.). He went through merely as a 
traveller en route (for this use of &a 
see Me. ix. 30, Jo. iv. 4, 2 Cor. i 16), 
and in so large and busy a place may 
easily have escaped notice. From 
Sidon and the Mediterranean coast 
He returned to (els, for eVi or rrpos, cf. 
Blass, Gr. p. 124) the Sea of Galilee, 
but to its eastern shore (dva p.e<rov 
TUV 6pia>v Ae/ea7roXecoy). A road led 

from Sidon across the hills (Merrill, 
p. 58, G. A. Smith, p. 426) ; it crossed 
the Leontes near the modern Belfort, 
and climbing the ranges of the Le 
banon, passed through the tetrarchy 
of Abilene, and eventually reached 
Damascus. The Lord probably left it 
where it skirted Hermon, and striking 
south kept on the east bank of the 
Jordan till He reached the Lake 
(see map). The long detour may have 
served the double purpose of defeating 
the immediate designs of His enemies 
and providing "for the Apostles the 
rest which He had desired to give 
them before " (Latham, p. 333 ; cf. vi. 
31). J Ai>a /iroi = P5 (Gen. i. 4, &c.) ; 
the opta Trjs A. are the districts under 
the influence of the cities of the 
Decapolis, see note on v. 20. No 
mention is made of a passage through, 
still less of a ministry in any of them ; 
but in the country round these cities 
(G. A. Smith, p. 60 1 ) preaching and 
the working of miracles are resumed, 
probably among the Jewish or mixed 
population prepared by the work of 
the released demoniac (v. 20). The 

fjievov errl TTJV K\IVIJV : the exhaustion 
had not yet spent itself, though the 
foul spirit was gone; cf. ix. 26. On 
the place of this incident in the 
Ministry, see Hort, Jud. Chr. p. 34 : 
* when at length the boon is granted 
her, nothing is said to take away 
from its exceptional and as it were 
extraneous character; it remains a 
crumb from the children s table." 
Euth. treats the incident as prefigur 
ing the call of the Gentiles : irpo- 
Ti>7rov 8e KOTO, a\\rjyopiav T] Xai/ai/aia 
auTT/ yvvrj TTJV e edvaiv eKK\rjcriav KT\. 

On the participle after evpev see Blass, 
Gr. p. 246. 

29, cf. 30, 31). 

31. /ecu iraXiv e^e\&u>v KT\.] With 

TTaXiv fe\6a>v cf. ii. 13, xiv. 39, 40. 
The last incident took place in the 
neighbourhood of Tyre. The Lord 
now leaves the opia Tvpov and follow 
ing the coast-line northwards across 
the Leontes and perhaps through or 
within sight of Zarephath (SapeTrra 
rfjs SctScovtaj , 3 Regn. xvii. 8, Lc. iv. 
26), passes through Sidon. Zidwv, 
2ei8eoi> = pTV, Saida, some 20 miles 
N. of Tyre on the Phoenician coast, 
first mentioned in Gen. x. 1 5 : in N.T. 
cf. Mt. xi. 21 f. = Lc. x. 13 f., xv. 21 = 
Me. vii. 24, 31, Me. iii. 8 = Lc. vi. 17, 
Acts xxvii. 3. The traditional text 
avoids the reference to the Lord s 
passage through a Gentile city (vv. 



tn 32 fuecrov TU>V opitov^ AeKaTroXews. 3a /ccu (pepovcriv 

KO)(bov Kai ij.o r yi\.a\ov, Kai Trapa.K.aX.ovo iv CLVTOV \va 
33 eTTidrj avTW TY\V ^elpa. 23 Kat a7roAa/3o//ei/os CLVTOV 


airo TOV 

31 Ae/ca7roXeu>s] pr TT?S DW d <i 32 om /cat 2 ALNXriI2<i> al m in fereomn syrr 

arm codd me g O | ^o-yyiXaXov B 3 EFHLNW d XFA 28 33 69 157 262 346 al satmu | 7ra/>e/ca- 
\ovv 33 arm | ras %et/ms N*NW d AS 33 33 aTroXajSo/jt-evos] eTrtX. E*F 131 271 

al nonn Xa/3. A 63"" | efidXev . . .avrov 2] ^irrvo ev as TOVS Sa/cruXous avrou /cai e/3aXev ts 
ra wra rou /ca>0ou (aurou Tat) Kai iji/ aro r^s yXwa - cr?7S rou ^0771X0X01; W d Tat diatarab e^S. 
r. 5a/cr. aur. /c. Trrvo-as ets ra w. aur. r)^aro r. 7X. aur. Byr sin 

R.V.) begins with Cranmer. The 
stricter meaning is supported by 
6p6ws (v. 35). The variant 
iXos, found also in MSS. of the 
LXX. (Isa. xxxv. 6, cf. Ps. Iv. (Ivi.), tit, 
where the Quinta has Trjs Trepio-repa? 
TTJS fjioyyi\d\ov\ is said to be a distinct 
word, a compound of /zoyyos, thick- 
voiced (WSchm., p. 65, see Steph.- 
Hase, s.v.; Exp. vu. vii. p. 566). 

7rapaKaAov<rti/...ti>a cinQy *rA.] The 
Lord s ordinary sign of healing, fa 
miliar to every Jew through long use 
in Israel ; cf. v. 23, vL 5. For some 
reason which does not appear other 
symbols are employed in this case, 
such as suggest the presence of un 
usual difficulties. Trjv x f ^P a > usually 
ray ^etpay : yet see Mt. ix. 1 8. 

Lord is again in the land of Israel, 
for Gaulanitis, though the towns were 
Hellenised, had belonged to the tribe 
of Manasseh (Jos. xiii. 29 f.), and still 
had a predominantly Jewish popula 
tion (Schiirer, n. i. 3). 

32. (pepovffiv avra KO)(f)6v KrX.] Mt. 

again is, at least in part, independent 
of Me. ; he locates the scene of the 
Lord s work in the Decapolis among 
the hills (avaftas els TO opos CKaSrjTO e/cei : 
cf. Mt. v. i), and he represents Him 
as surrounded by the usual crowd of 
applicants for relief from various dis 
orders (o^Xot TToXXol %OVTfS tlf6* 
eavTCDV ^coXoi/s , KV\\OVS, rv^Xous 1 , KO)- 
(povg) Kdl Tepovs TToXXous : cf. iv. 24), 
but describes no case in detail. The 
recovery of hearing by the deaf was a 
note of the Messianic age (Isa. xxxv. 
5, xlii. 1 8), and had accompanied the 
Ministry in Galilee (Mt. xi. 5). In 
this case deafness was attended by 
such an impediment in the speech 
that the man was practically dumb 
(v. 37 aXaXovs : cf. ix. 25 TO SXaXov KOL 
Kwfpbv TTveupa). MoyiXaXos (here only 
in KT.) is probably from Isa. xxxv. 6 
Tpavr) de carat -yXoSo-o-a /zo-ytXaXo)i> : the 
word occurs also in Exod. iv. n (Aq., 
Symm., Th. = Lxx. Sva-Kucpos), Isa. Ivi. 
10 (Aq., = LXX. cvcoiy Symm., Th., 
aXaXoi), and in each case it = D?K. 
Here the Vg. has mutum; Wycliflfe 
follows with "a mandeef and doumbe"; 
Tindale prefers "one that was deffe 
and stambed in his speech"; "had 
an impediment in his speech" (A.V., 

33. a.Tra(fjLevos avTov...Kar 
Cf. 2 MaCC. vi. 21, airo\a^ 
avrbv KCLT Idiav. IIpoo"Xa/3eV$ai is used 
in nearly the same sense in viii. 32, 
cf. Acts xviii. 26 ; in aTi-oX. the isola 
tion of the person who is taken cornea 
more strongly into view. The Lord 
takes the p.oyi\d\os away with Him, 
because a crowd was gathered round 
them (a?ro roO o^Xov, cf. Mt.), and He 
wished to be alone with the man (/car* 
Idiav, iv. 34, vi. 31, 32, ix. 2, 28, xiii. 3). 
The miracles were usually wrought 
under the eyes of the crowd, but in 
special cases relative (v. 37) or even 
absolute (cf. viii. 23) privacy seems to 
have been necessary. 

e/SaXev TOVS daKruXovs *rX.] The 
organs affected receive the signs of 



avTOV e 


avTOV Ka TTTvcras 




sas e TOV ovpavov 34 

y Kal \eyei avTw GcfxpaOd, o e&Tiv Aia- 
voi%6rjTi. 3<5 /ccu qvoiyrjorav avTOV al cocoa/, Kai e\vdrj 35 

33 om airrou i fc$L C i 34 effreva^ev"] aveffreva^ev DW d S 13 69 124 346 | f<p<f>eda. 
latt 35 Kai i] + ev0ews AEFGHKMNSUVW d ( m )Xrn2* minftwanm f vg 

i an y g O ^h I i)voi.yT]<Tai> KBDA i] rjj/otxflTjo-cw L di-rjvoiyijffai 124 604 a 1 * 
Snjvoixd-nffav ANW d XmS<l> al min? 1 | eXutfi?] pr ev0vs KLA (aeth) pr TOV f*.oyyi\a\ov W d 

healing power; the ears are bored 
(epa\fv els), the tongue is touched. 
JlTvaas, see viii. 23, Jo. ix. 6 (West- 
cott). Saliva was regarded as reme 
dial, but the custom of applying it 
with incantations seems to have led 
the Rabbis to denounce its use; see 
Wetstein and Schottgen ad I. Pos 
sibly to this Decapolitan it appealed 
more strongly than any other symbol 
that could have been employed. The 
faith of a deaf man needed all the 
support that visible signs could afford. 
The use of the Lord s fingers and 
saliva emphasised the truth that the 
healing power proceeded from His own 
person (cf. v. 30). Victor : deiicvvs ok 
TrAouTet TTJV TTJS 6eias dwdp-eus evepyetav 
Kai TO fvuiOtv avr<5 airopprfras cratpa. 
On the remarkable variants in W d , 
g yr sin. see Nestle, Introd. p. 264 f. 

34. dva/3\tyas...(rTevafv] Forai/a- 
|3X. els TOV ovpavov see vi. 41, Jo. xi. 
41, xvii. i ; St John s phrase is aipeiv 
(fTraipftv) TOVS 6(p6a\/j.ovs, cf. Lc. xviii. 
13. Eo-Tevagev : cf. viii. 12 dvacrTf- 
vdas T<5 TTJ/ev/xart auroO. In both 
cases perhaps the vast difficulty and 
long delays of His remedial work were 
borne in upon the Lord s human 
spirit in an especial manner. So His 
Church, or His Spirit in her, in 
wardly groans while waiting for the 
redemption of the body (Rom. viii. 23, 

26). Such a o-Tcvaypos dXaXrjTos here 

proceeds from the Lord s humanity. 

efptyaOd] nri|3^ } by assimilation 
for Aram. nn$flt< ? the ethpeel 
(Dalman, p. 202, 222), Syr. 
S. M. 2 

The earlier Syriac versions naturally 
omit Mc. s explanatory o i<mv Aiav. 
(it is in Syr. hcl -> hier -) : the Latin trans 
literations are ephphetha, ephetha, 
effeiha^effeta and the like ( Wordsworth 
and White, p. 225). For Mc. s use of 
Aramaic words in the sayings of Christ, 
see note on v. 41. On the word as 
addressed to a deaf man Origen has 
some interesting remarks (in Jo. t. xx. 

Both the word and the use of saliva 
passed at an early time into the Bap 
tismal rite as practised at Milan and 
Rome : cf. Ambr. de myst., " aperite 
igitur aures.-.quod vobis significavi- 
mus cum apertionis celebrantes mys- 
terium diceremus * Ephphatha quod 
est adaperire. " The ceremony, which 
was known as aurium apertio, and 
immediately preceded the renuncia 
tion, is thus described in the Gela- 
sian Sacramentary (ed. Wilson, pp. 
79, 115) : "inde tangis (saliva oris sui 
cum digito tangit) et nares et aures 
de sputo et dicis ei ad aurem Effeta, 
quod est adaperire, in odorem suavi- 
tatis "; comp. the more elaborate 
ritual in the Sarum ordo ad facien 
dum catechumenum (Maskell, rit. i 
1 1 ) and the similar form in the modern 
Roman Rituale. Bede refers also to 
the versicle Domine labia mea (Ps. 1. 
(li.) 17). 

For diavoiyetv cf. Lc. xxiv. 31 f., 45, 
Acts xvi. 14. 

35. qvoiyrjcrav avTov al duoaC] On the 
late aor. ^voiyrjv cf. WH., Notes, p. 170, 
Deissmann,.S.ASp. 189. Itoccurs again 
Mt. xx. 33, Acts xii. 10, Apoc. xi. 19, 




avTov Kai e\d\ei 



ecr/jios Trs 

36 z6 Kal $t(T Tei\aTO 

Se CtVTOls $16CT T6\\TO) CtVTOl jULa\\OV 

37 eKripvo crov . 3 Kai vTrepTrepicrcrttis e^eTrXricrcrovTO Ae- 
fyoi/Tes KaXws Trdwra TreTroirjKev Kai TOI)S 

3vr hier Troiel aKOveiv Kai d\d\ovs \a\eiv. ^ ., 


35 om avrov 1 W d 36 SiecrreiXaro] evereiharo A | yu.^SejuJ + yu.^Se* D 28 604 

2P 6 | \ey<i)(ru>] enrwfftv ADNXFII al minP 1 | ocrov Se...auroi] ot de avrot D* (bcff i) | 
aurots] pr avros EFGKMNSUVm al? 1 syrr arm go aeth j 5te<rreX\ero] erereXero 
(sic) A | 7re/>i<r(7ore/>ws DW d 61 1071 37 V7repeK7re/3i(rcrcos DU i 209 435 604 om 

W d | e^e7rX^(r<roj ro] pr iravres W d | /cai 2] pr ws B me | aXaXous] pr rovs ADNW d X 

action (Burton, 24); the charge 
o) was reiterated with the 
described. MaAAoi/ 7repro-o- 
cf. WM., p. 300; Vg. magis 
The repetition of commands 
experience shewed to be in 
effectual (i. 43 f.) is analogous to much 
in the ordinary dealings of GOD with 
man. Bede has the practical remark : 
"volebat ostendere quanto studiosius 
quantoque ferventius eum praedicare 
debeant quibus iubet ut praedicent." 
37. v7rcpTTpi(T(Ta>s\ Another air. 
Aty. ; VTrepTrepKTO-fveiv occurs in St 
Paul twice (Rom. v. 20, 2 Cor. vii. 4), 
but for the adv. he prefers the 
strengthened compound vTrfpeKirfpur- 

(Tov (-crws). For\r]<T(T(r6ai see i. 

22, vi. 2, xi. 1 8 ; it expresses the 
normal impression produced on the 
mass of the people by both the teach 
ing and the miracles. Mt., describing 
the general effect of the miracles in 
Decapolis, uses the milder term 6av- 


AcaXcoy TraWa TreTroirjKcvj Mt. (but 
without special reference to this mi 
racle), c86a(rav TOV 6eov lo-parjk. The 
partly pagan crowd recognised in the 
miracles of Jesus the glory of the 
GOD of Israel, in Whose Name Jesus 
came; cf. v. 19, 20. To some it re 
called Gen. i. 31, idev 6 0fbs TO. iravra 
o<ra ciroirjirev Kai I8ov icaXa \iavl cf. 
Sir. xxxix. 16. Ufiroir)K(v...iroifl; the 

xv. 5, but ijv<pxSr)v is more frequent. 
AKOCU = Jra, as in 2 Mace. xv. 39 ; cf. 
Lc. vii. i, Acts xvii. 20, Heb. v. n. 
\v0T) 6 Seo>ios- KT\.] Cf. Lc. xiii. 

l6 OVK edci \v8f)vai airo rov SeoyioC 

TOVTOV where the reference is to an 
infirm woman r\v e&rjo-ev 6 a-aravas. It 
belonged to the office of the Messiah 
to release the captives of Satan (Isa. 
xlii. 7 f^ayayflv CK decrfJLWv de8ep.evovs, 
xlix. 9 \eyovres rols eV decr/J-ois E^eX- 

6arc). The phrase eXvdrj KT\. does not 
perhaps necessarily imply that the man 
was tongue- tied (Vg. solutum est mn- 
culum linguae) ; however caused, the 
impediment was a bondage from which 
he rejoiced to be set free. EXv^... 
e XaXei : the momentary act of libera 
tion gave birth to a new faculty of 
articulate speech. 

36. KOL fiieoreiXaro avrols Iva KrX.] 
Cf. v. 43. For some reason, special 
perhaps to the particular case, privacy 
was expedient after the miracle as 
well as during the act of release. But 
the charge seemed to defeat its own 
end ; not only was it ineffectual, but 
its very vehemence increased the zeal 
of those who spread the story. "Oaov 
.../zaXAoi/: fuller forms are KaG* oo-ov 
...Kara roo-ovro (Heb. vii. 2O ff.) ; o<ra> 
. . .roo-ovro) (Heb. x. 25) followed by a 
comparative; cf. Vg. here, quanta... 
tanto magis. The imperf. (Sieo-re X- 
Aero) is apparently that of repeated 


7rd\LV 7TO\\OV 6%\OV I VIII. 

oVro? Kai 


\eyei avTols ^CTrXay^yL^pfjiaL ITTI TOV 2 
, OTL rjSrj rifjiepai Tpels Trpocr/uevovo Li/ [/>to*] Kai 
OVK 6^ova~Li/ TL (paycoo LV 3 Kai eav a7ro\v(ra) avTOvs 3 

VIII i ira\Lv TroXXou KBDGLMNAS<3? i 13 28 33 59 61 69 73 209 242 346 1071 
<P al latt vt ( e * c i) v * syr 8 " 1 arm me go aeth] ira^TroXXou AEFHKSUVW a Xrn 604 min? 1 
q S yrr( exCBin ) | OJTOS] <rvvax0evTos W d | 7r/)oo-KaX.] + o I^trous EFGHSUVXr al? 1 f | 
TOUS /-terras] + iraXiv A 2 e?ri TO? o-x\ov] + rovrov L 1071 al pauo e. rou o%Xou 

roirroi; D latt vt P lTid (of. syrr 8in P eBh arm) | ^epat rpeis ALNW d XrnS(<l>) al min? 1 ] TpLai B rjfjiepas rpeis A i 69 2 ** al nonn | irpoa[jivovaiv] eicnv airo Trore wSe euriv D 
ab(c)d(ff)i (arm) | om /xot BD 3 /rat eai/...e/cXi;^770-ovTaiJ /cai aTroXucrai aurous 

ot^ov ou 0eXw ^77 eK\vQ<ixnv D 604 (2 pe ) a b ff i q 

act continues in its abiding effects. 
The plurals icoxfrovs, dXoXous may in 
clude the classes represented by the 
case of the /xoyiXaAos, or they may 
refer to other miracles of the same 
kind on the same occasion (cf. Mt., 

Kw(f)ovs \a\ovvras). AXaXovs AaAelj/, 

perhaps an intentional paronomasia 
see WM., p. 793 f. ; for a similar 
juxtaposition of Ka><J)6s and aAaAos cf. 
Ps. xxxvii. (xxxviii.) 14. Km... Km, 
WM., p. 547 ; aXaXou?, anarthr., the 
oXaXoi being usually identical with 
the K0)(f)oi. 

FOUR THOUSAND (Mt. xv. 32 39). 

I. ev cKCivais rois r/pepais] During 
the period to which the preceding 
incident belonged (see note on i. 9), 
i.e. in the course of the Lord s journey 
through the Decapolis (vii. 31). Ua\iv 
TroXXoO *rA. The crowd which fol 
lowed Him was so great that it 
reminded the disciples of the crowds 
on the western shore (iii. 20, iv. i, v. 
21), especially perhaps of the five 
thousand men who assembled near 
Bethsaida (vi. 34). IIa/x7roAAov (cf. 
vv. 11.) is probably due to a misreading 
of TTAAiNnoAAoY ; for the opposite 
view see Burgon-Miller, Causes of 
Corruption, p. 34. The word, though 
classical, is unknown to Biblical Gk. 
r. /z. : in vi. 35 the 

disciples take the first step. For 
npoffKoXfla-dai see note on iii. 13. 

2. <T7rAay;^z i b/zai eVt TOV o^Aoi/] 

The Lord had known the pangs of 
hunger (Mt. iv. 2). Even under or 
dinary circumstances there was some 
thing in the sight of an eager crowd 
which moved Him; see Mt. xiv. 14, 
Me. vi. 34. For <T7r\ayxviccrdai see 
note on i. 41. This crowd was suffer 
ing through its attendance upon Him : 
OTL 77877 T7ju.epeu rpels irpotrp-evovcriv p.ot 
(Mt. Me.). UpcxTficvciv TLVI, to wait 
upon ; see Sap. iii. 9 ol Trio-rot eV 
aya7T77 Trpocrfjifvoixriv avr<u (sc. ra> 
Acts xi. 23, xiii. 43, and cf. 
Teptiv Tivt Me. iii. 9 (note). The con 
struction 77^77 rjfie pai Tpels Trpooy*. is 
explained by treating 77^7; 77. rp. as 
a parenthesis (WM., p. 704), but it is 
simpler to supply fio-iv, and treat Trpoo-- 
fjLfvovcriv and e^ovfriv as datives of the 
participle. The reading of D is an 
interpretation of a difficult phrase; 
the Vg. iam triduo sustinent me (q, 
adherent mihi) evades the difficulty ; 
the singular reading of B appears to 
be a grammatical correction (cf. WM., 

P. 273). 

OVK exovaiv TL (pdyaMriv : cf. V. I pr) 
xovro)v TL 0. The supply of food 
was spent, for the stay had been 
longer than they anticipated. In the 
case of the Five Thousand, only a 

IT 2 

1 64 


VYICTT61S eis OIKOV avTttiv, eK\v6ri<rovTai ev Trj dSor Kai 

4 Tives avTwv CTTTO jj.aK.p66ev eicriv. 4 Kai 
avT< ol jULadrjTal avTOv OTL [166ev TOVTOVS 

5 TLS tSSe xopTacrai apTwv ITT eprj/uLias , B Kal 
c avrovs Hocrovs e^e-re apTOVs; ol Se ^e nrav 

6 6 Kai TTapayyeXhei TW o^Xw dvaTrecreiv ETTI TTJS 

3 y^crrts KA 604 al nonn | /ecu Ties ttBLA i 13 28 33 209 q syr 8 *" me] on KCU T. 
D latt^P 1 rtyes yap ANW d XrHS al minP 1 f vg S yrr(P esh ) hcl arm go aeth | om airo 
ANW d XTnS$ al min^ | eiviv BLA me] ijicaffu> KADNS3> I 28 33 69 124 al nonn yKov<nv 
EFGHKMSUVW d Xrn minP 1 venerunt latt similiter syrr arm go aeth 4 on] KCU 

etTray K Xe7ovres 106 -251 282 (c) syr hcl | dvv. res] dw-rj ut vid syr" 111 arm | om o>5e DH 
69 1071 bcffiqgo | epwias ^BDLNW d Xrn 2 2$ al min? 1 latt] e/^/wcus AKAH* 
m i n nonn 5 ^^a KBLA] eTr^wra ADNW d rnS> al min? 1 eirwuTtjaev M 

6 irapayyeXXet KBDLA] irap-nyyeiXev ACNW d Xrn2> al min omnvid ( cl ) vg rell 
day seems to have passed, but no For the recitative on cf. i. 15, 37, 

provision had been made for more 
than a few hours absence from home. 
On rl <pdy. see vi. 36. 

3. eav a7roXuo~o> avrovs vij(TTis /crX.] 
Mt. aTToXucrai. ..oiJ ^eXco pijiroTe /crX. 
The Lord anticipates the proposal 
with which the Twelve were doubt 
less again ready (vi. 36 airo\v<rov 
O.VTOVS). N^ort?, a classical word, 
occurs here only (Mt. Me.) in Biblical 
Gk. Els OLKOV O.VT&V "to their home"; 
for fls ol<ov (ev oiKG>) in this sense see 
ii. i. For eK\vea-6ai of the faintness 
caused by want of food see Jud. viii. 
1 5 A (where B has K\eiiri.v\ i Regn. 
xiv. 28, Isa. xlvi. i, Thren. il 19, 
i Mace. iii. 7. 

Kai Ttves OVTWV OTTO ^aK.po6fV eicriv] 
Me. only. Gamala, Hippos, Gadara were 
perhaps the nearest centres of popula 
tion. The towns and villages of the 
Decapolis were fewer, and at longer 
distances from each other than those 
of the populous western shore. No 
thing is said here of KVK\O> dypol KCU 
fcwftai where bread could be bought. 
The Decapolitans, unlike the Fiv.e 
Thousand, were in their own country, 
and if dismissed would make their 
way home. For 0776 /zaKpotfei/, Vg. de 
longe, see v. 6, note : on the variant 

ijKaa-iv cf. WM., p. 106. 

4. d7TKpi0r)<rav...oTi HoOev KrX.] 

40, ii. 12, iii. ii, 21, iv. 21, v. 23, 28, 
35, vi. 4, 14, 15 bis, 18, 35, vii. 6, 20. 
The objection raised by the Twelve 
corresponds to the circumstances : at 
Bethsaida they had urged the want 
of means (dyopcurafiev drjvapitov dia- 
/cocrieoi/ aprovs ;) in this thinly popu- 
ated region they plead the scarcity of 

food : cf. Mt. nodev rfpiv ev eprjfjiia aproi 

roo-ovTot KT\. Gould s remark, "the 
stupid repetition of the question is 
psychologically impossible," is doubly 
at fault The question is not repeated 
exactly, and such stupidity as it shews 
is in accordance with all that we know 
of the condition of the Apostles at 
this period (cf. viii. 17 ff.). For ^opra- 
eiv see vi. 42, note, and for the gen. 
cf. Ps. cxxxi (cxxxii.) 15, and Blass, 
Gr. p. 101. ETT cpriftias, on the surface 
of a desert, cf. WM., p. 468. EpTj/ua 
occurs in the Gospels only in this con 
text, and not a dozen times in Biblical 
Gk. ; the usual phrase is 77 ep?//xos, epq- 
fMos ronos or 7*7, see i. 3, 4, 12 f., 35. 

5. iroa-ovs...cirra\ The question is 
the same as in vi. 38. With the 
loaves, as before, there were a few 
small fishes, as a relish (Mt. KOL o\iya 
lx&vdia, see below, v. 7). For the use 
of fish with bread see note on vi. 38. 

6. TrapayyeXXfi] Mt. TrapayyetXas 
another trace of the dependence of 




Kai \a/3wv TOI)S ITTTCC dpTOvs 

avTOV *iva 7rapaTi6(jo(Tiv Kai 
7 Kai ei^av i^Bv^ia dArycr Kai 7 
7rapaTi6evai. 8 Kai 8 

TrapedrjKav TW 
v\o<yn(ra<z avTa e nrev 
<payov Kai 


6 TrapaTiBufftv KBCLMA< 13 33 69 346 alP auc ] TrapaBuxnv ADNW d XrAnS al 
min pl | TW o^Xw] airrois 1071 7 eiXo y?7<ras] ei;xa/)i<rr?7<ras D q | enrev KOH ravra 

K a BCLA 115 q] eurev /cat auTa AEFGHKM txt SUXm al pl enrev aura V (enrev irapa- 
QeLvat. ai/Ta 1071) /cat avrovs eK<-\ev<rev D latt vid ( excd > (arm vid ) | Trapandeyai K a B(D)LM m 
A mini* 110 irapaTedyvai A(<l>) minP 8 " irapadeLvai GM txt NUVXIIS minP 1 8 exo/oratr- 
Brjffav] + Traires KM(N) I 33 1071 al nonn | irepia-crVfji.aTa K\acrfJiaTUv ABLNW d XTII2<i> 
al min fereomne8 ] Ta IT. K\. KG TO Trepio-creu/xa ruv K\. D 2 pe TO irepia-ffeva-ay TUV K\. 604 
Trepiffaeva avra /cXacr/iaTa 3 3 om /c Xacr/iaTwv A k 

Mt. on Me., or of their use of a common less definite ir apart drjvai. Kai TOUTO, 

Greek source. In the Feeding of the these, as well as the loaves. 

Five Thousand the direction is given 8. *ai ftpayov 

to the Twelve; here apparently the Cf. vi. 42. 

Lord Himself addresses the crowd. Mt. TO ircpio-a-evov r&v K\., as in xiv. 

No mention is made here of x^wpos 20, where Me. has simply /cXao-^aTa. 

^opToff ; the spring was now past, and neptWevp.a is the opposite of voWp 7 ?/^ 

the hills were bare. (2 Cor. viii. 13, 14), that which is left 

or remains over when all present 
needs are satisfied; an active form 
TrepioWa also occurs (Eccl. 13 Paul 4 
Jas. 1 ). STTvpi? (in the N.T. acpvpis, 
see WH., Notes, p. 148, WSchm., 
p. 63, Deissmann, B. St., pp. 158, 185, 
a late form rejected by the Atticists, 
cf. Lob. Phryn. 43) is used by Hero 
dotus and re-appears in comedy (Ar. 
Pax 1005) and in the later writers 
(Theophrastus, Epictetus, &c.). It is 
said to be akin to tnrelpa, and to 
denote a basket of coiled or plaited 
materials, cord or reeds ; in Ar. /. c. 
it is an eel-basket (KcoTraSooi/ e\6elv 
(T7rvpi8as\ in Athen. 365 A (deltrvov 
OTTO <rirvpidos) a dinner-hamper. Some 
times baskets of this sort were of 
considerable size, cf. Acts ix. 25, where 
Saul makes his escape in a airvpis 

( = <rapydvr), 2 Cor. xi. 33). That the 

word is here not a mere synonym of 
Kocpivos is clear from the distinction 
in v. 20, q. v. The Vg. renders a<p. 
by sportas: Wycliffe has "leepis," 
reserving " coffyns " for KO<J>. frails 

See notes on vi. 41. The in 
sertion of KOI irapcflTjKav TO> o^Xa) here 
in Me. seems to imply that the bread 
was blessed and distributed first 
another detail which has escaped Mt. 
On fvxapio-TcIv see Lob. Phryn. p. 18, 
Rutherford, N. Phr. p. 69. 

7. /mi flxav tx&v8ia oXt ya] See OQ 

i?. 5. The form elxav occurs again 
Acts xxviii. 2 (TrapeZ^ai/), Apoc. ix. 8 f., 
c etxapev, 2 Jo. 5, and elsewhere as 
a variant, see WH., Notes, p. 165, 
WSchm., p. 1 12. Ix&v8iov (Mt. also) is 
here a true diminutive; cf. A.V., R.V. 
v\oyrj(ras avra enrev Kai ravra 
irapani).] The blessing was probably 
distinct from that of the loaves (see 
note on ?. 6), but similar; fvXoyelv 
and cvxapurreiv are practically synony 
mous, see Mt. xv. 36 TOV$ firra aprovs 
KOL T. ix&vas eu^aptoT^(ras, and cf. Me. 
vi. 41 ; see J. Th. St. iii. p. 163. For 
fLTrcv bade, cf. v. 43, Lc. xii. 13, xix. 
1 5 ; and on Trapantievai and its variants 
see Blass, Gr. p. 230, who chooses the 







67TTO. cr<pvpas. 9 r]<rav e ws TTpa- 
Kcci aTTeXvcrev CIVTOVS. 

ev6vs e/u/3as [UTOS] ek TO TrXoiov juera 
CCVTOV r]\6ev eJs ra /ueprj Aa\/mavov6d. 

8 <r(j>vpi.8as 
1071 al nonn i 

A 2 BCLNW d XrAII2i> al min omnTid + 7rX7/pets 13 33 69 
5e] + ot <j>ayoi>Tes ACN W d XriIS$> al min? 1 latt syrr arm go al | 
GA 1071 alP ftuc a b c f i q 10 ev6vs] avros D b i k | 

ejUjSas] a v e/S-r)... /cat D a f g k evej3T)...Ka.i 604 2 pe + aiTos B | TO TrXotoi ] om TO L i 28 33 
69 124 209 604 al nonn | Ta Ate/)?;] ra opia D TO opos 28 Syr 810 TO, opirj N | Aa\/m.avovda 
(-vovvda B dalmanunea arm)] MeXe7a<5a D* Ma7at5a D lvid Ma7e5a 28 2 pe 
i 13 69 209 271 347 Magidan d Magedan a ff Magedam b i r Mageda c k 

gyrpal ed (Land) Mc^SaXctl gO 

tae." Each of these fathers adds a 
mystical interpretation of some in 

(Mt. xv. 39 b xvi. 5). 

10. evdvs e/jifids /crX.j After dis 
missing the crowd the Lord Himself 
at once left the neighbourhood by 
boat ; cf. vi. 45 f. His destination was 
Dalmanutha or Magadan (Me. yXQcv 
els TO. fiepTj A. = Mt. 7/X0. els T. opia 
Mayaddv ; c Me. vii. 24 with Mt. XV. 

21). Neither name has been definitely 
identified, and the geographical ques 
tion is complicated by the uncertainty 
of the text in both Gospels : in Mt. 
besides Mayaddv (or Mayeddv) we have 
the readings May&zXa, MayfiaXai/ ; in 
Me., for AaX/uai/ov^a (B, AaX/zai ow&i), 
cod. D has MeXeyaSa (D*), MayatSa 
(D 1 ) a form which appears substan 
tially in all true O.L. texts and in the 
Sinaitic Syriac. Dr J. R. Harris (Cod. 
Bez. p. 178) suggests that AaXpavovOd 
represents the Syriac <K 0x01^0^ = 6?? 
i, and Dr Nestle inclines to a 

is the equivalent of o-</>. in modern 
colloquial English (cf. Westcott on 
Jo. vi. 13), but it has not been admitted 
by the Revisers of the English Bible. 
See art. Basket in Hastings, D.B. i. p. 
256. Probably the correspondence of 
the number of the o-^vpiSey with that 
of the loaves is accidental, like the 
relation between the number of the 
loaves in the earlier miracle and that 
of the multitude (ircvre, Trei/Tafcto-^tXtoi) ; 
to assign a a-^vpis to each pair of 
Apostles and the seventh to the Lord 
is as puerile as to infer from such a 
coincidence the untrustworthiness of 
the whole story. ETTTO <r</>. is in ap 
position to irepia-a-fv/jLaTa (WM., p. 
664); a-(f)vpi8as is written inexactly 
for 0-0. 7rX?ypetff (Mt.), or acpvpidcw 
ir\rjpa)p.aTa (infra V. 20). 

9. r)(ra.v 5e cos Terpa/cio-xt Xtot] Mt. 
ri<rai> rerp. av&pes ^copis yvvaiK&v /cat 

naidiuv (as in xiv. 21). The number 
was probably ascertained as before by 
an orderly division of the crowd into 
a-vfjiTToo-ia of a certain size. 

For a comparison of the details of 
the two miracles (Me. vi. 35 ft, viii. 
i if.) see Origen, Hilary, and Jerome 
on Mt. xv. ; Jerome s quaint and terse 
summary may be quoted : "ibi v panes 
erant et ii pisces, hie vii panes et 
pauci pisculi; ibi super faeuum dis- 
cumbunt, hie super terram ; ibi qui 
comedunt v millia sunt, hie iv millia ; 
ibi xii cophini replentur, hie vii spor- 

similar view (Philol. Sacr., p. 17); 
on the other hand see Chase, Syriac 
element, &c. p. 146 n. Dalman (Gr. 
P- J 33)> with perhaps slightly more 
probability, suggests that Aa\/j.avov0d 
is a corrupt form of MaydaXou$a : cf. 
Worte Jesu, p. 52 f. Assuming that 
both Magadan and Dalmanutha are 
genuine names, we may accept as a 

11 Kai. e^fj\6ov ol <Papi(raioi Kai rip^avro 

II Uk 



OLTTO TOV ovpavov, 

n /ecu (i)...^.] /ecu T)p%. 01 <. 33 ck | &\6o<rav D | aurw] pr aw D | om 
irap avrov A | <j"r]/j.eiov] pr iet> X 68 C 

working hypothesis a modification of 
Augustine s opinion (cons. ev. ii. 51 
" non dubitandum est eundem locum 
esse sub utroque nominej") ; both places 
must at least be sought in the same 
neighbourhood. Was it to another 
part of the eastern coast that the 
Lord sailed, or did He cross to the 
west side of the lake? Eusebius 
(onomast.}, who read Mcyai8av in Me., 

adds /cat eo~TL vvv 77 Mayaio avr) Trepl 
rr)v IVpacrai/. On the other hand it is 
usually assumed that MayaSdv is an 
other form of Magdala, i.e. el Mejdel 
at the southern end of the plain of 
Gennesaret, and that els TO irepav 
(v. 13) implies a return from the 
western to the eastern shore ; on the 
latter point cf. vi. 45. Robinson (B.R. 
iii., p. 264) and Thomson (Land &c., 
P- 393) mention a site known as ed- 
Delhemiyah near the junction of the 
Yarmuk with the Jordan, some five 
miles S. of the Lake (see map) ; if its 
territory ran down to the shore (cf. v. 
i), the locality is consistent with Mc. s 
account. Of a Magadan however in 
this neighbourhood there is as yet no 
trace : but the form like MayfiaXa may 
represent 7 llSp, as in Jos. xv. 37 where 

MayaSa Tad (B) = MaydaX Tad (A). On 

the whole question see Encycl. JBibl., 
s.v., and Hastings, DM. iii. art. Maga 

ii. KOI ^fj\6ov ol <*>.] Mt. adds 
Kai SaSSouKatoi the only mention of 
the Sadducees as present at any in 
terview with our Lord during the 
Galilean ministry; as the aristocratic 
and priestly party they resided prin 
cipally at Jerusalem and in its neigh 
bourhood. Some were possibly con 
nected with the court of Herod (see 
on v. 1 5), residing at Tiberias. Their 
association with the Pharisees on this 

occasion indicates the extent to which 
the hostility of the latter was now 
carried. Ej;X0oi/, i.e. from Dalma- 
nutha (cf, Mt. xv. 22), or possibly from 
the towns on the W. coast. Their 
appearance is an argument against 
locating Dalmanutha on the S. of the 
lake, but not perhaps an insuperable 
one ; the journey from Capernaum to 
the S. end was not a serious one for 
men who had been watching their 
opportunity to retaliate. 

rfpavro (rvvr)T* iv avr(S KrX.] Bengel : 
" pausam." Their plan 
was to tempt Him by a leading ques 
tion to commit Himself to a damaging 
statement of His claims. Swfqreu/ is 
a favourite word with Me. (i. 27, ix. 
10, 14, 1 6, xii. 28), found also in 
Lc. ev - 2 act2 ; see note on i. 27. 

r)TovvTCS...o~r)ij.iov 0*776 TOV ovpavovj 

In Lc. xi. 16, 29 the incident occurs 
in another context ; in Mt. it appears 
in both (xii. 38 f., xvi. i f.). The 
request may naturally have been re 
peated, but the substantial identity of 
the answer, especially the recurrence 
of the o-T/jAeioi/ Ia>i>5, is suspicious; that 
the conversation is here at least in its 
right place is attested by the agree 
ment of Mt. and Me. The demand 
was for omelet of a higher order than 
the miracles (Bede : "signa quaerunt 
quasi quae viderant sigua non fue- 
rint ") a visible or audible interposi 
tion of God (Mt. OT/fteioy eVt&ei^ai). 
The manna is cited in Jo. vi. 30 f. as 
such a sign ; the Bath Qol might have 
been regarded as another. Such won 
ders had more than once signalised the 
ministry of Elijah (i K. xviii. 38, 2 K. 
i. i off.). The more fruitful but more 
human and less startling miracles of 
the Gospel appealed less forcibly to a 
generation which was possessed by a 


12 Treipdtyvres CLVTOV. **Kai dva&Teva^as TW TrvevjuaTi 
avTOV \eyei Ti YI yevea CLVTY\ tyjT6i crri/uieTov , d/mrjv 
Xeyco fvjuuv] Gi $o6rjcrTai TYJ yevea Tavrrj crrj/uLelov. 

13 **Kai d<peis CIVTOVS TraXiv ju/3ct9 dirfiXdev et? TO Trepav. 

12 ava.<rTeva%as] <TTevaj;as M* minP* 110 j aurou] eavrov AL 1071 om DM*F i 282 
bil| ftrei ff-rjueiov KBCDLA i 28 33 118 209 604 2?] <rt\^iov eirifrrei ANXrilZ* al 
mm^ 1 Or | om vfuv BL (hab ^ACDNXTHS al) | ei] ov A 5 13 69 124 346 1071 
S y rr sinpesh me & \ j^ a 0ets] KaraXiTTw* NS | e^as] + cis (TO) TT\OIOV (AEFG)HK(M) 

N(S)U(VX)rn(S$) min mu lat^"* 5 ^ vg ed syrr 8111 ^)? 68111101 arm me go (om KBCLA ff 

passion for display (i Cor. i. 22, cf. 
Bp Lightfoot ad I.). As Thpht. sug 
gests : eVo/ubi/...on ov 8vi^crerai e 
ovpavov Troirjcrai OT^/xeioi/ ofa 5>) fv TW 
BeeX^ ejSoi X $vvdfj.(vos Troielv TO. ev rfj 
yfj pova o-^/ieia. On the two participles 
without intervening copula see WM., 

P. 433- / 

TTdpd&vTfs CLVTOV] The second part, 
qualifies the first ; the request had a 
purpose which did not appear on the 
surface of the words it was of the 
nature of a test. Such a test or 
question may be friendly (Jo. vi. 6), 
or hostile (Me. x. 2, xii. 15); in the 
present case the intention could 
scarcely have been doubtful to any 
who knew the men. 

12. dva(TT(vdas TO> 7rvei>/j.aTi] Ara- 
<rTvdeiv, used here only in the N.T., 
occurs in the LXX. (Sir. xxv. 8, Thren. 
i. 4, 2 Mace. vi. 29 ; cf. Sus. 22, Th.). 
Like dvaKpdfrtv (Me. i. 23, vi. 49) and 
dvcxpave iv (Lc. i. 42), it is more intense 
in meaning than the simple verb : the 
sigh seemed to come, as we say, from 
the bottom of the heart ; the Lord s 
human spirit was stirred to its depths. 
On TO> see ii. 8, note. Bede : 
"veram homiuis naturam, veros hu 
man ae naturae circumferens affectus, 
super eorum dolet et ingemiscit 
erroribus." Obstinate sin drew from 
Christ a deeper sigh than the sight of 
suffering (see vii. 34, and cf. Jo. xiii. 
21), a sigh in which anger and sorrow 
both had a part (iii. 4, note). 

Tl 77 yevfa avTij /crX.] Mt. y. Trovrjpa 

KOI /iot^ay o". TTtre : on 

which occurs infra v. 38, see Orig. in 

Mt. t. xii. 4. The phrase 77 -yei/ea avrrj 

is used again v. 38, (ix. 19), xiii. 30, 
and is frequent in Mt. and Lc. ; it 
appears to look back to the age of the 
Exodus, and to point to such passages 
as Deut. xxxii. 5, Ps. xcv. (xciv.) 10; 
.cf. Acts ii. 40, Phil. ii. 15. As the 
generation which came out of Egypt 
resisted Moses, so the generation to 
which Jesus belonged resisted its 
greater Deliverer ; see the parallel 
worked out, with a slightly different 
reference, in Heb. iv. 7 ff. On the 
question whether yeved bears in the 
Gospels the wider sense of yevos see 
xiii. 30, note. For d/xr)z/ \eyco cf. iii. 
28, note. 

fl dodijo-fTai AcrX.] Mt. crrj^elov ov 8. 
el /LIT) ro crrjfMflov Lava KrX. Cf. Orig. 
in Ezech. xiv. 20 : tav viol <al Bvyare- 
pcs V7ro\ci<f)8a>o iv ) dvr\ TOV l ov^ VTTO- 

\l<p6lj(TOVTai ) ..OVT(i) KO.I 6 KVplOS tV TQ> 

Kara Map/cov evayyeXio) el do6ijo~fTai ) ) 
TOVTO~TIV ov do6ijo~Ta.i The idiom 
is based on the use of Dt< to commence 
an imprecation which is in fact a 
solemn form of negation; for other 
exx. in the LXX., cf. Gen. xiv. 23, Deut. 

35 > 3 


(Ixxxix.) 36, xcv. (xciv.) n, Isa. Ixiii. 8. 
This is the only ex. of its employment 
in the N.T., except where Ps. xcv. is 
cited (Heb. iii. ii, iv. 3, 5). See WM., 
p. 627, Burton 272. The exception 

in Mt., et fJLT) TO arj/Aelov lo>i/a (cf. Mt. 

xii. 40, Lc. xi. 30), points to the 



el juirj eva 14 k 

l5 /ca* die- 15 


14 Kf e7re\d6ovTO \a/3eiv 
apTOV OVK. el^ov fJLeff eavTwv ev TO* 7r\oico. 

<TT6\\TO CLVTOls Xe^WV OjOCtTe, /3\67T6T6 

14 Tre\a0ovTO (-devro B*)] + ot fJLadrjrat. (avrov) DU3> 13 28 69 1071 al ratmu C q | /cat 
ec fj.rj eva aprov OVK eixov] et (J.TJ eva a. eix* D a (k) eva /u,oi>ov aprov e^oires I 13 28 69 
209 346 604 2 1 * 5 (arm) nisi unum panem quern habebant (b) (c) dff i q r om ei /U.TJ syr 8 " 1 
15 cWreXX*ro (StecrretX. EF 13 28 69 131 346 al^" )] ewretXaro A | opart} om D i 
118 209 2P abffikr syr 8ia arm + Kat C 13 28 69 124 alP* uc of | om /SXeTrere A 604 

Resurrection as the supreme proof of 
the Divine mission of Jesus, and one 
which that generation was to receive : 
cf. Acts ii. 32 ff. 

13. Kal d(pds CLVTOVS *rX.] Mt. /ecu 
KaraXiTreoi/ avrovs... His departure was 
significant, an anticipation of the end 
(Lc. xiii. 35) ; since there was no scope 
for His ministry among these men, He 
entered the boat again and crossed the 
Lake. Thpht. : d<pir)o~t TOVS Qaptcralovs 
o Kvpiop cos ddiopdwTovs. Whether TO 
irfpav is here the western or the 
eastern shore, or merely a point on 
the same shore where He was, cannot 
be determined from the word (cf. iv. 
35, v. i, 21, vi. 45). The destination 
on this occasion was Bethsaida (v. 22) ; 
if "the parts of Dalmanutha" were 
near the exit of the Jordan, the boat 
must have traversed nearly the whole 
length of the lake, from S. to N.E. 

(Mt xvi. 5 12 ; cf. Lc. xii. i). 

14. KOI 7T\d6ovTo Xa/3eti/ aprovs] 
Mt. alters the setting of this incident 
by placing it on or after the arrival 
(\66vTs...els TO Trcpav); in Me. the 
omission is discovered, as it appears, 
while they are crossing (cf. vv. 14, 22). 
Ordinarily, at least when in thinly 
peopled neighbourhoods, the Twelve 
carried the thin flat loaves of the 
country in their Trr/pat or *o0ti/oi the 
direction given in vi. 8 is clearly 
exceptional. It probably rested with 
Judas of Kerioth to purchase food for 
the party (Jo. xii. 6), but owing per 
haps to the sudden departure (v. 13), 

or under the impression that the 
fragments of the seven loaves were 
amply sufficient, the matter had been 
overlooked. When they came to 
search their bread baskets only one 
cake could be found (Mt. omits this 
detail). ETreXatfoiro is rendered by 
the English pluperfect in all the 
English versions except Wycliffe, 
Rheims, and R.V. ; cf. Burton 48, 
and see Field, Notes, p. n. The 
form eVfXatfei/ro (B*) is not uncommon 
in the best MSS. of the LXX. ; see Jud. 
iii. 7 (A), Ps. Ixxvii. (Ixxviii.) n 
(B*), Hos. xiii. 6, Jer. xiii. 21 (B*K). 

Mf # eavreoi/ : cf. ix. 8, xiv. 7. 

15. 8io-Te\\To] Either during the 
crossing He charged them ; or, He 
charged them more than once (Burton 

21, 24; cf. vii. 36). BXcVere diro 
KrX., Mt. Trpocre xere OTTO... keep your 

eye (mind) upon it with the view of 
avoiding it ; cf. xii. 38 (WM., p. 280), 
and sec Wilcken in Archiv f. Papy- 
rucforschung, iv. p. 568; other con 
structions are ftXtneiv TWO. (xiii. 9, 
Phil. iii. 2), /3X. ^ (xiii. 5, Col. ii. 8). 
Zvpr) is used with an ethical reference 
in two other contexts of the N.T., 
(i) in the parable of the leaven 
(Mt. xiii. 33, Lc. xiii. 21), (2) in the 
Pauline proverb ^iKpa . o\ov TO 
(fivpafjLa frfj.01 (i Cor. V. 6 ff., Gal. 
v. 9); on both these uses see Bp 
Lightfoot s notes). The word repre 
sents a tendency working invisibly, 
and, except in the Parable of the 
leaven, an evil tendency, partly be 
cause T; yeyovev CK (ptiopas (Plutarch, 
cited by Lightfoot), partly owing to 


1 6 




TWV ipapKraia)!/ Kai 








ov . l6 /cta 



15 H/awSou] TWV ~B.pu5i.avwv G i 13 -28 69 346 2^ alP*" ik arm 16 irpo? 

] ev eavrois 1071 | on] pr XeYo^res ACLNXrAIIS<t> al min? 1 f vg syrr arm 
me go aeth | exovaiv B i 28 209 604 2 pe c k syr sin ( yid )] ei.-x.av D(abcffq) exopev 
KAC(K)LNXrAIIS<l> minP 1 f vg syrr arm aeth 17 dia\oyie(rde] + ev rats /capdiais 

u/iwi> DU< 28 604 2? e alp*" ab c ff i q syr hcl arm aeth (post V/JL. add oXiyoiriffToi $ 604 
gjpauc armj + ej/ aurots M 13 61 69 346 8P 6 | Treirup<i)/u.evr)v (ireir^p. D* caecatum f Vg) 
S y r sinvid] p r ert AXm4> minP 1 f q vg syrr 

the rigid exclusion of leaven during 
the Passover and in certain other 
sacrificial rites (Lev. ii. 1 1 iravav 
6v(rlav ov TroirjcreTe tyza>roi>). In the 
present case the . was (Mt. xv. 12) 
the teaching of the Pharisees, or 
(ace. to Lc. xii. i) the spirit of hypo 
crisy which their teaching encouraged. 
Once admitted into the heart or into 
a society, this principle would spread 

turn Heroclis est adulterium, honii- 
cidium, temeritas iurandi, simulatio 
religionis." There are occasions when 
this tendency can ally itself with 
punctilious externalism in religious 
practice ; the two are never perhaps 
fundamentally at variance. Both were 
to be carefully shunned by the Twelve 
and the future Church. 

1 6. $if\oyiovTO7rpos d\\r)\ovs /crX.] 

until it rendered the spiritual service "The mention of leaven led to a dis 
cussion among the Twelve as to their 
mistake how it arose, who was to 
blame, how it could be rectified. For 
SieAoy. cf. ii. 6, 8 ; with Trpos d\\. 
(Mt., ev eavTols) cf. irpbs cavrovs, xi. 
31. "On aprovs KT\. : Mt., \eyovres 
ore "Aprovs OVK e Aa/So/iei/. "On is reci 
tative ; their conversation turned on 
the omission to provide themselves 
with loaves. 

17. yvovs Ac-yet] When He became 
aware what they were saying, and 
what had led to it ; see ii. 8, note ; 

ix. 33. On yivwo-Keiv see iv. 13 ; yvovs 

is the aor. part, of antecedent action 
(Burton, 134). "On may again be 
recitative: why discuss such a sub 
ject?" Mt. adds oAiyoTTio-roi, perhaps 
as the equivalent of what he after 
wards omits (see below). 

OVTTO) voelre ovde o-vviere ;] Have ye 

not yet learnt the habit of attending 
to and reflecting upon the facts that 
pass under your observation from day 
to day ? For similar questions imply- 

of GOD impossible. 

KOL rfjs C V 7 ?? HpwSov] The repeti 
tion of the art. implies the distinct 
ness of the two tendencies indicated ; 
in Mt. this point is overlooked (rfjs 
TWV 4>apto-ato)i/ KOL SaddovKaiwv). Ta>i> 

SaSSouKaiW (Mt.) appears to answer to 
HpwSov (Me.). Herod was not formally 
a Sadducee, i.e., he did not reject the 
Pharisaic doctrine of a resurrection 
(cf. vi. 1 6). But the worldliness of 
the Herod family and of Antipas s 
court was not far removed from the 
temper of the Sadducean aristocrats ; 
and the supporters of the Herod 
dynasty were probably disposed to 
Sadducean rather than Pharisaic 
Mt. seems to have used 
in this passage as roughly 
equivalent to HpaSiavol (Me. iii. 6, 
Mt. xxii. 16). The leaven of Herod 
was doubtless the practical unbelief 
which springs from love of the world 
and the immoralities to which in a 
coarser age it led. Bede : "ferrnen- 


VIII. 20] 


VJULCOI/- l8 6<p6a\iu.ovs 

ov 18 


tcovere ; 


, TTOCTOVS KCHpivovs fcAacT/xarwi/ 

; \e f yovo iv 




18 /cat ov / ?7/A(H eueTe] ou5e /w^/a. D OUTTW wetre NS OUTTW voicire ovSe /J-vrj/j.. 2 pe 
arm 19 e/cXao-a] pr ous (D) 13 69 346 k om e/cX. syr sin arm 20 ore BL 2P e ] 

+ /cat KA vg pr /cat c syrP esh arm + 5e ADXril al min fereomn a f i q syr hcl go aeth + 5e 
KM CN f 

ing censure comp. Me. iv. 13, 40, vii. 
1 8, Jo. xiv. 9 ; for voelv see vii. 18, 
xiii. 14, and for <nWi/cu, iv. 12, vi. 52, 
vii. 14. Ov Se a-vvifTf has no place in 
Mt. who passes on to rat ov (ov Se) 
(jLVT)fj.ovfveT (v. 1 8). For the sequence 
ov... ovde see WM., p. 613. 

7T7T(i>pQ)IJ.VT)V f\fT KrX.] Wanting" 

in Mt. On TreTrwp. (WycliflFe, Tindale, 
Cramner, "blinded") see iii. 5, vi. 52 ; 
as to the reading of D here cf. Chase, 
Syro-Latin text, p. 42. The train of 
thought is well explained by Bengel : 
"ex corde induratio manat in visum 
auditum et memoriam." For the 
predicative use of the participle see 
Blass, Gr. p. 158. 

1 8. o(f>6a\p.ovs ex OVTfS KT ^-\ They 
were as men who possessed organs of 
sight and hearing which they could 
not or would not use. The words are 
adapted from Jer. v. 21 o$0aX/zoi av- 

rols KOL ov /SXcVovaur, torn aurois KOI 
OVK aKovovaiv, Ezech. xii. 2 c^ovo-tv 


o~tv /cat tora e^ova iv TOV axovftv Kal 
ov< aKovova-iv. The condition of the 
Twelve was perilously near to that 
of the judicially blinded multitude 

(iv. 12 note). Ov pvrjpovcveTC ; the 

Lord blames a lapse of memory 
which was due to heedlessness and 
lack of spiritual vision. Their forget- 
fulness needed and found a spiritual 
remedy (Jo. xiv. 26 o Se 7rapdi<\r)Tos 

...V7rop,vycr(i vitas Tcavra a elrrov vp.1v 
cytS). With the whole saying compare 
Oxyrh. Loyia 3, 8, and see Salmon s 

Oath, and Univ. Sermons, vii. (on 
Colour-blindness ). 

19, 2O. ore TOVS TTCVTC aprovs /crX.] 
Cf. VI. 4^ KO.TfK\aa V TOVS apTOvs... 
avTols, viii. 6 eK\ao~v...Ta> o^Xo). The 
ministerial action of the Twelve passes 
out of sight in this review of the two 
miracles (eXao-a efe...); the Lord s 
breaking of the loaves was symbolical 
of the munificence which fed the 
multitudes; cf. Isa. Iviii. 7 SiaQpvnre 
TTfivavri TOV apTov aov. For els in this 
reference see WM., p. 267, and esp. 
Deissmann, B. /St., p. H7f.; K\av TIVI 
is the more obvious construction, cf. 
Thren. iv. 4 o dia,K\a>v OVK eo~Tiv 

(Dn?). Ko(pivovs K\.7r\ripcis = K\do-fj.a.Ta 
...KO<pi.v<nv TrXj/peo/xara (vi. 42); o~<pvpi- 
dd)V TrXjypcD/Ltara /cXaa /xarcoi/ = 7Tfpio~o-v- 
paTa xXaa /iarcoi/ . . . o~(pvpidas (viii. 8). 

For exx. of the double gen. o-cpvpidcov 
...K\ao-p.a.T<i)v see WM., p. 239 ; in this 
instance the construction may per 
haps be more conveniently explained 
by regarding o-(pvpi8os TrXT/pco/za in the 
light of a single noun a basketful, 
on which K\ao-p.dTtv depends as the 
gen. of content (WM., p. 235). Light- 
foot (Colossians, p. 326) compares 

Eccl. iv. 6 TrXj/pco/xa dpaKos dvcnravo-fas 
. . .fj.6x&ov, a handful of rest. . .of toil ; 
Fritzsche points to Eur. Ion 1069 

Ko<pivovs. ..o-(pv- 
Wycliffe, " coffyns . . . leepis " ; 
cf. v. 8, note. 

\yovo~tv avTto Ao)Se/ca../E7rTaJ Their 
memory does not fail them as regards 



ripare ; Kal \e<yov(riv [avrca] 
ls OVTTO) crvvieTe , 
h Brj6(rai$dv. Kal (pepov(nv aura* 

21 ai /cca 


10 iroauv <r<pvpib}j Tr^pw/iara /rao-juarwj 7ro<ras <T0u/>i5as K\. D 7ro<r. <rir. K\. 
7r\77/oeis 604 2*** /cat Trotrous Kofavovs /cX. TrXijpeis A | ^pare TrXypeis 1071 | om aurw 
KADNXTIIZ* min fereomn (a) b c f ff i k q syrr? 681 * 1101 arm (hab BCLA 1 1 5 vg me aeth) 
21 OUTTW KCKLAII i 118 209 1071 alk] TTWS OUTTW ADMNUXS< min 8 ** 11 " 1 acff irvg 
syrr go TTWS ovv OUTTW 13 69 124 346 f arm TTWS ou BEFGHSVr min? 1 b d q me aeth | 
<rwtere] vvwoure D* voeire BD 2 22 epxovrai N c - a BCDLA 13 28 33 69 124 346 

1071 all* 110 latt me arm go aeth] epxerat N*ANXrn al? 1 syrr | Er)6<ratdav ABLNX 
rn* al min? 1 b (-da CNA (jS^o-cr.) S i 28 33 69 al noim c k vg syrr arm aeth)] E 
D 262*affilqr go 

their own part in the transaction, so 
far at least as it had its immediate 

21. Kat eXe-yev O.VTOIS OUTTOJ (rvviere ;] 
Even now their powers of reflexion 
were not in exercise. Mt. represents 
the Lord as anticipating their riper 
thoughts (TTOIS ov voelre on ov irepl 
apruv eiTTov vfuv; Trpoo-e^ere 5e aTro rrjs 
{VMS T&V $. ical 2.), and adds that 
upon this they understood that the 
teaching of the Pharisees and Sad- 
ducees was the leaven of which they 
must beware. But Mc. s stimulating 
question, which leaves the Twelve to 
think out the matter for themselves, 
is certainly more characteristic of our 
Lord s method of dealing with souls. 
Nor does the equation tV*7 ^SiSa;^ 
at all exhaust the purpose of His 
reference to the two miracles of the 
loaves. The inability to understand a 
metaphor was but a part of their of 
fence ; their anxiety about the want 
of bread had shewn a distrust of His 
power to provide which the expe 
rience of baskets twice refilled ought 
to have made impossible. It is oXryo- 
TTtorta and not mere want of intelli 
gence which He censures (Mt. xvi. 8). 

22. ep^oi/rat els Erjda-atddv] From 

Dalmanutha (viii. 10 q.v.). Bethsaida, 
sc. Julias; see note on vi. 45. The 
remarkable reading of D and some 
other O.L. authorities (Qr^OavLav) either 
refers to an unknown Bethany on the 
Lake, or has arisen from a confusion of 
Bethsaida with the Bethany beyond 
Jordan (Jo. i. 28) where John baptized ; 
the latter locality is excluded by its 
inland position. Bethsaida Julias was 
at this time more than a KW^ (vv. 23, 
26, cf. Jo. i. 45), but it may have kept 
its old style in the popular speech; 
or one of the villages in its territory 
may be intended in the sequel (cf. 
vi. 36). 

(f)fpov(riv aura) rv(f)\6v KT\.~] A 
second miracle recorded only by Me. 
(cf. vii. 32 fF.). There are some re 
markable coincidences between the 
two narratives, both of language and 
of detail. The words fapovo-iv avr 
...KCU 7rapaKaXov(Tiv ?va...7rTV(ras...di a.- 
XeT/ms are common to both ; cf. 
also eVtXa/36/uei>os (viii. 23) with aTroX. 
(vii. 33). Both again agree in many 
of the circumstances : the with 
drawal from the crowd, the touching 
of the organs affected, the strict charge 
to keep the matter close. Yet there 
is no room for suspecting either of 
the two miracles. Similarity of sur 
roundings may have led to partial 
similarity of circumstances ; but the 



ov K.a 


TOV TV(f)\ov e 



KOLI 7m/cras els TO. 



22 Tv<f)\ov} + daifiovifrofievov A 23 erriXa/S. TTJS %ei/>os] XaySo/tevos TI;V xeipa D | 

e&veyiccv KBCL(A) 33] efryayev ADNXFIIS* al min fereomn | OVTW] CH/TOU AKA 28 
2 1 * 5 1701 alP* uc f 1 vg (ai/rou et aurw syr hcl me) 

narratives are at the heart of the facts 

Tv<p\6v\ The first mention in Me. of 
blindness as an infirmity for which a 
cure was sought from Christ : a second 
case occurs in x. 46 ff. ; for cases in 
the other Gospels see Mt. ix. 27, xi 5, 
xii. 22, xv. 30, xxi. 14, Jo. ix. I ff. 
IlapaK. OUT. Iva avrov di/njrai : cf. i. 41, 
x. 13 ; and for the converse, iii. 10, v. 

27 ff., vi. 56. HapaKa\civ Iva . c V. IO, 
1 8 (note). AVTOV = TOV rv<Xot), cf. 
WM., p. 1 86. "AirTfo-Qai = nearly eW 
TiBevai Tas xiipas : in Job i. 12 it 
is the LXX. rendering of T rb& : 
c Me. L 41, x. 13. 

23. 7ri\aft6fjivos Trfs \fipos KT\J\ 
Cf. /cparT/o-as TTJS X fl P*i i- 3 1 ) v - 4 J > 
ix. 27 : Tri\af3eardai (rii/os, TIVO) Occurs 

in Lc.^ 6 *^ 7 , i Tim. 2 , Heb. 2 , but in the 
other Gospels only here and Mt. xiv. 
3 1 . Like the icoxfros poyi\d\os the blind 
man is taken apart (a7roAa/3o/iei/os, vii. 
33), but since he cannot follow, the 
Lord leads him by the hand (Bengel : 
" ipse ducebat : magna humilitas "). 
For the double gen. (TT/S x l P s TOV 
Tv<f>\ov) see WM., p. 252, Blass, Gr. 
p. 101 ; as Blass observes, the reading 
of D is in the style neither of classical 
nor of N.T. Greek ; R.V. rightly, "he 
took hold of the blind man by the 

f^veyKfv CIVTOV ea> TTJS K(afJ.r)s] l He 

brought him outside the village 
(Wycliffe: "out of the streete"); the 
appeal had evidently been made in 
one of the thoroughfares or open spaces 
where a concourse might be expected. 
For this use of e a> cf. i. 45, XL 19. 
The isolation was probably for the 

sake of the blind man himself. Euth. 
remarks : ov yap tfcrav ol TTJS KCOJU.^? 
TavTTjs oiKTfropes aioi 6ed(raa 0ai ytvo- 
p,evov TO TOIOVTOV 6avfj.a. But there 
is no ground for this supposition. 
Cf. v. 26. 

TTTva-as els ra o/z/zara avrou] Cf. vil 
33, note. The Lord condescends to 
use a popular remedy as a symbol of 
the healing power which resided in 
His own humanity. Suetonius as 
cribes a similar miracle to Vespasian: 
Vesp. 7 "e plebe quidam luminibus 
orbatus, item alius debili crure seden- 
tem pro tribunal! pariter adierunt... 
restituturum oculos si inspuisset, 
confirmaturum crus si dignaretur 
calce contingere ...utrumque tempta- 
vit, nee eventus defuit." See also 
Tac. hist. iv. 81. The poetical word 
cfyz/za is rare in Biblical Gk. (Prov. 5 
Sap. 2 4 Mace. 3 Mt. 1 Me. 1 ). Vnde\s 
TO.S xclpas avroi : the laying on of 
hands is vouchsafed as an additional 
help to the blind man s faith. In 
some cases it seems to have been the 
only sign of healing used (vi. 5, Lc. 
iv. 40, xiii. 13). 

eTTTjpeora avTov Et n j3\e7Tfis ;j For 

the imperf. cf. v. 9, viii. 27, 29. The 
question is regarded as a factor in a 
process which is passing before the 
reader s mind. On el as a direct in 
terrogative see WM., p. 639; the 
traditional text softens but at the 
same time weakens the sentence (see 
w. 11.). The Lord recognises that the 
recovery of sight in this case will be 

gradual ; Victor : o-rjfiaivdiv cos areX^s 
TWV IT po&ayovT&v / iricms KCII OVTOV 
TOU TreirrjptofjLcvov Tas o^eis. 



24 TL 

25 Ct 

TraXiv e6r]Kv 




Kai aTre/careo-T*;, 


go arm 

BCD*A 2P e me aeth] /SXeTret KAD 2 LNXmZ3> al min fereomn latt syrr 
24 eXeYep] etirev K*C 1071 alP* 110 Xe7 DN | ort cos So/Spa opa> treptir. 
min? 1 go] ws 5. 7re/>t7r. C^M" 1 * i 604 1071 al nonn latt syrr 
arm me aeth | irepnrarovvTa F 225 25 om eira syr? 6811 arm | /cat StejSXe^ef 

(KBC*LA i 28 209 346)] /cat 77/>aro ava.p\e\f/ai D b ff i r vg /cat firoiya-ei O.VTOV 
avapXefai ANXFH al fepeonm a f q e m dii k syr sinuid ( 8ic ) om syrP esh K. e?r. aur. ara^X. 
/cat 5ie/3\e\f/ej> 13 69 (arm) | aTre/careo-TT? fc^BCLA minP auc ] aT 
A(D)N(U)Xr(n)2$ al min? 1 | /cat evepXevev N C BL(A) 13 28 69 346] /c. e/3Xe^ev 
/c. evefiXefev ACEGmZ<l> al minP rmu /c. avep\e^ev FM* min satm 

24. ai>a/3Xe \//a eXeyev /crX.] At 
the question the man involuntarily 
raised his eyes. Ara/SXeTreti/ is either 
(a} to look up (vi. 41, vii. 34, xvi. 4) or 
(b) to recover sight (x. 51, 52); the con 
text determines the meaning in each 
case. The same ambiguity appears in 
certain other verbs compounded with 

dva } e.g. dvdyeiv, dvadidovai, dva8i>(r6a.i, 
dvaKoXtiv. BXeTro) TOVS dvdpwTrovs KrX., 
" I see men, for I perceive objects like 
trees walking." As yet he can dis 
criminate a man from a tree of the 
same height only by his movements ; 
the image reflected on the retina is 
still indistinct; "nee caecus est nee 
oculos habet " (Jerome). Cf. Jud. ix. 

36 rrjv a-Kiav ra>v opea>v av /3Xe?rets coy 

ai/Spas : Field compares the proverb 

ovde dvOpcoTTovs ewpcov TOVS dvQptoTrovs. 

The reading of the R.T. which omits 
on and opeo " I see men like trees, 
walking" is easier, but comparatively 
pointless. On the distinction between 
/SXeVco and op<3 see iv. 12, note. 

25. eira iraXiv e QrjKev KT\.] A 

second application of the Lord s hand 
completes the cure. Ate /3Xf^ei/, dire- 
KaTearTTj, eVe/SXeTrev, represent the com 
pleteness of the recovery in three 
aspects; the man saw perfectly, his 
faculty of sight was from that hour 
restored, he was able henceforth to 

examine every object and interpret 
the phenomena correctly. The reading 
of D latt. (rfp^aro dvaft\e\lsai\ while it 
aims at removing a tautology, misses 
the point of Mc. s description ; the 
second imposition of hands, unlike the 
first, was followed by perfect restora 
tion. Aia/3XeVeti>, to see clearly, does 
not occur in the LXX., but. Aq. substi 
tutes Sta/3Xe\|/-is for dvd(B\e\l/is in Isa. 
Ixi. i ; in the N. T. its meaning is well 
illustrated by Mt. vii. 5 =- Lc. vi. 42 

K/3a\e...Tr)v SOKOV KOI rore Sia/SXe ^et? 
enqSaXet? TO ndpfpos, thou shalt gain 
clearness of vision. "E^Xeireiv, to turn 
and fix the eyes upon (cf. Jud. xvi. 27 
(A), i Esdr. iv. 33 (A), Mt. xix. 26, Me. 
x. 21, 27, xiv. 67, Jo. i. 36, 43), implies 
the power to concentrate the attention 
on a particular object : the construc 
tion is usually e>/3X. rwl or etp, but 
7i/3X. nvd occurs in Jud. I.e., Isa. v. 
12. TrjXavyws, l clearly, though at a 
distance ; his sight served for distant 
objects as well as for those near at 
hand, so completely was it restored ; 
cf. Strabo xvii. 30 dfopuvTai d y ev- 

flevde rr]\a.vya>s al 7rvpafj,idfs. The 

adv. is OTT. Xey. in the N. T. ; the LXX. 
use TrjXavyrie (Lev. xiii. 2, 4, 19, 24, 
Job xxxvii. 21, Ps. xviii. (xix.) 8), 

Tr)\avyrjp.a (Lev. xiii. 23), TrjXavyrja-is 
(Ps. xvii. (xviii.) 12). ArjXavyus (vv. 11.), 


cos oTravTa. * 6 Kai d7reo"rei\ev CLVTOV ets OIKOV 26 
\eyutv MrjSe ek Triv Kto/uLrjv elcre\6ri^. 

i e^fjXdev 6 Irjcrovs Kai ol juadrjTai avTov ets 27 

25 T-rjXavyws K c ABDNXriIZ<i min fereomn j S^Xairyws K*CLA 5?;Xa* 33 | airavras 
AC 2 NXmS> minP 1 go om c k iravra, D 2? 26 eis TO* OIKOV K c - a GMUXA al mu 

me | fjt,rjde eis rr\v ACW/ATP ei<reX0?7S K c ( N*) BL i* 209 syr ain me] /j,r}devt eurrjs as TIJV 
KWf^tjv (ev Tfj KWfi-r)} (c) k viraye eis rov OIKOV ffov /cat /j-ydevi. enrijs eis TTJV KUfJ.7)v D (q) 
viraye eis r. o. <r. /cat ea^ ets TT/I/ K. ei(reX0?7S 13 (28) 69 (346) -2 pe et Cum ^Sei* enrvjs 
nvi & item omisso fjnjde i et omisso yiM;5e ev TTJ Ku/ji-rj b f f vg WTT. eis r. o. <r. /cat /ii; ets 
Tt\v K. i<re\6-r]s & fiyde eis r. K. etcreX^T/s aXXa y?r. ets r. o. a. icai orav eis T. /c. ereX0?7s 
fjLi)dvt CITTT/S ei r^ /cwyLw; arm /i^Se ets T. K. ewreX^s /x^Se CITT^S rw t ev rt\ MM ACEFG 
HKMNSUVXrAHS minfereomn gyrrpesbhciftxt) go aeth ^ ea Tas K(i}fMS 

(-/)etas BKMSUrn) KACEFHLNXA2*] ets Kaurapiav D a b ff i q r 

besides being a word of doubtful 
authority, misses an important point. 
As Gould rightly remarks (in oppo 
sition to Weiss) : " we have no right 
to argue from this single case that 
gradualness was the ordinary method " 
of the Lord s working. On the con 
trary, the abnormal character of this 
incident is probably the cause of its 
being selected by the Evangelist or 
St Peter. Euth. is probably not far 
from the truth in his explanation of 
the slowness of the recovery : areA<5s 


areXoos- Trto-revovra. Forhomiletic treat 
ment cf. Bede : " paullatim et non 
statim repente curat quern uno mox 
verbo si vellet poterat curare, ut 
magnitudinem humanae caecitatis os- 
tenderet, quae quasi pedetentim et 
per quosdam profectuum gradus ad 
lucem divinae visionis solet pervenire." 
26. eis- OIKOV avToii] Our Lord seems 
to have desired that those who had 
been recently healed should seek the 
retirement of their own homes, cf. ii. 
n, v. 19. The house was apparently 
away from the town : see next note. 

p.T]8f els Trjv Kwprjv fio-e\0T)s] So 

far from holding any conversation 
with the people of the village, do not 
even enter it for the present : go 
straight home. The reading is dis 
cussed at some length in WH., Intr., 
140; a defence of the traditional 

text is attempted by Burgon-Miller, 
Causes of Corruption, p. 273 f. Dr 
Hort points out that "the peculiar 
initial p^de has the terse force of 
many sayings as given by St Mark." 
M^Se is used with the imperative in 
the same sense (=ne quidem) in Eph. 
v. 3, 2 Thess. iii. 10, and with the in 
finitive by Me. (ii. 2, iii. 20) ; but there 
is no precise parallel iii the N. T. 
Jerome s mystical interpretation is 
curious : " vade in domum tuam, h. e. 
in domum fidei, h. e. in ecclesiam ; ne 
revertaris in viculum ludaeorum." 

xvi. 13 20, Lc. ix. 1 8 21). 

27. Kal ^rj\0V 6 irjo-ovs rX.] From 

Bethsaida the Lord and the Twelve 
moved northwards, following the course 
of the Jordan till they reached the 
neighbourhood of its sources ; the 
road may have lain entirely on the E. 
bank, or the party may have crossed 
the river below the waters of Merom 
where the bridge known as Jisr bendt 
Yaktib joins the Jaulan to Galilee. 
The Caesarea to whose * villages they 
came was distinguished from that 
upon the coast of the Mediterranean 
(the Caesarea of the Acts, K. 77 -irapa- 
\ios, at an earlier time 2rpara>i/oy 
TTvpyos} as Caesarea Philippi : it was 
in Philip s tetrarchy (Lc. iii. i), and 



[VIII. 27 


&VTOV \eycov 

v TT a> 
ls Tiva /ue 

28 Xeryovcriv ol avdpwTroi eli/cu ; a8 ot Se e*7rai/ CIVTCO 

27 e? IT; o5w /ecu k | riva] n K 

Kpt0i)<rai> ADNXm* al min omnvid att^ ^ syr c arm go 
alP 1 syrr go om aurw f q arm om \eyovres C 2 33 alP* uc 

28 virav BC* 2 LA k 

me aeth] ctTre- 
om avrw \eyovres 

had been recently rebuilt in part by 
Philip s munificence, and named after 
Augustus, as Bethsaida had been re 
named Julias after the daughter of 
the Imperator ; Joseph, ant. xviii. 2. 1 
&i\nnros & Ilavcdda rrjv irpos rats 
Trrjyais TOV Iop8dvov KaTao~Kfvdo~as ovo- 
fj.dci Kcuo-ape lav KCO/UTJI/ de Br)6(raida 
Trpbs Mpvfl TV Tfvvrjo-apiTiSi TroXeoos 
Trapa<T\a>v d^ia>/ia. . . lovXia 6vyarp\ rfj 
KaiVapo? opwwuov e/eaXetrei . In pass 
ing from one of Philip s new cities 
to the other the Lord found Himself 
in a more distinctly and aggressively 
Hellenised country. The old name 
of the town Paneas, now Banias 
marked it as sacred to the worship of 
Pan ; its second name connected it 
with the worship of the Emperor, in 
whose honour a temple had been 
erected close to the old shrine of Pan 
(Joseph, ant. xv. 10. 3). The popula 
tion was chiefly Gentile (cf. Schlirer 
IL i. 1336*.), yet, as this context shews, 
not exclusively so, especially in the 
suburbs, to which the Lord seems to 
have confined Himself. The physical 
surroundings of Caesarea are graphi 
cally described by Stanley, 8. and P. 
p. 397 : " over an unwonted carpet of 
turf .. .through a park-like verdure... 
the pathway winds, and the snowy 
top of the mountain itself is gradually 
shut out from view by its increasing 
nearness, and again there is a rush 
of waters through deep thickets, and 
the ruins of an ancient town.. .rise on 
the hill side : in its situation, in its 
exuberance of water, its olive groves, 
and its view over the distant plain, 
almost a Syrian Tivoli"; cf. G. A. 
Smith, H. G., p. 473 f. For the Tal- 

mudic name, TlPi? or ji*1t?i?, see 
Neubauer, Geogr. du Talm., p. 237. 
Ai KOO/ZCU Kato-apias (Mt. ra fJ-eprj : cf. 
note on vii. 24) are the villages and 
small towns that clustered round 
Caesarea, and belonged to its territory 
(WM., p. 234) its daughter towns ; 
so the phrase is used repeatedly in the 
LXX. of Joshua and i, 2 Chronicles. 

lv TTJ 6Soi eiryptoTa TOVS paO.] Probably 
one of the chief purposes of the long 
journey over a relatively unfrequented 
road was to afford opportunities for 
the instruction of the Twelve. The 
Lord begins by eliciting their views 
with regard to Himself. The Galilean 
ministry was now practically at an end ; 
the way to the Cross was opening 
before Him. Thus the moment had 
come for testing the result upon the 
Twelve of what they had seen and 
heard, and preparing them for the 
future. It was felt by Jesus Himself 
to be a crisis of great moment, and 
He prepared for it by prayer (Lc. ix. 
1 8), as He had prepared for the first 
circuit of Galilee (Me. i. 35), and for 
the selection of the Twelve (Lc. vi. 12). 
For another important conversation 
ev rfj 080) cf. X. 32. 

T LVO. fie \eyovo-iv ol avQpa>iroi e/ai;] 
Mt. r. X. ol av6p. fivai TOV vlov TOV av- 
Opcoirov ; Lc. T. /ze ol o%\oi X. civ in ; 

He asks for information, perhaps in 
order to lead them to the further 
question which follows, or it may 
have been .from a desire to ascertain 
by the ordinary methods of human 
knowledge what they would have had 
opportunities of knowing, which were 
denied to Him by the circumstances 
of His position (cf. v. 30 b, note). Not 


Kdl d\\Ol 

\eyovTes OTL Icodvrjv TOV 
H\eiav, d\\oi Se OTL els row TTpcxprjTtov. * 9 Kai 29 
avTOS 7rr)puoTa CLVTOVS c Yjueis Se TWO. /me \6<yeT 
elvai ; ctTTOKpidek 6 FleTpos \ejet avTto Cv eT 6 

28 ort eis KBC*L me] ei/a AC 3 NXrAII2$ al min fereomn (k) arm ws eva 
29 eTTTjpamx avrouj KBC*DLA] Xe7 aurois AC 2 NXmS al min? 1 b (f) i vg (syrr) go 
arm aeth (KM. . .avrois om k) | ctTro/r/xtfets] + 5e KCDXrAII al pr /cat AN 33 al 
+ o mos TOV Beov fctL 157 (b) r syr hier +o vi. r. 0. TOV ^OH/TOS 13 69 124 346 syrP 

even the Pharisees ventured to dis 
cuss the Master in His presence. 

28. itodvTJV TOV (BaTTTHTTTIV KrA.] SC. 

\eyovo~iv 01 av6pa>irol (re elvai. These 
conjectures have already been men 
tioned (vi. 14, 15, where see notes). 
Matthew adds that some had singled 
out the prophet Jeremiah possibly 
(Edersheim, ii. 79) on account of the 
denunciatory character of one side of 
our Lord s teaching, possibly (J. Light- 
foot on Mt xxvii. 9) because Jeremiah 
occupied the first place in the order 
traditionally assigned to the Latter 
Prophets (cf. Ryle, O. T. Canon, p. 
225 ff.). Cf. the references to Jere 
miah in 2 Mace. ii. 5 ff., xv. I4f. ; in 
4 Esdr. ii. 18 the return of both Isaiah 
and Jeremiah is anticipated, "mittam 
tibi adiutorium pueros meos Isaiam 
et Hieremiam"; see Weber, Jild. 
Theologie*, p. 354. Few in Galilee, it 
seems, had spoken of Jesus as Mes 
siah (see however Mt. ix. 27), though 
in Judaea this possibility had been 
freely discussed (Jo. vii. 28 31, 41, 
ix. 22), and even in Samaria (Jo. iv. 
29), and perhaps in Phoenicia (Mt. 
xv. 22). Perhaps the advent of a 
national deliverer was not so anxiously 
awaited in a country where members 
of the Herod family were in power as 
in Judaea under Roman sway; yet 
see Jo. vi. 15. 

29. KCU auYos] AVTOS is not em 
phatic, but, like o 8e, serves to shew 
that the previous speaker takes up 
the conversation again. Y/zels Se rlva 
KT\. but ye in contrast to men 
in general those without (cf. iv. 

S. M. 2 

n). Ae yere, in your ordinary con 
versation, among yourselves or with 
others. ATroKptdds... Xeyci: an instance 
of the aor. part, of identical action 
coupled with a pres., cf. Burton, 141 ; 
Mt., dnoKp. elnev. All the Synoptists 
attribute the answer to Peter, but 
they report it differently. Mc. s brief 
a-v f? o xpioror becomes in Lc. TOV 
Xpio-rov TOV 0fov, and in Mt., o-i> et 


But in each of the forms the essence 
of the confession is the same. In 
the O. T. the priest or king is GOD S 
Anointed : i Regn. xxvi. 9, 1 1 XP^TOV 
Kvpiov (mnj DTP), 2 Regn. xxiii. i 
x p. fcov laxw/3 (Hpl?> rg D) 5 and 
the ideal King of the Psalms is also 
son of God (Ps. ii. 7, Ixxxix. 26, 27) ; 
cf. Enoch cv. 2, and on the import of 
the last ref. Stanton, J. and Chr. M., 
p. 288. For a discussion of the title 
as applied to Christ in the Gospels 
see Dalman, Worte, i. p. 219 ff., 
and art. Son of God in Hastings, 
D.B. iv. The epithet o vv is possibly 
suggested by the pagan surroundings 
of Caesarea ; for its use in the 0. T. 
cf. Esth. vi. 13, viii. 13, Sir. xviii. i, 
Dan. v. 23 (LXX.), vi. 20 (21) (Th.), and 
the constant phrases gg Kvpios, 3 
cyo>, Xcyet Kvpios : in the N. T. it occurs 
again in Mt. xxvi. 63, Jo. vi. 57 (o a>v 
Trarjjp), Rom. ix. 26, 2 Cor. vi. 16, i Th. 
i. 9, i Tim. iii. 15, iv. 10, Heb. iii. 12, 
ix. 14, x. 31, xii. 22, i Pet. i. 23, Apoc, 

vii. 2, X. 6, XV. 7 (o &V fls TOVS 
TU>V aicovav). 

According to Mt. xiv. 33 




1 78 


Trepi avTOv. 

31 3I Kai rjp^aTO $i$a(TK6iv avTOvs OTI Ael TOV viov 
TOV dvBpcoTTOV 7ro\\d TraOeiv Kai a 
VTTO TCOV TrpecrfivTepcw Kai TCOV dpxiepewv 

30 \eyw(nv \ eiirwiv CDG 31 VTTO KBCDGKLIIZ<] atro AXFA al rain? 1 | 

TWV apx- K- TWV yp.~\ om rwv bis AGKNATTS om ruv i FLF ora rwv 2 X<I> 

deov vlos ei), Jo. vi. 69 (crv ft 6 ayios 
TOV 6eoii\ this was not the first occa 
sion upon which the Messiahship of 
the Lord had been confessed by the 
Twelve. Peter in particular had 
known who He was from the first 
(Jo. i. 41). But his belief is now 
solemnly and formally professed, and 
the Lord rewards this act of recog 
nition on the part of His Apostle 
with a remarkable promise which Mt. 
alone has preserved (Mt. xvi. 17 ff., cf. 
Hort, Ecclesia, p. 10 f.). On Mc/s 
omission of the reward cf. Victor : ri}j/ 
yap aKptfieo-Tepav Trepi TOVTOV biriyrja-iv 
Trape^aip^a-ei/ o irapa)V evayyeXio-r^ff r<5 
Mar$aiG>...>a pr) do^rj Eterpcp rco eavrov 
Xapi&o-Qat didao-icaXa. EuseblUS (D.E. 
iii. 3) is perhaps more accurate : ravra 
j*v ovv o Herpos fiKortas 7rapa(ria>- 
j^iov dib KOI Mapxoy avro 

30. Kai eTTfTi^.Tjo ev avrols /crX.] Lc., 
fTTiTifjLijo as avrols iraprjyyi\cv. On 

this use of eVm/zai/ cf. i. 25. The 
censure which the word implies be 
longs here only to the disobedience 
which the Lord has reason to antici 
pate (cf. i. 45, vii. 36) ; Vg. comminatus 
est eis ne cui dicerent. Ilepl avYoC, 
i.e. as Mt. explains, OTI avros eoriv 
o xpioros. The spread of such a 
rumour would have either precipi 
tated the Passion, or prevented it at 
the cost of substituting a national 
and political movement for one which 
was spiritual and universal. 

PETER REPROVED (Mt. xvi. 21 23, 
Lc. ix. 22). 

31. rjpgaro d^ao-Keiv] Mt. OTTO Tore 
ijp^aro irja-ovs Xptoros BciKVveiv. It 

was a new departure, beginning with 
the moment when by the confession 
of the Twelve he was acknowledged 
to be the Christ. The Christ must 
suffer (Lc. xxiv. 26, Acts xxvi. 23 
7ra0r)Tos 6 xp.) ; so prophecy had 
clearly foretold (Acts viii. 32 35). 
But the idea was nevertheless strange 
and repulsive to the Jewish mind ; 
see Westcott, Study of the Gospels, 
p. 141, Stanton, p. 125 ff., Schiirer n. 
ii. p. 184 ff. ; quite other thoughts 
were associated with the name of 
Messiah. The Lord therefore does 
not say as yet Set TOV xp ifrTOV TroXXa 
n-aOdv, but calls Himself as heretofore 

TOV VIOV TOV dvflpWTTOV (Me. Lc.). Ir6- 

naeus (iii. 16. 5) quotes this passage 
against the Docetic notion of an im 
passible Christ. For Sel cf. ix, n, 
xiii. 7, Lc. xxiv. 26, Acts xxiii. n, 
xxvii. 24, i Cor. xv. 25, Apoc. i. i. 
IloXXa rraOclv: a frequent phrase in 
reference to the Passion, cf. Mt. xvi. 
21, Me. ix. 12, Lc. ix. 22, xvii. 25 ; the 
Lord suffered rroXXa but not TroXXa/as, 
Heb. ix. 26.]vai. . .a7TOKTai>6f)vai. . .ava- 

<rTTjvai] A remarkably complete outline 
of the Passion in its three stages : (i) 
the official rejection of the Messiah- by 
the Sanhedrin, (2) His violent death, 
(3) His victory over death. Kai ano- 
8oKifj.a(r6^vai (Me., Lc., omitted by Mt.) 
looks back to Ps. cxvii. (cxviii.) 22; 
cf. xii. 10, i Pet. ii. 4 ff. ; oVoSoKi- 
fj,d(iv ( = DXD Ps. I.e.) is to reject after 
scrutiny, and implies an official test- 



Kai aTroKTavOfjvat, Kai 

Trapprjcria TOV Xoyov^ e\d\ei. Kai 32 

31 pera rpets ?7/Ae/>as] (ev) rrj rpirr] rjfj.epa I (13 28) 33 69 124 2? alP"" dg arm aeth 

ing and rejection of His claims. This 
was to be conducted by the three 
factors in the national council acting 
together (VTTO T<UI> ?rp. KOI dpx- <at yp. 

Mt., so Lc.), but each severally respon 
sible and consenting to the verdict (vrro 

T<BI/ TTp. KO.I TWV dpX- KO.I TtoV yp., MC.). 

The words distinctly contemplate Je 
rusalem as the scene of the rejection, 
for there only could the dp^tepet? 
be found, or the three classes take 
common action. The three are men 
tioned together again XL 27, xiv. 43, 
53 (of dpx- K. of yp. K. of irp.\ XV. I (of 
dpx- fiera TODI/ irp. KOI yp.). For the 
yp. see note on i. 22 ; the dpxiepfls 
(Vg. summi sacerdotes, A.V. and 
R.V., "chief priests") are the heads 
of the priestly class, High Priest and 
ex- High Priests, and other leading 
members of the sacerdotal aristocracy ; 

cf. Acts IV. 6 oo-oi rjo-av /c yevovs 

opXiepariKou, and see B lass ad I. and 
Schiirer n. i. p. 177 flf. The irpco-- 
fivrepoi (to be distinguished of course 
from the eiders of vii. 3, 5) appear to 
have been the non-professional or lay 
element in the Council a survival 
apparently of the ycpovcria of Macca- 
bean times (i Mace. xii. 6, 3 Mace. 
i 8) and of the primitive 
(Exod. xvii. 5). 

KCU a.TroKTavQr)vai\ So also Mt., Lc. ; 

this late pass. aor. occurs in i Mace, 
ii. 9, and again in Me. ix. 31 (cf. 
"VVSchm., p. 128). Kai /zera rpets 
qpepas dvacrTrjvai : Mt., L/C., Kai TTJ 
rpirr} rjfJ-fpa (yfpOfjvai. Eyeipo/xat is 
used of the Resurrection in Me. (WH.) 
exclusively, in Mt. and Lc. the two 
verbs appear to be employed indis 
criminately ; in doctrinal passages 
eyeipo/zat as a pass, in form suggests 
the thought of 6 eyeipas (Rom. iv. 
24 f., viii. 11, 34, i Cor. xv. 14, 15, cf. 
Ign. Trail. 9), but this is hardly 

present to the writers of the Gospel 
narrative. Mera rp. 77^1. ; so Me. al 
ways (ix. 31, x. 34), except when he 
uses dia rpiu>v rinfpwv (xiii. 2, v.l., xiv. 
58) in reference to the saying of Jo. ii. 
19. Mt. also has /zero rp. ^/x. in xxvii. 
63, but elsewhere he writes rfj rp crr] 
7)/xepa (xvi. 21, xvii. 23, xx. 19), and so 
Lc., IX. 22, xviii. 33 (rfj ifc. rr, rp.\ 

xxiv. 7, 46, Acts x. 40, and Paul 

(i Cor. XV. 4, rfi fa. rff rp.). Mc. s 
phrase occurs also, with another refe 
rence, in Acts XXV. I ; cf. /xra rpets 
p.fjvas (Acts xxviii. Ii); /iera rpia e-rrj 
GaL i. 18; TTJ rpLr-rj Acts xxvii. 19. 
Both phrases were perhaps suggested 

by Hos. vi. 2, vytao-et TJ/zas pera dvo 
T/p.pas fi> rfj Tjiifpa rfj rpirrj KOI ava- 

o-T7;o-o/ie^a. The earliest tradition 
seems to have inclined to the former, 
modifying it however so as to retain a 
reference to the third day. That //era 
rpfls r/fMcpas in this connexion is equi 
valent to Iv TT) Tpirrj wfpa is clear from 
the explanatory eo)? rrjs rpir7/y rjfjLepas 

in Mt. xxvii. 64 ; cf. Mt. xii. 40 where 
the stay of the Lord in the grave is 
described as "three days and three 
nights" ; see also Field, Notes, p. n. 
The easier phrase however soon super 
seded the harder, and is almost uni 
versal in early citations from the 
Gospels (Resch, aussercan. Par. zu 
Lc. p. 147 ff.), and in Creeds it is varied 
only by the equivalent dia rpi&v 77/16- 
pwv or rpiriiifpov (Caspari, Quellen, iii. 
p. 70 f.). On the singular renderings 
of some 0. L. texts see J. R. Harris, 
Codex Bezae, p. 91. The Sinaitic 
Syriac substitutes on the third day 
in Me., but in Mt. xxvii. 63 retains 
* after three days. 

32. Trapp/70-ta TOV \6yov eXdXei] He 
spake the saying (so probably here, 
but cf. i. 45) without reserve (Wycliffe, 
"pleynli," " openli"), in the presence of 




^ 6 lleTpos 

n 33 avTW. 33 d Se eTTKTTpcKpeis Kat idcov TOVS / 
avTOV eTreriimrio-ev FleTpco Kat Aeyet Yjraye 

32 irpoffKafioiJievos] Trpocr/caXetra/iefos T \ avTw] + ne cui ilia diceret (c) k + Domine 
propitius esto nam hoc non erit a b n (syr sin ) 33 /cat id. T. pad. avrov] om k [ 

n<rr/>a>] pr rw ACXrAII | /cat Xe7ei] Xe7o> ADXm al latt vt P ly s syr hcl go arm 

ypt-aro f7rtTip.qv auroi] Mt. gives 

the words: iXa? o-ot (i Mace. ii. 21), 
Kvpie, ov /XT/ eVrat trot TOUTO. 

33. 6 Se eTTio-rpafais xrX.] The 
Lord turned sharply round as if to 
face the speaker a characteristic act, 
see v. 30, Mt. ix. 22, Lc. vii. 9, 44, ix. 
55, x. 23, xiv. 25, xxii. 61, xxiil 28, 
Jo, i. 38; for C7rio-Tpc(p(r6ai (eTricrrpe- 
<f)eiv) in this sense cf. v. 30, Jo. xxi. 20, 
Acts ix. 40, Apoc. i. 12. On this, as 
on a later occasion (Lc. xxii. 61), a 
mere look might have sufficed to bring 
Peter to repentance ; but Jesus as He 
turned caught sight of the rest of the 
Twelve (iduv TOVS na6r}Tas avrov), who 
were probably watching the scene with 
interest, and perhaps shared Peter s 
views. A public reproof was there 
fore necessary, and the Lord did not 
spare His first Apostle; 3ireriiu)a i cv 
IIerpa>, so Me. only, apparently in 
reference to v. 32, r)p|aro eViTijuai/, cf. 
Bengel: "dum increpat, increpati- 
onem meretur," a point which the 
Vg. misses coepit 
minatus est. Me., who does not re 
cord the Lord s commendation of 
Peter, accentuates the reproof. 

inraye orrio-o) fiov, 2arai/a] Cf. Mt. 
iv. IO VTrcrye, 2arai>a the words in. 
which the Lord before the beginning 
of His public work dismissed the 
Tempter, when he offered the king 
doms of the world on condition of re 
ceiving homage for them. This temp 
tation was now renewed by Satan in 
the person of the Apostle who desired 
his Master to put from Him the 
prospect of the Cross. It is unne 
cessary to suppose either that Peter 
is here called * Satan (cf. Jo. vi. 70), 
or that the word is to be understood 

all the Twelve (Euth. (pavepus KOL dira- 
paKaXu7rra>s),and in plain, direct words. 
TlappTjo-ia. (here only in the Synoptists) 
is contrasted with eV upvirTa (Jo. vii. 

4): fv (Jo. xvi. 25, cf. 29). 

The more usual forms are /*era Trap- 

prja-ias (PrOV. X. IO, Acts 11. 29), eV 
7rappT)<ria (Sap. V. I, Jo. xvi. 29); irap- 
prjo-iq is specially frequent in Jo. (vii. 
13, 26, x. 24, xi. 14, 54, xvi. 25, xviii 
20). For the general sense and use of 
the word see Lightfoot on Col. ii. 1 5. 

7rpoo-Xa/3o/A>os o Herpes avrov /crX.] 
To Peter such frankness seemed to 
be indiscreet; such premonitions of 
failure were at variance with all his 
conceptions of the Christ. The Master 
had manifested a momentary weak 
ness ; it was his duty as senior of the 
Twelve to remonstrate. He took the 
Lord aside a little, as if to ask a 
question or to give some information 
privately, perhaps in order to spare 
the Master the pain of a public re 
monstrance, as if sparing Him, 
Syr. sin - (Bede : "ne praesentibus ceteris 
condiscipulis magistrum videatur ar- 
guere"). IIpoo-Aa/SeV&u (Mt. Me.) is 
used of the stronger or wealthier 
coming to the help of the weaker or 
poorer (Ps. xvii. (xviii.) 17 (NA), xxvi. 
(xxvii.) 10, Acts xviii. 26, Rom. xiv. i, 
3, xv. 7), and carries here an air of 
conscious superiority (cf. Hastings, D. 
B., iii. p. 760 a). Something of this 
officiousness had shewn itself already 
in Simon Peter s relations to his 
Master (i. 36); the tension of his 
recent act of faith and the exaltation 
of feeling which followed it probably 
exaggerated a fault of natural charac 
ter, and led to the astounding conduct 
described in the next words. 


JULOV, CctTavd* OTI ov (ppoveis TO, TOV 6eov d\\a TCL 

34 Kai TrpocTKaXecrdiuevos TOV 6^/Voi/ crvv TO?S //a- 34 
8r]Tciis avTOV eiTrev avTols Gi TIS 6e\6i OTTLCTO) p.ov 

34 et ru KBC*DLA 604 1071 alP* uc latt 
rain? 1 syrr me go aeth | OTTKTW /-lov] om k 

arm Or] o<rrts AC 2 XTIIZ3> al 

simply in its etymological sense, adver 
sary (Victor, o ecrnv dvriKeip,ev : see 
note on i. 13). The Lord recognises 
His great adversary in Peter, who for 
the moment acts Satan s part. Thpht. : 
o (raravas fiovos ov 0eXei avrov iraOelv 
...Sarai/fit/ ovop,det TOV Hcrpov tos TO. 
2arai/a (ppoi/oCt/ra, cf. Macar. Magn. 
iii. 27 ov Ilerpov TO pfjpa dXX vrroj3o\r) 
TOV TO \%0V. Yndyetv OTTLO~(O 

nvos (Mt., Me. here : not in the true 
text of Mt. iv. 10) is interpreted by 
Origen in a favourable sense as 
aKoXovBclis o. T. : dia p,ev rrjv npoQc- 
<riv, ovo-av de^tdv, Xeyei avTto *Y. o. /z., 
o toi/el KaraXiTToi/rt TO. 6V coi/ ?;yi/oei... 
UKO\ov6flv roi *\T)(TO\). But vTrdyeiv is 

not = e\6eli> (v. 34) ; it implies re 
moval, not approach, and 6nio-a> pov 
in this connexion represents defeat 
and banishment from the sight of the 
conqueror, not a closer attachment to 
the company of the Master; cf. Ps. 
vi. ii (NA), ix. 4, xlix. (1.) 17, Isa. 
xxxviii. 17. If Peter identified him 
self with Satan, he must share Satan s 
repulse and exile. 

OTI ov (ppovels /crX.] It is not merely 
the officiousness of Peter which is 
rebuked, but the graver error which 
led him to interfere. His resist 
ance to the thought of the Passion 
revealed a deep cleavage between his 
mind and the mind of GOD. The 
illumination which had enabled him 
to apprehend the Messiahship of Je 
sus (Mt. xvi. 17) left him still unable 
to assimilate the Xoyo? TOU o-raupoO. 
On this fundamental point he was 
not in sympathy with the Divine 
order of things. Qpoveiv TO. TOV Oeov 
= 0p. ra ToO 7r/ev/Ltaros, the opposite 
of (pp. TO. TTJS o-apKos (Rom. viii. 5) or 

TO. fTTtyeia, TO eVt TTJS yrjS (Phil. iii. I9> 
Col. iii. 2); such conformity with the 
Divine Mind distinguished the Master 
and is the aim of the true disciple 
(Phil. ii. 5). It is interesting to see 
how this Gospel phrase reflects and 
expands itself in the Pauline Epistles. 
For earlier instances of (ppoveiv TO. 
TWOS cf. Esth. viii. 13, i Mace. x. 20, 
and in non-Biblical Gk., Dem. in Phil. 
3 ot ra ^>iX/7r7rou cppovovvTes, Dion. II. 
ii. ot (ppovovvres ra TTJS oXi-yap^/ay : 
and for a practical application of the 
present passage see Orig. in Mt. t. xii. 

23 t/o/iiVco/xei/ TOLVVV TO TV%OV fivat 
dpdpTT) /j.a (ppoveiv ra re5i/ aV^pcoTTCDi , 
8eov ev 7rao~i (ppoveiv ra roi) 6eov. Cf. 

Iren. iii. 18. 4. Mt. prefixes o-KavdaXov 
et p,ov words that reveal the reality 
of the temptation which such a sug 
gestion as Peter s presented to our 
Lord, and serve to explain the warmth 
with which he repels it. 

SELF-SACRIFICE (Mt. xvi. 24 28, Lc. 
ix. 2327). 

34. Trpoo-KoXecrdpevos TOV o^Xoi/ KrX.] 
Mt. fiTTfv Tols fJ.a6r)Tals avTov, Lc. 
eXeyet/ 8e irpos rravras. Only Me. calls 
attention to the unexpected presence 
of a crowd. Even in the villages of 
Caesarea the Lord was recognised 
and followed by the Jewish popula 
tion. The prediction of the Passion 
was for the Twelve alone; but the 
crowd could share with them the 
great practical lessons which it sug 
gested, and it needed them at this 
moment when it was pressing with too 
light a heart into the Kingdom of 
God. Bengel: "doctrina catholica." 

et riff $ Xei 07Tio-<a pov e\6elv *r\.] 
The words are identically the same in 

1 82 



, a7rapvr](rda 6a) eavTOV Kai dpaTW TOV crTavpov 
dKO\ov6e iT(x) IJLOL. 35 os yap eav 6e\rj 

34 \0iv KABC 2 KLIIS min mu cgklarm me Or] aKo\ov6eiv C*DX< al i 28 604 
ajBatmu ab f ff n q vg e\0. Kai O.KO\. A | o.Trapvr]ffa.ffd(i3...apa.Tw\ eiraparb) A | avrov\ 
eavrov fc$ 

Mt. down to evfKev ep,ov, and with one 
exception there is no important varia 
tion in Lc. Such a saying uttered on 
such an occasion would naturally im 
press itself verbally on the Twelve, 
and gain currency in an identical 
form. The phrase fXQflv oV. pov is 
not suggested by the wayc KT\. of 
v. 33 but by the eagerness of the 
crowd or the presence of the Twelve : 
see note on i. 17. To constitute a loyal 
disciple three things were necessary. 
(i) ATrapvya-ao-Qai eavrov, to deny, i.e. 
to refuse to recognise, to ignore, one 
self. The verb occurs in Isa. xxxi. 7 
*1DXD^ of av&poaTroi TO. 
avraiv, in the N. T., be 
sides this context, it is used in refer 
ence to the disciple who denies all 
knowledge of his master (Lc. xxii. 34), 
or the master who refuses to recog 
nise the unworthy disciple (Lc. xii. 9) : 
dpvflo-Qai is similarly employed by Mt., 
Lc., Jo., Jude, Paul. The idea is 
very inadequately represented by the 
current notions of c self-denial which 
regard it as the abnegation of a 
man s property or rights rather than 
of himself: the true interpretation is 
given by St Paul, Gal. ii. 19 f. di 
iva flea ijo~a) Xpioroi 
<3 8e ovKen e -yo), fi Se tv e /zoi Xpioroy. 
Cf. Thpht. : TI 6Y eori TO airapv. eavTov 
ovro)s av (j,ddoifj,(v fav yvc^pev rl eVrl TO 
dpvrfo ao da.i crepor. 6 apvovfj-evos eTfpov 
...OUK VioTpe<perai, ov o v/iTrdo ^et, are 
anaf- a AXorpia>0et ?. OVT&S ovv KOI rjfJLfls 
/SovAerai TOV qfjLCTepov orco/xaroj 1 d<f>fi- 
oelv. Bede: "pensemus quomodo se 
Paulus abnegaverat qui dicebat, Vivo 
autem iam non ego." (2) *Apat TOV 
o-Tavpov O.VTOV, to put oneself into the 
position of a condemned man on his 
way to execution, i.e. to be prepared 

to face extreme forms of shame and 
loss. This reference to crucifixion 
was perhaps not new to the Twelve 
(Mt. x. 38); to the crowd at least it 
must have been deterrent in a high 
degree, suggesting a procession of 
furciferi headed by Jesus and con 
sisting of His followers. Such whole 
sale crucifixions had occurred within 
memory (Schiirer, n. i. p. 5) and 
might be expected in case of a revolt. 
Lc. adds <aff foepav in view of Chris 
tian experience, which had learnt to 
see the Cross in ordinary trials, but 
the Lord s words were doubtless in 
tended also to prepare His followers 
for the supreme trial of faith. (3) AKO- 
\ovdelv, to persevere in the exacting 
course of a personal following (cf. i. 
1 8). Without this martyrdom itself 
would be insufficient; cf. Victor: 

eVeiSr) yap eori KOL Trao^oi/ra fj.f) aKoA- 
ovOtiv oTav fjirj 6Y OVTOV TI Trady, Iva /zi) 

VOp.lO"r)$ OTL TtoV KlvdllVOJV T! <J>VO~IS} 

7rpoo~TL0r]o-i Kai TT]V V7r66fo-tv iva ravra 
TTOHBV aurai aKoXovQfjs. The following is 
to be habitual and permanent (a*oAov- 

tfei rco, pres., cf. aVapi Tjo-do-^oo, aparto). 
35. or -yap eav dfXrj KT\.] A saying 

attributed to our Lord on more than 
one other occasion (Mt. x. 39, Lc. xvii. 
33, Jo. xii. 25). The key to its inter 
pretation lies in the Biblical use of 
tyvxn- In the O. T. ^. is the usual 
equivalent of E S3, the conscious life 
of feeling and desire (Schulz, ii. p. 
246). The N. T. distinguishes this 
life from merely physical animation 
on the one hand (Mt. x. 28, cf. 4 Mace, 
xiii. 14), and from the higher life of 
the rrvevpa on the other (i Cor. ii. 14, 
xv. 45, i Thess. v. 23, Heb. iv. 12). 
Thus the $vxn holds a mediating posi 
tion between <r<5/ia and TrveO/nafsee Elli- 




CLV a7TO\(Tl TY]V \ 

croxrcu a-TroAecrej 




3<5 T* yap M<pe\el dv6pa)7rov 36 

35 T"nv fax 7 }" O-VTOV (l)] T. eauroi; ^/. B Or r. \f/. eavrov D 2 | os 5 av air. T. \f/. CLVTOV] 
om k | aTroXeo-et 2 KBCDTA al nonn ] airo\o-rj ALXH al? 1 | rt]v ^vxnv avrov (2)] T. 
eavrov \f/. C 3 XII al 604 al 8 **" | e/xou Kat TOV evayyeXiov] om e/tou KCU D a b i m r arm 
aeth om /cat rou 61*0177. 33 ^ om K 01 ^ vid syr sinvid | ffaxrei] pr euros C 2 EFGM m sSUVr 
al^ 36 u0eX KB(L) a n q arm] wQeX-rjaei ACDXriI2<I> al m in fereomn latt syr hcl 

Or o;0eX?70i7<reTcu 33 | (TOV) avdpuirov K C (A)B(C*D)KSUVII<I> min? 1 go (Or)] avdpuiros 
K*C 3 EFGHLMXrAS i 33 69 al nonn 

cott, Destiny of the creature v. ; Light- 
foot on i Thess. I. c.\ and the word is 
used with a lower or higher reference 
in different contexts ; for exx. of the 
former see Mt. ii. 20, vi. 25, Jo. x. 1 5 ff., 
Rom. xi. 3, Phil. ii. 30, and for the 
latter, Mt. xi 29, Me. xiv. 34, Jo. xii. 
27, Heb. vi. 19, i Pet. i. 22; the Eng 
lish versions seek to distinguish the 
two uses by the double rendering 
life and soul. In the present say 
ing both meanings are in view, and an 
adequate translation is perhaps im 
possible. We may paraphrase: the 
man whose aim in life is to secure 
personal safety and success, loses the 
higher life of which he is capable, and 
which is gained by those who sacrifice 
themselves in the service of Christ. 3 
The immediate reference is doubtless 
to the alternative of martyrdom or 
apostasy, but the saying admits of 
wider application ; cf. the form which 
it takes in Jo. xii. 25, and the varia 
tions here in Mt., Lc. All self-seeking 
is condemned as self-destruction, all 
true self-sacrifice is approved as self- 
preservation. Victor: o fieXe-yciroioO- 
TOV eoriv OVK d<pei8(0v vfj-aiv aXXa 
Knl O"<p68pa (f}i86fj.vos ravTa eVtrarro). 

Bede : " ac si agricolae dicatur, Fru- 
mentum si servas, perdis ; si seminas, 
renovas. " 

* Os S* av diro\e<Ti (Mt., Lc., 

is a construction which appears occa 
sionally in Biblical Gk., cf. Jud. xi. 24 

a ecu> KXrjpovoprjo-fi <re (B), Jer. xlix. 
(xlii.) 4 o \6yos ov av 

for K T. exx. see WH., Notes, p. 172, 
WM., p. 385, Blass, Gr. p. 2 1 7. "EVCKCV 
epov (omitted in Western texts) is 
one of those striking claims upon the 
absolute devotion of His followers 
which reveal our Lord s consciousness 
of a Divine right. The addition /cat 
TOU evayyeXiov is characteristic of Me. ; 
cf. i. i, 1 5, x. 29. Me. alone of the Evan 
gelists uses TO fvayycXiov absolutely; 
cf. Salmon, If. E. p. 37. For the con 
trast of <r(ofiv and aTroXXvi/ai comp. 
i Cor. i. 1 8, 2 Cor. ii. 15, James iv. 12; 
similarly aajTrjpia is opposed to aVo)- 
Xf m, Phil. i. 28. Salvation is predicated 
of the soul in Jas. i. 20, v. 15, i Pet. i. 9. 
36. Tt yap co^eXet av6p<*>irov /crX.] 

Self-sacrifice is the truest self-inter 
est, for (yap) a man gains nothing by 
the acquisition of the whole world ii 
the penalty is his own personal life. 
"The question is... between that life 
which consists mainly in having, and 
that which consists in being" (Gould). 
The Lord seems to have still in view 
the temptation described in Mt. iv. 8 
(see note on v. 33). For rl &<pc\f i or 
otyfXTjtret cf. Hab. ii. 18 (WirrnD), 
Sap. v. 8, i Cor. xiv. 6, Heb. iv. 2 ; Mt., 

Lc., TI yap <0<p\r)6i]a Tai (ca(pf\e trot) ; 

Clem. AL strom. vi. 13, Ps.-Clem. horn. 
6 n ro o(f>f\os: see Resell, p. 150 ff. 
KepSf/o-at. . . ^rjfjLuadrjvai : for the contrast 
cf. Phil. iii. 8. The population of the 
northern towns, esp. perhaps of such 
a town as Caesarea, was deeply oc 
cupied in the pursuit of wealth (cf. 
Merrill, cc. viii, xvi.), as the frequent 


K6p$fj(Tai TOV KOCTfJLOV O\OV KCtl fylULLtoBfjVai TY]V ^V^r\V 

37 avTOv ; 37 T* *yap So? avBpcoTros avTaXXayjua Trjs 

38 \jsvxfjs avTOv ; s8 os yap eav 7rcu<rxvi>6fj /me Kai TOI)S 

36 Kepdrj(rai...>r)fuu0-riJ>ai KBL] eav Kepd-qv-r) . . .{tyuwft? ACDXrAIIS* al min omnvid 
syrr Or 37 TI yap KBLA 28 2P q me arm Or] 77 TI 7a/> D* 77 TI AB 2 Xm<I> al 

mm? 1 latt t 6 * ^ syrr go aeth | Sot N*B] 5o> K C L SWei ACDXriIS<I> al min omnvid latt 
Or | avdpwrros] pr o B | om 5oi avdpu-rros A | avrov] eavTov B aurw C 38 os yap 

ear] os eav A os S av D | Trai<rxvv6 n A^] cmuffXvy&qff eTaA e/ue D 

references in the Gospels to wealth 
and worldly care suggest. The Lord 
saw that the penalty was too often 
the loss of the higher personal life 
(eavTov grjfiKoOfis, Lc.). Zrjpiovv is pro 
perly to confiscate or fine (i Esdr. i. 
36, viii. 24), but also to inflict a penal 
ty of any kind (e.g. death, 2 Mace. iv. 
48 ; loss of one s handiwork, i Cor. iii. 
15); for rrjv i\r. cf. Prov. xix. 1 6 
KaKcxfrpmv avBp(07ros fty/Luadrfo eTar eav 
8e Aoi/zevqrcM, KOI TTJV ^v\r)V avrov irpoa- 
6r)<TL : Philo, ebr. 3 ^/ziov/xfVovs de 
Trdvra, ^p^ara, a-eo/iara, ^i^as. Light- 
foot on Phil. Lc. cites a line from 
Menander which is a partial parallel 
to this saying of Christ : Kepdos irovrj- 
pov frfjiiav del (frepet. Cf. Origen in 
Mt. t. xii. 28 Kepdaivei TOV Koapov co o 
Koo~fios ov crravpovTai <a 

The KocTfj-os is the external con 
sidered as a counter attraction to the 
spiritual and eternal : cf. i Jo. ii. 15 ff., 
with Westcott s notes. For an early 
comment on this saying of Christ see 
Ps.-Clem. horn. 6. 

37. TI yap &>I icrX.] Another link 
in the chain of reasoning. The man 
is not a gainer by his transaction, for 
(yap) the loss he has suffered is irre 
parable. At/raAXay/Lia, commutatio, is 
the price received in exchange for an 
article of commerce; cf. Ruth iv. 7, 

3 Regll. XX. (xxi.) 2 &oo-o> o-ot dpyvpiov 
dvTaXXaypa (A ; B, aXXay^a) a/XTrcXeo- 
j/oy, Job xxviii. 15 ov crTadijo-erai avrfj 
(sc. TTJ o~o(pia) dpyvpiov dvrd\\ayp.a 
avr^s (cf. v. 17), and esp. Sir. xxvi. 14 

OVK o~nv dvrd\\ayfj.a Tr 

no money can purchase (i.e. 
there is nothing so valuable as) an 
instructed, disciplined soul" The 
saying before us carries the thought 
of Jesus ben Sira further: there is 
nothing which can take the place of 
the soul in any man : comp. the fine 
lines in Eur. Or. 1155 OVK eo-riv ovdev 
Kpelo-(rov 77 <pi\os (racpijs, | ov vrXoOroy, 
ov TvpavvLS d\6yio~rov Se TI | ro 7r\f)6os 
dvTaX\ayp,a yevvaiov (pi\ov. The idea 
of the irredeemableness of the lost 
soul (Wyclifle, "what chaungyng schal 
a man 3yve for his soule?" Tindale, 
"what shall a man geve to redeme his 
soule agayne?"), to which expositors 
usually refer, does not lie in the word, 
even if it is in the background of the 
thought; for a redemptive price Me. 
uses Xurpov, see x. 45, note. On the 
form &H = & conj. cf. iv. 29, v. 
43, notes. 

38. os yap eav 7raio~)(yv6f) KTX.J 
This final yap carries us on to the 
issue of human life, and places the 
whole struggle between self-seeking 
and self-sacrifice in the light of the 
eternal order. The words retain their 
Marcan form in Lc. ; in Mt. they are 
more general and at the same time 
more dogmatic (/n/XXei ep^eo-^at.../<ai 

rore dTroScoo-et KrX.). * Off yap eav eiraio-- 
Xwdrj corresponds to os yap eav QeXy.. . 
o-eoa-ai of V. 35 5 /" Kal TOVS epovs \6yovs 
looks back to eveKfv ep.ov KO.L TOV evdy- 
ye\iov. If some would lack physical 
courage to face death, more would 
fail through want of moral courage, 
as St Peter himself did more than 
once (xiv. 66 ff., Gal. ii. 1 1 ff. ; con- 

IX. i] 



Ao /r yofS ev Trj yevea TavTrj Trj 
d/uapT(t)\cp, Kal 6 vios TOV dv6pw7rov 

avTOV OTav e\6rj ev Trj $o^r] TOV TraTpos avTOV 

Xeyco v 


IT syr 

OTI eicriv Tives code TCOV eo"Tr]KOTcov oiTives N 

38 Ac>7ovs] om k | ruv ayuav] + avrov F mini*" 10 om I 209 IX i rives w5e TWV 

sffrrjKorwv BD* a ff n q] o>5e rives TWV ear. (c) k syr sin rives TWV o>5e ecrr. fcs (ecrrwrwv) 
ACD 2 LNXrAnZ<l> al min fereomn f vg syr hcl go arm rives TWV ear. <a8e i syr? 6811 me Or 
om w5e b i r | ecrr. ] +/j,er tfwv D 2 pe abfnqr 

trast Rom. i. 16, Gal. vi 14, 2 Tim. i. 
12, 16, i Pet. iv. 16). On the a-KavdaXov 
TOV o-ravpov in the first age see i Cor. 
i. 1 8 if. ; and for a magnificent instance 
of the spirit in which it could be met 
cf. Tert. de came Chr. 5, " salvus sum 
si non confundar de domino meo ; 
*qui mei (inquit) confusus fuerit, con 
fundar et ego eius. alias non invenio 
materias quae me per contemptum 
ruboris probent bene impudentem et 
feliciter stultuni." For the compound 

fTraio-xvveo-tiai cf. Job XXxiv. 19, Ps. 

cxviii. (cxix.) 6 (N*A), Isa. i. 29 (A); 
it occurs also in the parallel passage 
of Lc., and seven times in the Pauline 
Epp. and Hebrews. The construction 
firaicrx- TIVO. (ri) is found in Job I.e., 
Rom. i. 1 6, 2 Tim. i. 8, 16, Heb. xi. 16. 
fv rfj yevea ravrrj rfj KT\.] On yevea 
see viii. 12, note; for p.otxa\is, Mt. 
xii. 39, xvi. 4. The comparison of 
Israel to a /zot^aXis is adopted from 
the prophets, esp. Hosea (ii. 2 (4) ff.), 
and Ezekiel (xvi. 32 ff.); for dpapraXos 
cf. Isa. i. 4 oval f0vos a/j,apro)Xoi/, but 

the word is perhaps used here as 
equivalent to iropv^ (Isa. i. 21, Jer. iii. 
3). In either case the sin laid to the 
charge of the Lord s own generation 
is spiritual: their attitude towards 
the Christ was evidence of apostasy 
from GOD. 

Kal 6 vibs r. d. eVato-^vi ^o-eTai] 

i.e. * shall disown him 5 ; cf. Lc. xii. 9 

o de apvr)O~a.pevos-.-a.7rapvr]d^o-rai^ and 
the \6yos of 2 Tim. ii. 12, 13 et aovrj- 
<r6fj.fda, KaKelvos dpvijo erai r) For 
the converse see Lc. xii. 8, Apoc. iii. 8ff. 

oral/ cXQy ev Ty borj KT\.] The 
earliest announcement of a glorious 
7rapovo-ia (excepting perhaps Mt. x. 32, 
33). The So|a anticipated is clearly 
that of the Divine Presence, not of a 
temporal kingdom; there is perhaps 
an implied contrast to the Soa rnv 
j3a.(ri\eia>v rov Kocrp-ov (Mt. iv. 8). For 
TOV rrarpas avrov fJiera r<cv dyye\Q)v 
T&V dyivv (Mt. a^roO), Lc. substitutes 
avTov Kal TOV Trarpbs Kal T&V ay. dyy., 
perhaps a later form of the tradition 
(Dalman, Worte, i. p. 158): yet cf. 
Mt. xix. 28, xxv. 31, Me. x. 37, 
and esp. Jo. xvii. 5, 22, 24; Bengel: 
"gloria. . .ut unigeuiti." For the angelic 
manifestation at the trapovo-ia see Mt. 
xiii. 41, xxiv. 31, xxv. 31, Me. xiii. 27, 
2 Thess. i. 7 ; and for the relation of 
the angels of GOD to the Son of Man, 
Jo. LSI, Heb. i. 6, Apoc. i. i, xxii. 16. 

IX. I. Kal e\eyev avrols KrX.] A 

separate note in Me. (cf. iv. 21 ff.), 
which in Mt. and Lc. has been fused 
with the preceding context. The 
words were probably spoken to the 
Twelve privately after the crowd (viii. 
34) had dispersed. 

dfj,fjv Xeyo> vfjuv : cf. iii. 28, note. 
So Mt. ; Lc., Xeyco de v. d\r)0s. 
Jerome : (i iurat Christus : debemus 
Christo iuranti credere, quod enim 
in V.T. dicitur, Yivo ego, dicit Domi- 
nus/ in N.T. dicitur, Amen amen 
dico vobis. " 

flo~iv Tives cu5e TOVV ecrr^/corcoi/ /crX.j 

The statement was very possibly an 
answer to some such enquiry, expressed 



[IX. i 

ov jULr <yev<rttiVTai 

\eiav TOV 6eov e\n\v6v iav ev 


TY\V /3acrt- 
d Irjcrovs TOV 

i yevo-ovrai E*HKLNX2$ 69 al mu Or 

or anticipated, as we find in xiii. 4(7rore 
corrai ravra,-). The prospect of seeing 
the Son of Man in His glory must 
have excited the liveliest hopes; the 
Lord at once encourages and guides 
this new enthusiasm by a prophecy 
which events alone could fully inter 
pret. Ttves <a8e TO>I/ eW. "some here 
of those that stand by"; for this use of 
of ear. cf. Mt. xxvi. 73, Jo. iii. 29, Acts 
xxii 25. In Mt. the phrase has been 
changed into T. TQ>V code eW., whilst 
for <oSe Lc. writes O.VTOV. For the 
phrase yev<r6ai cf. Jo. viii. 5 2 
(Westcott), Heb. ii. 9; the phrase is 
not found in the O.T., but the Talmud 
has the corresponding nrPD DUD 
(Schottgen, i. p. 148), and the meta 
phorical use of yevea-dai occurs in Job 
xx. 1 8, Ps. xxxiii. (xxxiv.) 9, Prov. 
xxix. 36 (xxxi. 1 8). Origen seeks (on- 
Jo. /. c.) to distinguish between y. and Qevpflv (Jo. viii. 
51): aXX?; p,ev TIS av f Lrj opariKrj rrjs 
fjus <al 6fO)pr]TiK.rjy aXXrj 8e ij 
T} Kal ai/TiX^TTTtfc?) Trjs rroiorrjTos 
KT\. ; but the distinction can hardly 
be pressed in a context where the 
words are not contrasted. "Etas av 
tftaxriv KrX., Vg. donee videant (cf. vi. 
10, xii. 36, and see Burton 322) 
regnum dei veniens in virtute; for 
the participle see v. 30, 36, notes ; the 
perf. implies that the event described 
is at once a (potentially) realised fact, 
and one which, when realised, will 
abide ; in one at least of its aspects 
the prayer e X&mo ?) /3a<7iXeuz <rov will 
have been fulfilled. 

The question remains in what sense 
these words were accomplished in 
the lifetime of any who heard them. 
Mt. s substitution of rbv viov TOV dvdp. 
epxop-evov ev Tfl /3aorXfi a for TTJV 
fiaan\<-iav...v ovvapft (cf. Lc.) perhaps 

indicates that the first generation 
looked for a fulfilment in the frapovtria 
(cf. i Thess. iv. 15). When the event 
rendered that view untenable, it was 
natural to connect the promise with 
the vision which three of the Twelve 
were privileged to see a week after 
(v. 2 if.). This interpretation occurs 
already in the excerpta Theodoti ap. 

Clem. Al. 4 f&ov ovv KO\ eKOifujdrjcrav 
o re Ilerpoj Kal IaKo>/3os Kal l&avvrjs. 
Origen (in Mt. t. xii. 31 raura aj/a- 
(pepovtri Ttvfs eVt TTJV petf rjpepas !... 
dvdfiacriv TO>V Tpiatv dTrooroXeoi /crX.) 
dismisses it in favour of a mystical 
sense which is not wholly satisfactory; 
but the old Gnostic explanation sur 
vives in most of the patristic inter 
preters (Chrys., Thpht., Euth., etc.). 
Many post-Reformation expositors 
have thought of the fall of Jerusalem 
as the fulfilment of the Lord s words. 
A more satisfactory solution is that 
which finds it in the coming of the 
Spirit and the power manifested in 
that triumphant march of the Gospel 
through the Empire which was 
already assured before the death of 
at least some of the original aposto- 
late : cf. Jo. xiv. 18, 19, xvi. 16 fi% 
Acts i. 8, Rom. xv. 17 ff., Col. i. 6. 
Yet this view need not exclude a 
secondary reference to the anticipa 
tion of the Lord s glory which was to 
be vouchsafed almost immediately to 
some of the Twelve. Me., by detach 
ing the saying from the previous con 
versation (*at eXe-yei/), seems to suggest 
that it forms a link between the con 
versation and the event which follows. 

xvii. i8, Lc. ix. 2836; cf. 2 Pet 
i. 16 ff.). 

2. /uera rj^pas e] So Mt. ; Lc., //era 
TOVS \oyovs TOVTOVS (aa-el fotpat 

IX. 2] 


Kat TOV IctKco/Sov Kat looavrjv, Kat dva<pepei 

CIVTOVS ets opos 

KaT i&iav JJLOVOVS Kai /xere- 

2 TOV laKufiov] om TOV XrA al | Iwavyv ABNFA al 1071 alP 1 ] pr TOV KCDKLUXII 
al | ava<f>epei] avayet DW d i^ latt | v\p-r)\ov} + \iav K 52 124 altissimum bcffir | om 
/car idtav 52 255 the | om fiovovs mim* 51 ** 110 Syr 8 * arm me aeth | /iere/xop^wtfT?] 
fteTa/JLOpfavrai W d pr e> rw Trpocrevxeo-6ai avrov (vel avrovs) (13 28 69 124) 346 826 828 
2P Or 

The discrepancy is usually explained 
by assuming that Lc/s formula means 

on the octave avTr/v TTJV rjfj-fpav naff 
TJV c<pdeyaTo KaKfivrjv Ko.0* rjv dvr)yaycv 

firrev (Victor). But according to the 
analogy of viii. 31 Mark s /icra tj/z. e 
should mean on the sixth day/ not on 
the eighth. Perhaps a truer explana 
tion is to be found in Lc. s acrei : limits 
of time were less distinctly marked in 
his later form of the tradition : cf. Lc. 
iii. 23, ix. 14, xxii. 59. The Trans 
figuration is usually commemorated in 
both Eastern and Western Calendars 
on Aug. 6; the Armenian Calendar 
however places it on the 7th Sunday 
after Pentecost. No inference as 
to the exact day or month can be 
drawn from the Gospels; but the 
circumstances point to the summer. 
On the relation of this event to the 
revelations of the preceding chapter 
cf. Victor : end TroXXa rrepl Kivfivvw 
fiifXe^T/ KOI BavaTov KCU rov Trdflovs TOV 
avTov...o*eiKiruo~iv avTols KOI diroKa\inr- 
Tet TavTr]v \rr)V doav avrov], tva }ir]Tf 
7T\ ra> oiKfLU) 6ava.T<p /if/re trrl r<u TOV 
\OLTTOV d\ya)O~iv. 
/Lt/Sdvet o *L TOV HeTpov icrX.] 
For 7rapaXa/i/3aj/eti/ in this sense cf. iv. 
36, v. 40, x. 32. The Lord takes with 
Him three witnesses (Tert. adv. Marc. 
iv. 22 "tres de discentibus arbitros 
futurae visionis et vocis assumit../in 
tribus/ inquit, testibus stabit omne 
verbum "); for other instances of the 
choice of these three see v. 37, xiv. 
33. Tov la*. KOL *Luai/. : the single 

contrasts the two, as brothers, 
r ; for other groupings see 
note on v. 37. Lc. s order Ilerpoi/ /cat 

KOL IaKto/3oi/ is that which the 

three held in the light of history: 
comp. Acts xii. 2 with Me. iii. 17, v. 37. 
dvcxpepei avTovs (Is opos u^Xoi/] 
For dvatpfpftv in this sense see i Esdr. 
ii. 15, Dan. vi. 23, Lc. xxiv. 51. Lc. 

ai/e/Sq els TO opos 7rpoorevao-0ai. The 
prevalent tradition, which identifies 
the mountain of the Transfiguration 
with Tabor, is perhaps based on the 
singular saying in the Gospel accord 
ing to the Hebrews cited by Orig. in 

Jo. t. ii. 12, apri eXa/3e p. T) nrjrrjp p.ov 
TO ayiov Tjrev/za eV /iia rcoi/ rpt^euf JJLOV 
KOI dnfVfyKf /if els TO opos TO pfya 

0a/3&)p (cf. Resch, Agrapha, p. 383). 
The truth of this tradition is assumed 
by Cyril of Jerusalem cat. xii. 16, 
and by Jerome epp. 46, 108; and 
the festival of the Transfiguration is 
known to Eastern Christians as TO 
Qaftapiov. If the locality was sug 
gested by Ps. Ixxxviii. (Ixxxix.) 13 
(0a/3eop <al Ep/iamet/z ra> ovo/xart o~ov 
ayaXXtao-oi/rat, cf. Euseb. ap. Corder. 
eaten. l.C. ev TOVTOIS yap olpai ray ?ra- 
pa8oas TOV o-a>TT)pos Tjp.toV yeyovtvai 

p,fTap.op(p(0o~is} the choice of Tabor 
was unfortunate; this relatively low 
rounded knoll (not 1000 feet above the 
plain) was crowned by a fortress 
(Joseph. B. J. iv. i, 8), and at the 
southern end of Galilee (cf. Ps. I. c.) ; 
whilst Hermon, which rises to the 
height of 9200 feet, overlooked Cae- 
sarea and offered a perfect solitude 
(/car idtav povovs, cf. IV. 34, vl 31). 
One of its southern spurs became the 
opos ayiov of the Gospel (2 Pet. i. 18). 

p.cT/jiOp<t)a>dr} cp.7rpoo-0fv avrcoj/] Mt., 
Me.; Lc., eyeveTO ev ra> rrpoo-fvxfO-0ai 
avTov (cf. Lc. iii. 2l) TO eidos TOV 
avrou eTepov. 

1 88 


!W d 3 fjLOp(J)co6rj 



[IX. 2 


\ ^ 

a"TL\/3ovTa \evKa \iav oia 
ov SvvaTat OVTCOS XevKavai. 4 Kai w(p6f] 

3 eyevovro ADGKLNVXm i 1071 al nonn | \iav] om Ablrgo aeth Or + ws 
AD(K)NXr(n)2$ mm? 1 latt vt P lv S yrr 8in P esh me edd go + ws ro o>ws minP auc Or | oia. 
yvafavs (KV. II* min nonn )...Xeu/cavat] cos ou owarai rts Xeu/carai CTTI TTJS 7175 
om X a n syr sin om ourws ADXm< al minP 1 f q vg go 

occurs in Ps. xxxiii. (xxxiv.) tit, Symm. 
( = dXXoioOi/, LXX., cf. Dan. vii. 28 
Th. 77 /iop<pj; pov 7? XXoico$?7), and is 
adopted by St Paul with an ethical 
reference (Rom. xii. 2, SH., 2 Cor. lit 
1 8) and in partial contrast to /lera- 
a-xn^arl^fLv. The latter verb might 
perhaps have been expected here, but 
" perdu, alone is Adequate to express 
the completeness and significance of 
the change" (Lightfoot, Philippians, 
p. 129). " Was transfigured" (Vg.trans- 
Jiguratus esf) has held its place in all 
the English versions of Me. from Wy- 
cliffe onwards, though transformed 
is the rendering in Rom., 2 Cor. (Vg. 
rqformamini, tranqformamur). An 
O.T. archetype of the Transfiguration 
is to be found in Exod. xxxiv. 29 
oVSo^aoreu TJ o^ns TOV ^peo/zaros rov 


XaXeti avTov aurw (cf. 2 Cor. iii. 7 ff-) 
"E/zTrpoo-^ei aJrcoi/: cf. 2 Pet. I.e. eVoTrrai 


For a mystical yet practical applica 
tion see Orig. in Mt. t. xii. 36 sq. 
8ia<p6povs ^X. fl Aoyos poppas, (patvo- 
fievos efcaoro) cos trvp.(f)epci rc5 /SXtTroj/n... 
ei de 6e\fis TTJV /^era/xop<pa>o r TOV l^croO 
i$dv fj.7rpo<r6ev TO>V dvaftdvrav fls TO 
v\lrr]\bv opos KOT I8iav <rvv aureo, i Se fjioi 
TOV (v rols evayyeXiois lr)o~ovv...0eo\o- 
yovp.vov...Kal ev TTJ TOV Otov p.op(pfi 
KO.TO. TT)V yva)o~tv avT&v Qeo&povfjLfvov. 
TovTfov yap efJiTrpoo Qfv peTafiopfpovTai 6 
irjaovs KOI ovdevl r<5i/ icarto. Cf. Philoc. 

xv. ed. Robinson, p. 83 f., and Jerome 
tr. in Me. : " vere enim in monte con- 
sistimus quando spiritaliter intellegi- 
inus." On the Synoptic narrative of 
the Transfiguration and the signific 

ance of the event see Biblical and 
Semitic Studies (N. Y. 1901), pp. 1 59 

3. Kal TO. t/iaria O.VTOV eyeveTO ort X- 
/3oj/ra] Cf. Dan. vii. 9 Th. TO evdvpa CLVTOV 

coo-et x l< ^ v ^CVKOV, Mt. xxviii. 3, Apoc. 
i. 13 f., xii. i. 2n X/3e/ is used in the 
LXX. of the flashing of burnished brass 
or gold (i Esdr. viii. 56, 2 Esdr. viii. 
27) or steel (Nah. iii. 3) or of sunlight 
(i Mace. vi. 39): cf. Joseph, ant. xix. 
8. 2 o apyvpos Karavyacrdels 
aTreVriXjSe. In the N.T. it does not 
occur again ; Mt. s equivalent here is 
a>? TO (poo?, Lc. substitutes ^ao~Tpcar- 
TGW. The reading cos x ic * v (w. 11.) is 
attractive, especially in view of the 
perennial snows on the summit of 
Hermon ; but it is probably borrowed 
from Dan. I.e., or from Mt. xxviii. 

XfVKa \iav oia yva<pi>s *rX.] No 

earthly fuller could have produced 
such a dazzling whiteness. On yva- 
<pcvs see ii. 21, note, and for \evKaiveiv 
in reference to clothing, cf. Isa. i. 18, 
Apoc. vii. 14, whence candidate mar- 
tyres in the Te Deuni. This is Mc. s 
special contribution to the picture; 
he makes no direct reference to the 
glory of the Lord s Face (Mt. \a^ev 
TO Trpoaawrov avTov cos o 17X10 s, cf. Lc.). 

4. co <p$7 avTols HXci as o~vv Mcovo eT] 
The vision was for the benefit of the 
disciples (avTols, cf. ep-Trp. avrdji/, v. 2). 
"Q.^6rj is used not only for angelic 

(Jud. vi. 12, Lc. i. n, xxii. 43) and 
Divine (Gen. xii. 7, Acts vii. 2, 30) 
appearances, but in reference to the 
Lord s self-revelations after the Re 
surrection (Lc. xxiv. 34, Acts ix. 17). 
The word does not imply either an 



IX. 5 ] 


Irjcrov. 5 Kal 

Pa/3/3ei, KaXov ea"riv 




6 FleTpos Xe^yet TCO Irjcrov 5 






4 HXias KALNXFAII | Mw<r. ACEFGHLMUXr | yaw o-wXaXowres] 170-. XaXowres 
c scr <rvve\a\ovv D I 2 pe a n q 5 Trot^crw/iev] (ei) #eXeis Troir)(T(t) (vel Troirjcru/j-ff) D 

(13 28 69) 604 (1071) 2P alP^" bff i + w5e C 21* c ff 

illusion or a dream ; the three, ace. 
to Lc., had been disposed to slumber, 
but were thoroughly roused by the 
occurrence and saw everything (dta- 
yprjyopiycravTfS Se eidav TTJV doav avrov 

KUL rovs ovo avopas). How the vision 
was impressed upon the eyes it is 
useless to enquire. 

HXeiW o-vv Mci>u<rei] The best sup 
ported form of the latter name is 
Moivo-rjs (-creo)?, -tret, -cre a), but MOXTT}? 

and the terminations -crfj, -ay, -a-rjv are 
also found in good MSS. of the LXX. and 
N.T.; see WSchm., pp. 51, 94, WH., 
Notes, p. 165. Mc. s order seems to 
be based upon Mai. iv. 4 (iii. 23) ff. 
V/LUI/ HXiai/. . ./uir/o^re vopov 
T). Elijah was expected and had 
been lately in their thoughts (viii. 
28, ix. n); to their surprise he was 
accompanied by Moses, for whom 
they had not looked (see however 
J. Lightfoot on Lc. ix. 30, and 
Wiinsche, neue Beitrage, p. 394). 
The re-arrangement in Mt, Lc. (Mo>v- 
oys Kal HXet as-, so Syrr. 8111 -^ 811 - here, 
and cf. v. 5) has the appearance of 
being an historical correction. The 
two men represented the Law and 
the Prophets (Tert. adv. Marc. iv. 
22, Aug. serm. 232) ; both were seen 
to be in perfect harmony with the 
Gospel represented by the Christ; 

cf. Victor : drj\ol de Kal (rvvdcpeiav 

iraXaias diadrjKijs Kal vtas. Their ap 
pearance refuted the charge of law- 
breaking brought by the Scribes 
against the Master; Thpht. : o ^Iv 

vocoder})? tfv, 6 de ^Xcor7/y OVK av 
u>p.i\ovv ol Toiovrot TrpoffiTai rep rov 

VOp.OV \VIV doKOVVTl el /i) TJpfVKtV 

avTois a Xeyet. 

ricrav (rvv\a\ovvTs r<n ir/froO] The 

general drift of the conversation was 
remembered by Lc. s informant (1 St 
John) ; it was in keeping with Christ ? s 
recent teaching about the Passion : 

ir\r)povv fv lepovcraXjy/z. Cf. Jerome, 

tr. in Me. ad 1. : " lex enim et pro- 
phetae Christi passionem adnuntiant." 
2ui/XaXeii/ is followed either by the 
dat., as in Me. and Lc. here (cf. Exod. 
xxxiv. 35, Lc. xxii. 4), or by a prep. 
(nerd TWOS, Mt. here, Acts xxv. 12 ; 
TTpos riva, 3 Regn. xii. 14 (A), Lc. iv. 36). 
5. airoKpitiels 6 Jlerpoy *rX.] Ap 
parently no word had been addressed 
to Peter or his companions by any of 
the glorified Three; yet Peter felt 
that some response was called for. 
For a similar use of airoKplvf<r6<n, cf. 
x. 24, xi. 14, xii. 35, xv. 12; Syr. pesh - 
and various forms of the O.L. omit it 
here. The Synoptists agree in attri 
buting the remark which follows to 
Peter ; no Apostle found it so hard to 
learn the lesson wupos TOV cnyav Kal 

Kaipbs TOV XaXfiv. Ace. to Lc. the 
occasion was specially inopportune : 
eyevero ev ro> Sta^copt^eo-^at CIVTOVS OTT 

Pa/3/3ei , Ka\ov ea-Tiv ?)/xa? <ode flvai] 

The title of RabU had been given 
to Jesus from the first (Jo. i. 38, 49, 
iii. 2), and was probably the usual 
name by which both disciples and 
others addressed Him (Mt. xxiii. 7, 8, 
Jo. vi. 25, xi. 8, Me. x. 51, xi. 21, xiv. 
45). Mt. translates it by *upie, Lc. 
by eVio-rara (cf. Lc. V. 5, viii. 24, 45, 
ix. 49, xvii. 13) ; Me., after his manner, 
retains where he can the Aramaic- 
word (cf. Dalman, Worte, i. pp. 269. 
276). It needed no interpretation for 
Gentile readers ; yet see the Western 


[IX. 5 


croi juiiav Kai Mwvcrei /uiiav Kat 3 H\eia 

6 jjLiav. 6 ov yap f/Set TL ct7TOKpi6rj, K<po{3oi yap eye- 

7 VOVTO. 7 Kai e<yevTO ve<pe\ri 


6 cnroKptei) ] AaXTjaei (vel -0-77) A(C 3 )DMNUrAII2<l> al min 8atmu loqueretur vel 
diceret latt e * ck (syrr) arm me the aeth | e:0o/3ot yap eyevovTo KBDLA*" 33 i^ latt 
-rjaav yap ejc0. (vel e/^.) A(K)N(U)XmS* al min? 1 f vg 

text Of X. 51. Ka\OV (TTiV KT\. "It 

is good that we the Apostles are 
here," implying it were good for us to 
stay where we are. Origen : TO vopi- 

ro> Hfrpco KaXov ov 7T7roir)KV 6 
Victor : ri ovv 6 IleYpos 6 

avcnravo eais Trpo ru>v aytovcov. a yap 
TOVTO yevoiTO, <f)r)(riv ) OVK. d 
is ra *le pocroXvfjia KOI OVK di 

fis (TKr)vas\ Mt. 
rp. <TK. SKTJVOS, tents 

or booths: Wycliffe, "tabernaclis" = 
niSDj as in Gen. xxxiii. 17, Lev. xix. 
21,2 Esdr. xviii. 14 ff., Ps. xxx. (xxxi.) 
20. The materials would be found in 
the brushwood which clothes the spurs 
of Hermon Jerome s question "num- 
quid arbores erant in monte illo ?" is 
unnecessary and the ideal in Peter s 
mind seems to be that of the annual 
a-KTjvoTTTjyia. (Lev. xxiii. 40 fF., 2 Esdr. 
xviii. 14 flf.) ; he would anticipate it 
by a week spent on this leafy height 
in the presence of the three greatest 
masters of Israel. 2oi plav KOI M. 
fjiiav KCU HA. fiiav. Jerome: "erras, 
Petre...nolitria tabernacula quaerere, 
cum unum sit tabernaculum evangelii, 
in quo lex et prophetae recapitulanda 
sunt " ; " si quando inaequales aequa- 
liter honorantur, maioris iniuria est... 
non enim sciebat quid diceret cum 
Dominum cum servis aequaliter hon- 
oraret." For a practical reflexion on 
Ka\6v <TTIV KT\. cf. Bede : " O quanta 
felicitas visioni Deitatis inter angel- 
orum choros adesse perpetuo, si 
tantum transfigurata Christi humani- 
tas duorumque societas sanctorum ad 
punctum visa delectat." 

6. ov yap rj8fi ri diroKpitifj ] Vg. 

non enim sciebat quid diceret : the 
same phrase occurs in connexion with 
the Agony (xiv. 40). Lc. substitutes 
here M elbcos o Ae yei. The speaker 
was so dazed by the awfulness of the 
vision that he neither knew what to 
say (for the subjunctive see WM., 
p. 374), nor yet what he was saying 
when he spoke. *EK<popot yap cye- 
vovro, not Peter only, but the Three, 
became panic-stricken, were seized 
with extreme alarm; cf. the abrupt 
ending of the Gospel, xvi. 8 f(popovvro 
ydp. For K(f)opos see Deut. ix. 19, 
Heb. xii. 21. Lc. connects this fear 
with the next occurrence: 


7- KCU eyevero vefpeXrj e7rio~Kiaovo~a ^ 
For this use of eyevero cf. i. 4, note. 
Each Synoptist adopts a different 
construction : Mt. idov v. 7reo-/ct ao-ei/, 
Lc. eyei/ero v. /eat cVccric/a^FV. The 
cloud occurs as the symbol of the 
Divine Presence in the theophanies 
of the Exodus (Exod. xvi. 10, xix. 9, 
1 6, xxiv. 15 f., xxxiii. 9, Lev. xvi. 2, 
Num. xi. 25) and at the dedication of 
the first Temple (i Kings viii. 10; 
cf. Ps. civ. 3, Nah. i. 3). It was ex 
pected to reappear in Messianic times 
(2 Mace. ii. 8 ocpQijcrfTat j 6|a rov 
Kvpiov Kal TJ ve(pe\r), cas eTTt M(oo~rj 
edrjXovTO, cos Kat 6 SaAco/icoi/ /crA.). In 

the N. T. it is connected with the 
Transfiguration, the Ascension (Acts 
i. 9) and the irapova-ia (Me. xiii. 26 
(cf. Dan. vii. 13), xiv. 62, Apoc. i. 7). 
The cloud of the Transfiguration was 
T] (Mt., cf. Apoc. xiv. 14) : when 

the Synoptists add that it "over 
shadowed" the Apostles, the refer- 

IX. 8] 





6 dyctTTirros a/cohere avTOv. S Kai 


JUL60 e 


S e<TTiv vos />tof ? w d 
aTriva 7repLfi\e^sd- 8 


7 eyevero 2 KBCLA^] -rj\eev ADNXriTS* al min fereomn abfinq vg syr" 1 * om i 
(c) k (syr8 w ) pr idov 300 1071 ff | vecf>e\r]s \ + \eyov(Ta ADLW d ( sic > ^ i 28 33 69 174 736 
all latt( exck > syr( excsin ) arm zoh aeth | a/touere avrov (avrov a*. ANXFII)] pr ov ee- 
\$a[j.T}v W d pr ev w cv8oKr)<ra K a pr ev u rjv. A 8 e^a-rrLva] euflews DW d 28 66 m 

69 2P starttm a i n r vg om b j ei M NBDNZ^ 33 61 $><> al^ 110 latt me go aeth] aXXa 
ACLXrAII^> al minP uc the | om novov F | fie0 cavrw post ciSov B 33 c f om W d 
6 1 a ff 1 k (post povov pos KACDL2$^ cet b n vg arm me go aeth) 

ence is to Exod. xl. 29 (35) e 
fir avrrjv (sc. TTJV a-Krj?^v) ff ve(})c\T), 
where 7rio-Kidiv = \2V ) to rest; cf. 
Lc. i. 35 dvvafjiis v^-ia-Tov ema-Kido-fi 

<rot. The appearance was that of the 
Shechinah : oipai 8 on rov IleVpoj/ 
o 6eos aTTorpeVeoi/ rov iroifjo-ai rpcls 

CTKT]vds...8fiKVV(ri KplTTOVa...Kal TToXXo) 

dta<f)(pov<rav O-KTJVTJV, TTJV ve(f)\T)v...<J)(0- 
TCIVTJ yap Tripos, uioC, KCU TOV dyiov 
TrvevfjLaros vf<f)\r) cirio-Kidgfi rovs ir/a-ou 
yvrjcriovs fta^T/ray. (Orig. in Mt. t. xii. 

42.) Cf. Ephrem, horn, in trantf. : 

fdeit-ev aura) on ov XPfl et T V S O-KTJVTJS 
avrov avTos yap yv o 7roir)o~as rot? 
Trarpdo-iv avTOv o~Kr)v^v vf(^\rjs ev TTJ 
tp^fjiat . . . /SXeVeiff, "2ifj.a>v, (TKTjvTjv dvev 
KOTTOV, o-K-qvrjv K(i>\vov<rav Kau/ta /cat /XT) 
f%ovo~av (TKOTOS ; 

Kal eyeveTo (pwvr) e/c r. v.~\ See note 

on i. ii, and cf. Dalman, FPbrfo, i. pp. 

167 f., 226 ff. It is instructive to com 
pare the four reports of this Voice. 
Taking Mc. s as the standard, we 
note that, besides variations of order, 
Mt. and 2 Peter add ev <S (els ov eyo>) 

cvdoKTjo-a, 2 Peter omits a*ouerf aurov, 

and Lc. substitutes e /cXeXey/zeW for 

ayaTTT/rof. Ev <u evdoKijaa is probably 
from the Voice at the Baptism ; Lc. s 
K\e\eyp.vos (cf. Lc. xxiii. 35, Enoch 
xl. 5) is based on Isa. xlii. i *T03, 

LXX. o K\fKTos JJLOV (Mt. xii. 1 8 o dya- 
TTTJTOS p,ov) : on the interchange of these 
two titles of the Messiah see Resch, 
I.e., p. 164. The essential difference 

between this Voice and that which 
was heard at the Baptism is the 
dicovfTf avrov or aurou a*, which the 
three Synoptists add here. The words 
are from Deut. xviii. 15, 19, and seem 
to be suggested by the appearance 
of Moses. The Prophet like unto 
Moses is identified with the Christ, 
the beloved or elect Son ; the alle 
giance due to Moses is now with 
Moses concurrence transferred to 
Jesus. Victor : K.O.V o~Tavp(o6f]vai (3ov- 
i>7 dvTi7TO~r)s OVTOS ydp eo~rc 
v \eyova~tv ouroi...6"et iradfiv 
...Sei dvao~TfjvaL. For this use of OKOU- 
fiv (nearly = viraKovftv) cf. Mt. xviii. 
15 f., Jo. x. 8, 16, xviii. 37. The fears 
of the three Apostles, already excited 
by the vision (Me.) and the bright 
cloud (Lc.), were intensified by the 
Voice (Mt., aKovtrai/rey ol /za&yrai eVe- 
o-av eV! ro Trp6<rci>7rov avratv ; cf. Apoc. 

i. 17). In 2 Peter it is the Voice of 
the Father rather than the visible 
splendour of the Transfiguration to 
which attention is called (<j>a>vf)s hc- 
)(6eio-r)s aura) roiao-oV viro rffs /xeyaXo- 
TrpeTrovs ddfrs. It was the first Voice 
from heaven which the Apostles had 

8. f^aTTiva 7TfptlS\e\lsdiJ.vot *rX.] The 
Lord meanwhile had raised them up 
from the ground (Mt.). When they 
ventured to lift their eyes again 
(Mt. endpavrcs Se TOVS o(p0a\fjLovs av- 
TWV) and to look round them, the 



[IX. 9 

1 W 9 9 Kal KaTa/3aiv6vTi*)V^ CLVTWV K TOV opovs Stecrret- 
XO.TO ai/rcus iva fj.r$evl a eiSov Sirj ytia covTai, ei firf 


TOV Xo<yov eKpctTrjirav, Trpos eavTOvs crvvfyiTOvvTes TL 

9 CK BD^ 33 f scr i 8cr ] airo KACLNXrAH al? 1 | Sieo-retXaro (-oreXXero C2> i)] 
jrapyyyeiXev A | etSotraj/ D | SLrjyyffovTai HKNXS min nonn 6^777770-. 13 28 69 346 604 ] 
ei /iTj] ea>s ov 604 om K* (hab K a ) 10 /cat] ot Se 13 49 (69) 124 346 736 2? ot 

5e /cai 262 300 | eKpaTrjaav] eTrjpyo a.v 604 | ffw^ijTOWTes] om k | n eortv] pr TO M 

vision was gone ; of the august Three 
Jesus alone remained (Lc. fvpedrj y lrj- 
crovs fiovos) with them on the Mount. 
The Transfiguration was at an end, 
and they saw before them only the 
familiar form of the Master. The 
words of Me. are perhaps suggested 
by Exod. ii. 12 Trepi/SXe^a/iez/oy Se wfie 
Kal eoSe ov% opa ovdeva . in the N.T. 
the word is elsewhere used only in 
reference to Christ (cf. iii. 5, note). 
Egcnriva = egaTrivr)s Occurs in the LXX. 
about a dozen times, but in the 
N. T. only here, the prevalent K T. 
form being (gatyvrjs, f&fyvrjt (xiii. 36, 
Lc. ev - 2 > act - 2 ). Jerome brings out the spi 
ritual significance of the disappearance 
of Moses and Elijah : " sic vidi Moysen, 
sic vidi prophetas, ut de Christo 
intellegerem loquentes. . .ut nonperma- 
neam in lege etprophetis,sedper legem 
et prophetas ad Christum perveniam." 

9 13, cf. Lc. ix. 36^). 

9. Ka.Ta.f3a.iv6vT(dV avreoz/ KrX.] As 

they descended from ( *, as if issuing 
from) the mountain (probably on the 
following morning, cf. Lc. ix. 37) the 
Lord enjoined secrecy. For dieo-Tfi- 
Xaro (Mt. eWrei Xaro), cf. V. 43, note, 
and for S^yeio-^ai, v. 16. *A efdoi/, Mt. 
TO opa/xa (cf. Exod. iii. 3, Num. xii. 6). 
The concealment is for a limited 
period el /XT) orav (Mt. ea)s ou) o vt. r. 
a. K vfKp&v avaoTfl (Mt. eycpBr}}. On 
thephrase avcurnjvcu CK veKpav see WM., 
p. 153: K TO>V vfKpcov occurs only in 
Eph. v. 14, CoL i. 1 8, i Thess. i. 10, OTTO 
ra>v veK.pu>v in Mt. xiv. 2, xxvii. 64, 

xxviii. 7 ; cK.vfKpwv predominates also 
in early patristic and symbolic use 
(Hahn, Symb., ed. 3, p. 380). 


" verbum continuerunt apud se" ; Wy- 
cliffe, " thei heelden the word at hem 
silf." Lc. interprets : Kal avrol eo-iyyo-av 
Kal ovdevl anrjyyeiXav ev fKfivais rals 
qp.epais ovdev a>v eapaKav. For Kparelv 
= a-iyav the commentators quote Dan. 
v. 12 where Th. renders j^nx. by 
KpaTovpeva. But N.T. usage is in 
favour of translating fKparrja-av they 
held fast ("kept" R.V.), retained in 
their memory (cf. vii. 3, 4, 8, 2 Thess. 
ii. 15, Apoc. ii. 14 ff.). The \6yos in 
this case is not the fact of the 
Transfiguration, but the Lord s say 
ing, especially what He had said 
about rising from the dead ; they dis 
cussed this among themselves, not 
venturing to ask Him the meaning 
(TO dvaarr^vai ; Blass, Gr. p. 233!). 
So little had they realised His earlier 
words (viii. 31) ; if their attention was 
arrested now, it was because the 
Resurrection was made the limit of 
their silence. For npos eavrovs crvv- 
frjTfiv cf. Lc. xxii. 23. Some inter 
preters (cf. Lat. v e-, Syr.P esh -) connect 

Trp. eavr. with e/cpaT^traj/, cf. Euth. : 
eKparrjcrav Trpos eavrovs, irpos fjuySeva 


But the construction seems to be 
without example. Victor is probably 
right : TOV p.ev \oyov eKpaTrfcrav^ irpbs 
favTovs Se wve^ijTovv . SO Syr. sin . 
During the days that preceded the 
Passion the matter was often discussed 
among the Three, or perhaps (ix. 32, 



TO K veKpwv vaffTrivaL 

On \eyov(Tiv ol 
Se? e\0eiv Trpcorov; I3 d S 

Kat 7rr]pa)Tcov CLVTOV II 




Kat TTCOS <ye- 


10 TO eic vexpuv avaffrrjvai KABCLNXr(A)II2^ al minP 1 (k) q (syr hcl ) arm me 
go aeth] orav CK v. avaar-n D i 13 69 118 124 209 346 a b c f n vg (syrr) tot vers om ff 
ii on i] TTWS ovv 13 69 124 346 quid ergo a f vg quid utique c om 27 60 me aeth | ot 
7pa,uju.] pr 01 <&aptffaiot /ecu KL vg (om ABCDNXrAnS^ al min omnvid latt vt syrr arm 
me go) | om on 2 D i 108 alP* uc b ff i k q 12 etfyrj] a-n-oKpLdeis ei-rev ADNXriI23 

al min omnvid latt syrr 8 " 11101 arm go aeth | om pev DLSI> 128 2P latt aeth | n-pwros 
K C DNXSSI> 1071 p 8 " om 604 | aTroKadiffTavei. K c (aTro/caracrr. fc<*) B 2 (aTro/cartcrr. B** 1 ) 
D (ut K*) LA i 33 118 2P 8P 6 ] airoica6i<rTa K*XriIZ<l> min? 1 aTro/caracrT^cret C latt 
arm me aeth | /cai TTWS fc^BCDLNXrS*^ minP 1 latt syrr arm me go] Kadus AKMAII 
1071 al nonn syr hcl (>8) quia k 

x. 34) among the Twelve, 
KT\. is a detail peculiar to Me. 

II. at 7rr)ptoTfov . . 
KT\.] The train of thought is perhaps 
that suggested by Mt. (rt ovv KT\.). 
The three have been reflecting upon 
the vision, and it has revived and 
given fresh point to an old perplexity. 
How was Elijah s appearance at the 
Transfiguration to be reconciled with 
the official doctrine of his return ? As 
Origen observes (in Mt. t. xiii. i): 77 

df V TO) opf I OTTTtMTMZ, Kdtf TjV O 

e(f)dvT], e So/cei pr) (rvvafciv TOLS 
p.fvots, end ov frpb Tov lr)<Toi> ffto^ev 
avTols f\T]\v0fvcu 6 HXi as aXXa /zer 
avTov. The first on is interrogative 
as in i Chron. xvii. 6 ( = nip; ) and in 
Me. ii. 1 6 (note), ix. 28, cf. WM., p. 
208 n. ; in Me. II. cc. the R.V. (text) 
treats on as a formula of citation, but 
the context and the corresponding 
words in Mt. support the other view; 
see Field, Notes, p. 33. For the 
dictum of the Scribes to which the 
question refers see J. Lightfoot on Mt. 
xvii. ; it was an inference from MaL 
iv. 4 (iii- 23) aTTooWXXo) vfiiv HXi ai/... 
irp\v e\6e1v r}fj.pav Kvpi ou KT\. In 
Justin dial. 49, Trypho urges : 

HXi ai> 

S. M. 2 

yei/rjtrecr&u, /cat TOV 
\66vra...K 5e TOV 

eivai. The Rabbinic tra 
ditions are collected by Edersheim, 
ii. p. 706 ff. Cf. Me. xv. 35 f. 

12. HXfia? p.v e\0<nv TrpcoTOV KT\.\ 
Elijah, it is true, cometh first. For 
this use of plv with no following 6V 
see WM., p. 7i9f.; the counterbalanc 
ing clause is left to be supplied from 
the question which succeeds. Me. 

substitutes drroKadio-Tavei for diroKaTa- 
o-TTjo-fi (Mt.), converting the prophecy 
into a proposition which may or may 
not have been realised ; *as a propo 
sition it is correct to say that Elijah s 
coming and work precede those of the 
Messiah. Hdvra (Mt., Me.) extends the 
scope of the prophecy (oVo*. Kapdiav 
TraTpbs irpbs vlbv Kal Kapdiav dv6pu>- 
Tfov irpos TOV 7r\r)o~iov}, including in it 
the ultimate purpose of the Messianic 
kingdom ; the Forerunner restores all 
things by initiating the new order out 
of which will come in due course a 

true aTTOKaracrrao-iff Trdvrotv (Acts iii. 
21). WH. print, "but with hesita 
tion," the form oVoKartarai/fi, on 
which see their Notes, p. 168. An-o- 

K.a6i(TTa.vfiv a.iroKaBi(TTavai (Job V. l8) 
or diroKadio-Tav (Ps. xv. (xvi.) 5) occurs 
again in Acts i. 6 (Blass). 

nal ira>s yeypcnrTai /crX.] Instead of 
solving the difficulty the Lord pro- 




13 Kai e^ov^evn^n ] I3 AAa \eya) vfjuv OTL Kai H\eias 
Kai eiroiriO av avTto ocra f]6e\ov, Ka6ws 

12 iva] pr ovx syr sin | e^ovoevrjdr] BD^ a**] %ov0ei>r)dr) 2(<) 
69 alP 1 13 e\t]\v6et>] e\r)\vdei A 77877 T)\9ei> C I 604 alP auc f igo vid | /cat 2...7?0eAoi ] 

et fecit quanta oportebat ilium facer e k | avru>] pr ev LIT* 1 28 alP* uc (syrr) | y8e\ov 
KBC*DL^] -r)de\r)<rav AC 2 mS4> min omnvid | 67T auroi ] 6? aura; T e?r aurw 604 irepi 
avrov 13 28 69 346 de eo latt vt P lv 

poses another, in which however the 
true solution lies. He anticipates an 
objection which would be sure to rise 
in the minds of the Three. What then 
(KOI TTooy;) do the Scriptures mean when 
they foretell a suffering Messiah? how 
can the Passion follow the Restora 
tion ? It is unnecessary to suppose 
that the order of Me. has here been 
disturbed, the true sequence being 1 1, 
I2 b , I2 a , i.e., that KOI TTUS ycypcurTai... 
fgovSfVTidr) forms part of the disciples 
question. The Apostles would scarcely 
have recognised the Scriptural basis 
of the Lord s prediction in viii. 31. 
FcypaflTcu. . . tra : the telic sense need 
not be excluded (WM., p. 577) ; the 
Scripture foretells and by foretelling 
determines the issue ; yeyp. OTI is the 
normal formula when a passage is 
merely cited, e.g. vii. 6, xi. 17. Teyp. 
iri, it is written with reference to 
Him (cf. <r7r\ayxvif(r0ai eVi, vi. 34, 
viii. 2) ; the ordinary construction is 
7 yp. TTfpi with gen. (xiv. 21, Lc. vii. 

27, &c.). Kai egov8evr)6f) : cf. Ps. xxi. 
(xxii.) 6 e ya> Se et/u...eouej>77/xa XaoG. 

Isa. liii. 3 Symm. e ouSej>a>/z<-W /cat 

e Xa^icrros aVSp&Ji , Aq. (?) f ot>8ei/G>/ue- 
vo$, dio OVK \oyi<rdne6a. avrov. There 

are four forms of this verb f|ovSe- 
vo\>v 1 -veiv, f^ovdevovVj -velv ; see W. 
Schm. p. 61, and Lob. Phryn. p. 182. 
13. aXXa Xe ya) vp,lv KrX.] How 
ever (taking up the thread broken by 
the last question) I tell you that 
Elijah not only must come first, but 
has moreover (KOI) actually come 

tf\0(v, Mt.); and men did not recog 
nise him (Mt.), and did with him (Mt. 
cv avro) = 13) as they would. The 
phrase noielv oa-a (a) ^eXo> (ni/i), fre 
quently used in the O.T. to represent 
irresponsible or arbitrary action (e.g. 
3 Regn. ix. i, x. 13, Ps. cxiii. n (cxv. 
3), Dan. viii. 4 (Th.), 2 Mace. vii. 16), 
points with sufficient distinctness to 
the murder of John by Antipas. 

Kadtos yfypaTTTdi cV auro>] So Me. 
only. In this case Scripture had fore 
told the future not by prophecy but 
by a type. The fate intended for 
Elijah (i Kings xix. 2, 10) had over 
taken John : he had found his Jezebel 
in Herodias. Orig. in Mt. : a\\os 5* 

av e i7roi on TO dXX frroiijo-av KT\. OVK 
67Tt TOVS ypa/i/iarels aXX eVt TTJV c Hpa>- 
StaSa Kai TTjv dvyaTepa avTrjs KOLI TOV 
^Hpcafi^j/ aVacpe perai. 

The identification of Elijah with 
John was so evident that, as Mt. adds, 
it was understood by the Three at the 
time (Mt. TOTC a-vvfJKav ol paOjjToi OTL 
?rept iwdVov roO/SaTTTtoToi) fnrevavTols). 
On another and earlier occasion, ac 
cording to Mt., it had been made in 
express terms (Mt. xi. 14 0<- Xerf 
deao~dai, avTos O~riv HXf ias 6 /neXXeoi 
ep^eo-^at). The reference in Mai. I. c. 
to "the great and terrible day of 
the Lord" led the ancient Church to 
expect an appearance of Elijah him 
self before the end ; cf. Justin dial. 
49, Chrys. ad loc., Aug. tract, in Jo. 
iv. 5, 6. 




7TO\VV 7T6pl 

ai/TOi/s. 1<5 
6ajuL/3ti6rj(rav, KCLI 

CLVTOV ee- 15 

14 e\6ovTes...eidoi> KB 00 " (5aj> B*) LA* (t5oy) k arm] c\9w . . .eiSev ACDINXF 
IIS* al min omnvid latt Tt P ly s syrr me go aeth | TTC/H] irpos D 28 latt v *P l | ypawaras] pr 
TOVS D i 13 38 69 124 604 2P arm | irpos avrovs] irp. eavrovs C aurots ADNXTIIS< 
minP 1 irpos avrov * 15 iowv^.e^OaiM^dtj ANXFTI alP 1 a syrr go | 

(irporp. AC)] Trpoo-xepoj/res D gaudentes (b)cdff ik (cf. Tat diafcarab ) 

AND THE SEQUEL (Mt. Xvii. 14 2O, Lc. 

ix. 3743)- 

14. fXQowes Trpos rovs fJ.a6r)Tas KrX.] 
Returning to the plain where they 
had left the nine (Euth. : /xa^ra? vvv 
TOVS wea Xeyet), they saw that they 
were surrounded by a crowd of people 
who were listening to a discussion 
which was passing between the dis 
ciples and certain scribes (ypa^arfls^ 
anarthrous : contrast ol yp. v. 1 1 ). Mt., 
who throughout this narrative is much 
briefer than Me., writes simply e\66v- 
Tw npos TOV ox\ov and does not seem 
to know the cause which had brought 
it together. The scribes were pro 
bably Rabbis attached to the local 
synagogues, but as ready as the rest 
of their class to seize an opportunity 
of discrediting the disciples of Jesus 
before the people. The absence of the 
Master and the incapacity of the nine 
furnished what they sought. (Victor : 
Spa^dfJievoi yap ol ypanp-are ts TTJS TOV 
trcorrjpos a.Trovo Las irepif\Kiv TOVS p.a6rf~ 
Tas VTT\diJi(3avov.) On i8av See WH., 

Notes, p. 164. y E\66vTfs...idav points, 
as Zahn remarks (Einl. ii. p. 245 f.), to 
the narrative having originated with 
one of the three, doubtless Peter, who 
has told his story in the form E\66v- 

I 5. Kdl fvOllS 7TO.S 6 O^Xo? KT\.] As 

soon as Jesus came into sight the 
Scribes lost the attention of the 
crowd. The first feeling was one of 
amazement, almost amounting to awe 
(cf. i. 27). Both 0a/Li/3eZo-$ai and C K&I/I- 
fielo-0at are in the N. T. peculiar to 

Me. (for the latter cf. xiv. 33, xvi. 5, 
6) ; eKdapfios occurs in Acts iii. 10 
o-vvedpapev nas o Xaos irpos avTovs... 
eK0a/i/3oi, a near parallel to the present 
passage. Interpreters have found it 
difficult to assign a cause for the 
Qdnfios in this instance. Some (cf. 
Thpht., Euth.) have thought of a 
radiance from the transfiguration still 
brightening the Lord s Face (Euth. 

KCO~a Tiva XP IV K T *? $ f JLTa ~ 
nop(pa>o-a>s), recalling the glory on the 
face of Moses (Exod. xxxiv. 29 f. cos 8e 
K.aTJ3atvfv Mcovtn/s e< TOV opovs...Kai 
rjv o eo ot-ao fjievr] ij o^ns TOV \p(op,aTos 
TOV TT poffayirov avTov). But (i) no hint 
of such a phenomenon is dropped by 
Me. in the context, (2) it would have 
betrayed what the Lord desired to 
keep secret, (3) the result is just the 
opposite of that which followed the 
appearance of Moses ; of Moses it is 

said <poftri6T]o~a.v eyyio-ai avTOV, of 

The alternative is to fall back upon 
Victor s explanation : alcpvidiov O.VTOV 

The sudden appearance of the Lord 
when they thought Him far away on 
Hermon amazed and awed them for 
the moment. But the next impulse 
was to hasten towards Him, drawn 
by the irresistible attraction of His 
Presence. The remarkable reading 
of D and some O.L. texts (irpoo-xai- 
povrcs, gaudentes, cf. Prov. viii. 30, and 
see Tatian (Ciasca) ad. loc., hastening 
for joy ) deserves attention, but is 
probably an early corruption (xep for 




syr hier ^ i6 Ka * gijrfip&Ttiirev avTOvs Ti crv i/^V/TeZre jrpos avrovs ;^ 
17 I7 /ccu aTteKpidr] avTio e*s e/c TOU o^Xoiy AtSctcr/caAe, 
TOV viov JULOV Trpos ere, e^ovTa Trvev/ma a\a\ov 

1 6 avrovs NBDLAi i 28 209 2 pe bcff ikq vg arm me aeth] TOVS 

a S yrrP eshhcl go | TT^OS eavi-ous K* c - a AGMr 33 1071 al nonn ev v 
latt vt P lv s om k 17 cnreKpidrj aurw KBDLASt 28 33 a b (c) k q me] a-rroKpideis 

f vg syrr arm go | aXaXop] + KCU /co0o> (sic) 1071 

pex) : for another instance of irpoa-rpe- 
Xftv in Me. see x. 17. Ho-Tra^oi/ro CIVTOV : 
the ao-7rao-/xoff of the crowd would be 
such as they were accustomed to accord 
to their own Rabbis (cf. xii. 38, Mt. xxvi. 


1 6. 7rr)pcaTr)o~ev avrovs /crX.] The 

question shews that the Lord had at 
once grasped the situation, and was 
prepared to meet it. He addresses 
the people, not noticing the Scribes ; 
for the moment the crowd had been 
with the Scribes in their attack on 
the disciples, but already perhaps a 
reaction had begun. The Lord took 
the matter into His own hands, at 
once relieving the disciples and dis 
appointing the Scribes. Tt <rwJ7-rre 
is a bona fide request for information ; 
the human mind of Christ acquires 
knowledge by ordinary means ; cf. 
viii. 27 b , note. Upos avrovs i.e. irp. 
TOVS fjM&rjrds (cf. v. 14). 

17. KCU aiTfK.pi6r) auro) eis eK TOV 

ox^ou] The crowd preserved a dis 
creet silence (cf. v. 34) ; the answer 
came from an individual (fls) whose 
interest in the matter was deeper than 
any o-w^njo-tr. Lc. like Me. repre 
sents the man as telling his tale from 
the heart of the crowd (dv^p dirb TOV 
o^Xou /36r;o-i/);in Mt.hecomes forward 
and prostrates himself before Christ 
(Trpoarj^dev avrai ... yovvTTCTwv avrovj 
cf. Me. i. 40). Without undue har 
monising we may perhaps accept both 
statements ; the man began his tale 
in the crowd, but was presently called 
or pushed forward by the people to 
the feet of Jesus. The words of the 

father are reported with more than 
usual independence by the three Syn- 
optists. Mt. gives us details which 
are not to be gathered from Me. and 
Lc., yet his account is clearly much 
compressed ; in v. 1 5 he has brought 
together words spoken by the father 
at different points in the conversation 
(cf. Me. vv. 17, 22). Lc. again has 
some particulars which are not in 
Me., the prayer cVt/SXe ^rat ri TOV 
viov fj.ov OTI fjLOVoyewjs fioi ecrrtj/, the 
statement that the spirit fcpdec...ieal 
poyis aTro^copeZ KrX. (see however Me., 
v. 26). But on the whole Mc. s account 
is not only the fullest but has the 
most verisimilitude, and Me. alone has 
preserved the undoubtedly original 
tradition in vv. 20 24. For details 
see the following notes. 

diddo-KaXc] So Lc.; Mt. Kvpie ; both 
doubtless = *2H - } see note on v. 5, and 
cf. iv. 38. The word is here simply 
a name of office, for the relation of 
teacher and taught did not yet exist 
between our Lord and the speaker. 

yveyKa TOV viov p,ov irpos o~ KT\."\ 
"Hi/eyKa, the historical aorist, R. V. I 
brought ; the English idiom prefers 
the perfect. The man had brought 
his boy that morning under the im 
pression that Jesus was there, and on 
discovering that the Lord was on the 
mountain had applied to the disciples 
(v. 1 8). This feature of the story dis 
appears in Mt., Lc. : in Mt. the father 
says Trpoo-^veyKa O.VTOV rot? paflijTois, 
as if the application had been made 
to them in the first instance (cf. v. 18). 
7rvfvp,a aXaXov : cf. V. 2$ TO aX. 




* OTTOV edv O.VTOV KaTa\dflrj, pqa O ei avTov, KCII 1 8 
(ppitei Kai Tpi^ei TOVS dSoVras Kai fypaiveTai" Kai 
/uLaOrjTals (rov *iva avTO K/3d\(joo~iv, Kai OVK 
19 d Se aTTOKpideis avTols Xeyei 00 yeved 1 9 n, the 

1 8 p-rjffffet] pa<r<rei D ^P 8 applontat d allidit vel eZidtf latt vt P lv collidit k | om auro 
2 fc^D k | t(rxi/(raj ] rjSwrjdria av 604 + e/c/SaXetr auro D 2 pe a b arm 19 aurots 

- minP 1 vg S yrr Blnhcl (t*t) arm me go] aurw C 3 (N)XFII 3 Z< minP 1 q 
om c* I3 40 fo I2 I0I alP uc k 

KCU Kaxpov TTV. ; for the concurrence of 
the two infirmities see vii. 32 ft ., notes. 
The participle suggests the reason for 
which the boy had been brought. The 
effect produced upon the demoniac 
is transferred in thought to the 8ai- 

poviov : cf. Lc. xi. 14 &u/zoi>ioi>...Kaxoi>. 
Mt. o-eATji/ia^erai (cf. Mt. IV. 24), per 
haps in reference to the periodical 
return of the attacks : see next verse. 
The father s trouble was the greater 
because the boy was povoycwjs (Lc., 
cf. Lc. vii. 12, viii. 42). 

1 8. oirov eav avrov KaraXa/Sfl] Lc. 
irvfvfw \apl3dvei avrov. The seizures 
might occur anywhere, and they oc 
curred frequently (TroXXa^ts Mt., Me. 

V. 22). KaTaXrj^is, KaraXrjiTTos are 

used by Galen and Hippocrates in 
reference to fits, and persons subject 
to them. The effects of the seizure 
in the present case are described in 
detail : first there came a sudden 
scream (Lc.), then the patient was 
thrown upon the ground in a strong 
convulsion. Prytro-fi, Lc. o-Trapao-crei, 
cf. Lc. ix. 42 ppr)fV...Kal (rvvf(T7rd- 

paei>, where Me. (. 20) has only 
<TvvfO"irapat-ev : cnrapaa a eiv and avv- 
cnrapacra-fiv describe the actual con 
vulsion (see note on i. 26), prja-o-eiv 
appears to be used of the preliminary 
heavy fall (Euth. : avrl TO *ara/3oXXei 
iy yr}v ). For this sense of the latter 

word cf. Sap. iv. 19 pr]^ft avrovs a<eo - 

vovs TTprjvfls ; Kuinoel cites also Arte- 
midorus (i. 62) pfjt-ai rov dvrinakov to 
give one s adversary a throw. 5 In this 
use prja-a-eiv approaches to the mean 
ing of /jatro-eti/, dpcura-fiv, and cod. D, 

with the apparent concurrence of the 
Latin versions (see vv. 11.), substitutes 
pdara-fi for it in this place; cf. the 
Wycliffite "hurtlith hym doun." After 
being dashed to the ground the patient 

1 i ) foamed at the mouth (d^pt deti/, poet, 
and late Gk., here only in the N.T.), 

(2) ground his teeth (rpi Ceii/, another 
N. T. OTT. Xry., used of any sharp or 
grating sound, is here interpreted 
by TOVS o3., cf. Vg. stridet dentibus : 
the usual phrase is /Spu^fti/ rovs oS., 
LXX., Acts vil 54, cf. o ppvypos TUV 
odovToav, Mt. viii. 12) ; and (3) ap 
peared to shrivel, or perhaps became 
rigid (3 Regn. xiii. 4), Vg. arescit (for 
r)paiv. cf. iii. i, note). Celsus gives a 
similar account of the symptoms of 
catalepsy : " homo subito concidit ; ex 
ore spumae moventur...interdum ta- 
men, cum recens est [morbus], homi- 
nem consumit (med. iii. 23, de morbo 
comitiali 3). 

ical fiTra rot? p.a0T]Tais (rov] Lc. 
fderjdrjv T&V pad. <r. The father ex 
pected the disciples to possess the 
Master s authority ; possibly he knew 
that they had formerly used it with 
success (vi. 13); even the disciples of 
the Rabbis claimed this power (Lc. 
XI. 19 oi viol v[iQ)v...Kpd\\ovo-iv [ra 
daifjiovia]). It was a genuine surprise 
to him as well as to them to find that 
they were powerless in this case (OVK 

iV^ucrai/, Mt. ; Lc. OVK r]bvvr)6rjcrav : cf. 

v. 3, 4). 

19. o Se diroKpidcls avro is *rX.] The 
Synoptists, in marked contrast to the 
freedom with which the father s words 
are treated by them, give the reply 



[IX. 19 



20 dve^o/uiai vfJLWv , (pepere CLVTOV Trpos JJL. 



avrov 7T|OO5 CLVTOV. KCLI iStov CLVTOV TO TrvevjJLa 
ev avTov, Kat 7re<T6oV err I T^5 yfjs 
/ccu eTrripcoTricrev TOV TraTepa avrov Hocros 


19 ctTrKTros (-are D)] + /ccu Steffrpafj,fj.evTj 13 69 124 al pauo 20 /ecu idd)v...ev0vs] 

vdv$ ovv & om evdvs D ab ff i q | idcov] i8ov C 2?3? SV min nonn | avvea-n-apa^ev KBCLA 
33 conturbavit latt)] eairapa^fv AINXrnZ < f> > I r min pl erapa^ev D | avrov 4] TO Traidiov 
13 28 69 346 2P 6 puerum abcff ikrfu 21 aurou] + \eyuv 13 28 69 124 346 2 pe 

a f arm 

of Christ in nearly identical terms. 
To Mc. s < ycvta. (viii. 12, 38) anto-TOS 
Mt. and Lc. add *at], a 
reminiscence possibly of Deut. xxxii. 
5 (cf. Phil. ii. 1 5). The repeated fa>s 
Trore (Mt., Me.) the Lord s quousque 
tandem, cf. Jo. x. 24, Apoc. vi. 10, 
and see WM., p. 591 has the ring of 
originality rather than Lc. s eats TT. KCU, 
and Mc. s abrupt (e pere avrbv trpos pc 
is superior to Lc. s softened npoo-dya-yc 
wdf TOV vlov crov. But the answer is 
substantially the same in all, and it is 
the only feature in which they clearly 
follow the same tradition. The Lord 
replies to all whose feeling the father 
had voiced (avrotf ) ; the reproof to y. 
an-io-Tos is general, perhaps purposely 
so, including the Scribes, the people, 
and the father (w. 22, 23) so far as 
their faith had been at fault, and 
the disciples not the least (v. 29). 

Hpos vfjias = fj-fff vpaiv (Mt.), cf. vi. 3 : 

for dvfxeo-Gai TIVOS see WM., p. 253, 
and cf. Isa. xlii. 14, xlvi. 4, Ixiii. 15; 
in the N. T., outside this context, it 
appears only in the Pauline Epp. and 

2O. rfveyKav avrov] Cf. Lc. Trpoar- 

fpxofj-fvov avrov. It is implied (cf. 
(frfpfrc avrov Trpos fie, V. 19) that the 
boy was not with his father in the 
crowd, but in safe keeping not far off. 
l8a>v avrov ro iri>fvfj.a not, as Winer 
(WM., p. 710) and Blass (Gr. p. 283), 
an anacoluthon (i&oj/ avrov [6 TTCUS], ro 
rrv. KT\., cf. Syr. sin -), but a construct 

ad sensum the gender of the noun is 
overlooked in view of the personal 
action of the spirit; cf. Jo. xvi. 13 f. 
Kflvo$, rb 7rvfVfjia...fKflvos, where if tho 
masc. pronoun is suggested by o irapa- 
K\rjros (v. 7), its repetition would be 
impossible but for the personal life 
implied in ro nvevfj,a. 2vi>fo-7rdpa{;cv f 
Vg. conturbavit ; see notes on i. 26, ix. 
1 8 : Lc. fpprjgev avrov KCU o-vvfcnrdpat-fv. 
With the strengthened o-wo-Trapao-o-fiv^ 

cf. o-vvjrviyfiv (iv. 7), o-vvrrjpflv vi. 2O r 
o~vi>7r\T] povv Lc. viii. 23, o~vvapndfiv Lc. 
viii. 29, o-vvKaXvTTTfiv Lc. xii. 2. EKI>- 
AiVro is CLTT. Aey. in the N. T., but 
Kv\io-fj.6s occurs in 2 Pet. ii. 22 ; the 
verb, which is a later form of KV\IV- 
8fiv, is used freely in the LXX. (e.g. 
KvXifiv XiBov, Jos. x. 1 8, i Regn. xiv. 
33, Prov. xxvi. 27, K. aprov, Jud. vii. 
13 (A) ; cf. also 4 Regn. ix. 33 (of 
Jezebel s fall), Amos ii. 13 (of the 
wheels of a cart). For dQpifav see 
ix. 1 8. 

21. Ka\ f7rrjp(orrfo~v rbv Trarfpa KrA.} 
Me. only (to 25 a ). Iloa-os xP"os fcrrlv 
MS... how long is it that (since)...? Cf. 
Gal. iv. i ffi ocrov XP OVOV > Soph. O. T. 

558 OI. TTOO-OV riv rjdr) drjff 6 Aaios 
Xpovov | KP. dtdpaKf nolov epyov; Qs 

is used elliptically for a< ov ; cf. vv. 11. 
Tfyovev, not eyfvero the disorder was 
manifestly still upon him. E< rraio i- 
odfv : * from a little boy, from a 
mere child ; i.e. he was a 7rat8iov 
when it first took him : his age at 
the time is not mentioned, but he was 



ecTTtv o TOVTO 


6 Se 




7roAAa/as Kai ek Trvp avTOV e/3a\ei/ 22 

, a/a crTToXecr^ avTOV. aAA ei TL Svvfj. 

i i 

(T7r\a r y xyia 0eis e(f) q/mas.^ S3 d Se 23 
3 Irjcrovs elirev avTco To Gi ovvrj, TravTa SvvaTa TO) 

11 ws K*AC 3 DXm<l al minP 1 go] ews B e ov fc^C LA* 33 2P (ex quo latt 
similiter syrr arm me al) <x0 ov NS 13 40 124 346 arm vid | e/c ira.ifti.o6cv 
^BCGILNASJ>^ i 33 118 209 alP auc ] ira.i5i.odev A(X)m min? 1 e/c TrcuSos D 2P 
22 Trvp] pr TO AEFGMVrn 2 *!* min 8 ** 11 | Swrj fc4BDILA\E r i 28 118 209] dvvaa-at. 
ACNXrnS<i> minP 1 | t]^iv\ + Kvpie DG (i) (262) 2 pe abgiqarm (idem post Sw-rj add i 
post ?7/x,as vero 262 1071) 23 om TO DKNUII^> 13 28 69 124 131 1071 2 pe al nonn 

hab KABCLXrAS^ minP 1 | dwrj fc<*BDNAS i 28 118 209] dvvacrat 
al minP l + irt<rreu<rat AC 3 D(EHM)NX(r)n<J>* minP 1 latt ck * syrr go Chrys (om 
KBC*LA i 118 209 244 k* arm me aeth) 

still a irals (Lc. ix. 42). The Attic 
phrase is *< irai&ov (cf. D) but from 
Xenophon downwards 7rat8i60ev takes 
its place : the pleonastic e /c TraiSiotfei 
is a survival of Homeric usage (cf. 
e.g. II. viii. 34, 1% ovpavodcv) which is 
censured by the Atticists (Lob. Phryn. 
p. 93), but found a place in late Gk. : 

Cf. V. 6 (OTTO /za*po0ei/), and WM., 

p. 752 f., Blass, Gr. p. 59. 

22. Kai TroXXd/cis KCU els irvp /crX.] 
The seizures were often accompanied 
by a tendency to suicidal mania. Mt. 
has simply (xvii. 15) iriirrei, but Mc. s 
avrov ffia\fV... ivadiro\e(TT) avrov shews 

that in the view of the father these 
frequent mishaps were not accidental. 
Kai... Kai: the spirit had tried both 
means of destruction. Uvp, vSara 
(D?E)) Mt., TO Trvp, TO vScop. Thpht. 
piTTTfTai de TLS lino $aip,ovos els Trip, 
TO TOU 6vp.ov Kai TO TT/s eiri6vp,las 
Kai els v8a>p, TO ru>v /3io)Ti/cc5i/ Trpayp,d- 
TO>V K\v8a>viov. Ei TI dvvi] . dvvatrdaL 

is used absolutely as in Lc. xii. 26, 
2 Cor. xiii. 8 ; cf. WM., p. 743. The 
man s faith had been shaken by the 
failure of the disciples ; contrast the 

leper s eav OeXrjs, dvva<rai (i. 40). Pos- 
sibly no miracle had been wrought in 
this neighbourhood as yet, so that in 
the struggle to believe the father had 
no experience to assist him. The form 

bvvji is poetical and late (WM., p. 90); 
on its occurrence in the N. T. side by 
side with dvvaarai cf. WH., Notes, p. 
168, WSchm., p. 123 n. For o-7rXay- 
Xvio-deis see note on i. 41 :>, was, 
i.e. both father and son. 

23. TO Ei 8vvy, iravra dvvara TO> 

TTio-Tevoj/Ti] The Lord repeats the 
father s words and places them in 
contrast with the spiritual facts which 
he had yet to learn: if thou canst: 
for one who believes all things are 
possible : i.e. it is for thee . rather 
than for Me to decide whether this 
thing can be done ; it can be if thou 
believest (cf. xi. 23 f.). Thpht. : ou ry 

oiKfia dwd/jifi aXXa rfj eKeivov irlffTtt 
avariOrjO t TTJV OfpaTreiav. Cf. Iren. iv. 

37. 5 "omnia talia suae potestatis 
secundum fidem ostendunt hominem." 
To ei 8vvr) is a nominativus abso 
lute (WM., p. 226, cf. 135); for the 
clause preceded by an article and 
treated as a noun, cf. Rom. viii. 26 
with SH. s note, and Blass, Gr. p. 158. 
From its extreme compression the 
sentence has given trouble to scribes 
and commentators. The Western 
text followed by a majority of the 

MSS. reads 6 6"e Ir/o-oi;? CITTCV Ei 8vvy 
(8vvacrai) TricrreiHTai, ndvra 8vfaTa TO> 
7rio-Teuoi>Ti : si potes credere, omnia 
possibilia credenti. Attempts have 



[IX. 23 

24 TTHTTeVOVTl. * 4 6l>dvS Kpd^CLS 6 TTaTTJp TOV 

25 e\eyev flt(rTV(0 /3orj6ei IJLOV TJJ dTTLCTTia. a 

6 lrj(rovs OTI eTTKTWTpe^eL c^Aos 67reT//ur/cry TOJ 
TCO aKaddpTco \eywv avTco To aXaXov 






24 evevs] Kai K*C* ACCU ev6vs ^ | e\eyev] + ^era daicpvuv A 2 C 3 DNXmZ<f> al min? 1 
abc f iq vg S yrrP eahhcl go (om KA*BC*LA^ 28 604 k syr sin arm me aeth) | Trtoreuw] 
+ Kvpte C 2 NXrAHS al min fereotnn abcf (q) vg syrrs 1 " 1 Chrys 25 tdwi> de] Kai 

ore eider D latt( vid ) j o%Xos] pr o KALMSXAH^ 28 33 69 124 1071 2 1 " al arm (om 
BCDNrS minP 1 ) | TO a\. /cat /ca>0. irv.] TO TTV. TO aX. KOLL /cu>0. 
om eyw X* 33 | e^] air C*A min? 1 latt vid 

been made, but with poor success, to 
extort a better sense from this read 
ing (e.g. et dvvao-at, 7n<rrev<rai), or 
to amend it (el 5., TriVrcvf). Some 
who accept the shorter text place a 
mark of interrogation after dvvr] 
" sayest thou If thou canst ? " But 
there is nothing in the context to 
suggest a question, and the English 
Revisers of 1881 rightly render " If 
thou canst ! all things are possible to 
him that believeth," without marginal 

24. evdvs Kpdgas KT\.] The father 
instantly responds to the demand for 
fuller trust on his part ; his strength 
of feeling shews itself in a cry as 
piercing as that of the demoniac 
son (Lc. ix. 39). He recognises that 
the help he needs is in the first 
instance help for himself and not for 
his boy (/So^ei /xov rfj drr., cf. v. 22 
^oT]6r](Tov yfuv). He believes (TTIO-- 
r5o>), but his faith is defective, and 
its defect needs the Master s succour 
(for this use of fiorjQelv cf. 2 Cor. vi. 2, 
Heb. ii. 18, iv. 16). Wycliffe : " Lord, 
I bileue ; help thou myn unbileueful- 
nesse." Bede : " uno eodemque tern- 
pore is qui necdum perfecte crediderat 
simul et credebat et incredulus erat." 

Victor : dp^a/j.fvos ovv marevfiv edeero 
TOV (TUTrjpos Sia TTJS avTov dwafj-ews 

TTpOO-Qflvai TO \017TOV. ATTttTTta is per- 

haps suggested by yevea CLTTLO-TOS (v. 19) : 
^. pov TTJ OTT. help my faith where 

it is ready to fail, nearly = /not r<5 

aTTioro). With P.OV Trj air. cf. V. 30 
/nov TCOI/ t/zariW, Rom. xi. 14 nov 
TTJV rrapKa : the position is perhaps 
slightly emphatic, though WM. (p. 193) 
appears to doubt this. ATricrria, cf. 
note on vi. 6. The reading /xera 
daKpvuv ( Western and Syrian, WH., 
Notes, p. 25) is at least an interesting 
gloss ; for the phrase cf. Acts xx. 19, 
31, Heb. v. 7, xii. 17. 

25. low Se 6 Iqo-ovr KT\.] The con 
versation then was not in the presence 
of the crowd, but was interrupted by 
its arrival. The Lord had probably 
retired with the father and the boy 
to a distance from the o^Xoy, but the 
cries of both brought them running 
to the spot and privacy became im 
possible. This has been overlooked 
in the text of KA, where 6 ox\o? refers 
to vv. 15, 17. *~E,iri.crvvTpfx iV is ap 
parently arr. Xey. ; cf. however eVt- 
i. 33 ; the LXX. has also 
marvttexccv, e7ri<ruvicrTdvai, 
and 7TL(rv(rTpc(peiv. 2vtrpe xeii> is used 
by Me. in vi. 33 : the double compound 
perhaps calls attention to the return 
of the crowd (cf. Trpoo-TpcxovTcs, #. 1 5) 
after it had been for the time dis 
persed. There is no indication in 
Me. of the habit of using otiose com 
pounds (WM., p. 25 f.) which disfigures 
much of the later Gk. 

eVeri/ir/o-fi/ T<B irvcv^iaTi *rX.] Here 

Mt. and Lc. rejoin Me. Me. however 



KO.I jj.riK.eTi e<reys e OVTOV. 
7ro\\d cnrapd^as efj\6ev Kai eyeveTO cocrei 
worTe TOI)S TroAAoik \eyew OTL ATreOavev. 27 
Irjcrovs KpaTricras Ttjs X L P* UVTOV qyeipev CLVTOV, 

* S Kat eicreXdovTOS UVTOV ek OIKOV, oi }uia- 28 



26 om Tj-oXXa k | Kpafrs, <rirapaas KBCDL(A)*] K paav, <rirapaai> AC 3 NXmS< 
ff-n-apafrs] + avrov K* c - a * AC 3 NXm al | eq\06?] + air CLVTOV D latt exc i j rouj 
om rovs CDNXmZ<I> min^go 27 T-TJS xetpos avrov KBDLA^ i 13 28 69 

avTOV -^s X (O.VTOV) A(C*)C 3 NXmZ<I> minP 1 | om KO.I avearr] k 28 ereX- 
aurou t^BCDLA i 13 28 69 118 209 604 1071 latt] eia-eXdovTa, CLVTOV 
al minP 1 eXdovra O.VTOV S | ot^] pr roi AM 

cyevcro eooVi vfKpos : contrast Apoc. 
i. 17. There was a general cry among 
the crowd (TOVS TTO\\OVS \fyfiv\ He 
is dead. of TroXXot, cf. vi. 2, xii. 37 ; 
Gregory, prolegg. p. 128 : " Marcus 
ponit 6 TroXvs et of TroXXoi ubi TTO\VS 
et TroXXoi satis videntur esse." For 
the aor. anlBavov see Burton, 47, 
and cf. v. 35, 39, Jo. viiL 52. This 
incident again is peculiar to Me. ; 
Mt. has merely fgrjXOcif oV avrov TO 

alone gives the words of the rebuke 
(for 7riri/iai> see note on i. 25). To 
aXaXoi/ KOI Koxfrov irvfiip.^ a nom. used 
as a vocative : cf. TO Kopao-iov, v. 41, 
and ?. 19 supra, and see WM., p. 327, 
Blass, Gr. p. 86. K<0o^ is a new 
feature in the case (irv. aXaXov, . 17), 
but see note on vii. 32, and cf. Ps. 
xxxvii. (xxxviii.) 14 with Ps. xxxviii. 
(xxxix.) 3. Eyco eTrirao O a) o~ot, I 
enjoin thee 3 (Euth. : cya>...ov oldas): 
since this spirit had refused to ac 
knowledge the authority of the dis 
ciples, the Master emphasises His 
personal claim to obedience. For 
firiTCKTo-fLv cf. i. 27 ; for the emphatic 
fyai see x. 38 f., xiv. 58, and the Fourth 
Gospel passim. *Ef\0c avrov 
ordinarily sumced (i. 25, v. 8) ; in this 
desperate case of periodical seizures 
it was necessary to add Kat P.TJKCTL 
fla-\6fjs. For the spiritual analogy 
see Lc. xi. 24 ff. 

26. Kpdas KOI TroXXa (nrapa^as KrX.] 
For the moment the only result was 
a fresh seizure (see on v. 20) ; the 
spirit wreaked its revenge on its 
victim even in the act of quitting 
its hold upon him. For the masc. 

participles cf. V. 2O l8<ov...TO Trvevp-a. 
The convulsions were violent and pro 
longed (7roXXa,cf.iii. 1 2, note), and when 
they ceased, the sufferer s strength 
was exhausted; a collapse followed; 
he lay motionless and pallid as a 
corpse. For cg^XOev see note on v. 29 ; 

v, Lc. Icuraro rov 7rai8a. 

27. KpaTTJcras rrjs ^ftpos aurou] Cf. 

i. 31, v. 41. The Lord seems to have 
offered this help only where great 
exhaustion had preceded ; cf. Acts 
ix. 41, and contrast ii. 11 f. Ai/eo-n; : 
he rose from the ground where he 
had been rolling (v. 20), and afterwards 
lay prostrate. Lc. helps us to com 
plete the picture : aircboxev avrov TO> 
irarpl avrov (cf. Lc. vii. 15), rXi;<r- 
o-oi/ro Se Trdires enl 177 /zeyaXeidr^rt TOV 

6cov (cf. Me. i. 27, ii. 12, vii. 37). Mt. 
adds probably in reference to the 

Lord s fj,r)KTi i<T\0f)s ical (QepairfvQr] 
o Trots dnb rfjs copay tKtivqs (cf. Mt. ix. 
22, xv. 28). The epileptic fits did not 

28. L(T\06vTOS O.VTOV ftS OLKOv] 

On the vv. 11. and construction see 
Blass, Gr. p. 25 if. The Lord went 
indoors, into the lodging where the 
party were housed (els OIKOV, cf. iii. 
20, vii. 17), to escape from the en 
thusiasm of the crowd, and because 



[IX. 28 



eTrrjpcoTwv avTOV 

* OTI 


29 OVK q$vvri6r]iuiV 6K/3a\elv O.VTO] /ccu 
TOVTO TO <yeVo9 ev ov^evl ^VVCLTCLL 


e /mr) ev 

30 3 KctKeWev 

[7rap~^e7ropevovTO Sia 

28 /car tdiav post tffe\6. avrov * | on KBCLNXrAZ* al minP 1 ] Sia TL 
736 1071 al nonn OTI Start U 131 238 al pauc n ort rninP*" 29 ev Trpocreux 7 ?] + Kai ( T7 ?) 

^ c - b ADLNXr(A)n2<lI m in omnvid latt exck syrr^P 6811 ) 1101 (arm) (aeth) (om K. 
. K* c - a B k) 30 /cat e/cet0ei> ACNXm alP 1 \ -jrapeiropevovTo KAB 3 CLNXrAZ$ 

al min omnvid b d (ff) i k vg syrr arm me] eTropevovro B*D a c f go aeth 

on such occasions further teaching 
was impossible. He and the disciples 
were now in privacy (/car 5 l&iav Mt., 
Me.), and the nine took occasion 
to seek an explanation of their 

failure (eV^pcorcoi/, Mt. irpoo-eXOovrcs 
...e?7rai/), approaching Him probably 
(as was their wont on these oc 
casions) by one of their number 
(? Andrew). "Ori = 8ia rt, Mt. (Euth. : 
TO OTI dvT\ TOV 8ia TL ourco yap elnev 6 

Mar^aios : cf. Blass, Gr. p. 1 76) ; see 
note on v. n supra, and for the 
circumstances of the failure, v. 18. 

29. TOVTO TO yevos KrA.] Either 
this class of Saijuoi/ia, or this kind 
generally, i.e. the oaipovia ; cf. Thpht. : 

77 ro Ttov o~f\T)viao[j.eva3v rj aTrXais TTCLV 
TO TO>V Baifjiovatv yevos. Tevos 18 a 
nationality (vii. 26, Acts iv. 36), a 
family (Acts iv. 6, vii. 13, xiii. 26, 
xviii. 2, 24), or a species (Mt. xiii. 47), 
or class of things (i Cor. xii. 10). 
Hence it is used of the spiritual 
affinity which associates moral beings 
of the same order or type of cha 
racter (i Pet. ii. 9). Similarly St Paul 
speaks of rrarptat in heaven as well as 
on earth (Eph. iii. 1 5). Ei/ ovSei/i 8vva- 
TO.I eeA$eii/, can take its departure 
(i.e. be cast out, ^f\6elv being in 
such contexts practically the pass, of 
e</3aXeti/) in the strength of no power 
(not as Euth. = ovdevl erepo> rpo7T6>) but 
one/ i.e. in the strength of (believing) 
prayer (xi. 23, 24) ; cf. Clem. Al. eel. 
proph. 15. The Lord seizes on the 

essential weakness of their case. They 
had trusted to the quasi-magical power 
with which they thought themselves 
invested; there had been on their 
part no preparation of heart and 
spirit. Spirits of such malignity were 
quick to discern the lack of moral 
power and would yield to no other. 
To ev irpoo-evxri the Western and 
Syrian text adds <al (T#) vr)o~Tcia, but 
the time for fasting was not yet (ii. 19) ; 
comp. the similar gloss i Cor. vii. 5. 
Mt., who omits this answer, has the 
more obvious Ata TTJV oXi-yoTricrriW 
vpo>v, to which he adds the sayings 
about the grain of mustard seed and 
the removal of mountains which are 
found in other contexts (Lc. xvii. 6, 
Mt. xxi. 21). Tatian combines Mi s 
answer with Mc. s, placing Mt. s first, 
and connecting Mc. s with it by a yap. 
TOLD (Mt. xvii. 22, 23 ; Lc. ix. 43 45). 

30. KaKfWfV %\6oVTfS KT\."\ The 

Lord and the Twelve now leave their 
retreat at the foot of Hermon and 
travel southwards. Their way to the 
North had perhaps led them through 
Gaulanitis and Ituraea (cf. viii. 22, 27, 
note), but they return 8ia TTJS Ta\ci\aias 
i.e. probably along the West bank of 

the. Jordan. Mt. s erv<rrpe(po/ieVcou tv 

TTJ TaXetXaia suggests that they broke 
up into small parties which mustered 
at certain points in the route (for 
o-vo-Tpe(po-0ai cf. 2 Regn. x v. 3 1 , 4 Regn. 
ix. 14, x. 9 etc.), the purpose being 



, Kal OVK rideXev *iva TIS yvoT. 3I e S/Sacncey 3 1 
yap TOI)S jULadrjTa^ avTOV Kal e\e<yev avTols OTL O vios 
TOV dv6p(07TOV TrapaSiSoTai ek xelpas dvBpcoTrcov, Kal 
avTOV, Kal diroKTavQeh /zera Tpels 

30 yvoi KBCDL] 7^0? ANXrAZ^ al min onmvid 31 om aurois B (26 ev k) | 

irapa8o6r](rTat 69 604 arm vid | avd puTrwv] avdpuirov D avo/j-aiv ^ Balt * + ayu.aprwAojj 604 | 
D | om airoKTavdecs D min perp a c k me | /-cera rpeij yfj-epas fc$BC*D 
b c i post tertium diem akq in tres dies d syr hcl ( m s> me] T-TJ T/HT?? -rj/^epa 
ACSNXrn2<l> al min omnvid fr vg syrr 8111 ? 68111101 ^*) arm go aeth 

perhaps to avoid attracting notice asserts the truth of His humanity and 
(Me. OVK ij6f\v Iva TIS yvoi) : cf. vii. 24 His liability to suffering, 
and on yvol = yvw, v. 43, note. The 
reading TrapfTropevovro, which is well 
supported and perhaps genuine, con 
veys the idea that the transit was 
made without unnecessary breaks : 
"obiter profecti sunt...mtenti viae 
conficiendae, uon invisendis hospitibus 
aut instituendae plebi" (Fritzsche). 

31. c8i8ao-KV yap KT\.] Reasons 

of the Lord s desire to escape recog 
nition. He was now fully occupied 
with the training of the Twelve 
(Latham, Pastor past. p. 351). A 
journey through Upper Galilee, in 
which He could attach Himself now to 
one party of two or four Apostles and 
now to another, afforded an oppor 
tunity of quiet teaching which might 
never return. The substance of this 
reiterated teaching (f Si6WK ...fXf- 
yev) is the same as that of the first 
prediction of the Passion near Caes- 
area (viii. 31), with one new element 
a reference to the Betrayal. Lc. 
points out the occasion of this fresh 
prediction of the Passion : e^ 77X170-- 

O~OVTO & 77ai>TS 771 TT) p.ya\lOTT)Tl TOV 
0Ol> TrdvTC&V 8e $ 77t 7TO,O~IV 

ols 77oti CITTCV KT\. There was reason 
to fear that this new outburst of en 
thusiasm would lead them to forget 
His warning, or even frustrate His 

O VIOS TOV dvdpWTTOv] Notwith- 

standing Peter s confession and the 
revelation of His glory on Mt. Hermon 
the Lord retains the old title which 

Mt., Lc., n\\ci...Trapa8ido<T0ai. The 
event is regarded as imminent and 
indeed in process of accomplishment ; 
Cf. Mt. XXVI. 2 p-fTO. dvo T)p.cpas...irapa- 
fit dorai: Bengel : "iam id agitur ut 
tradatur " ; for this use of the present 
see WM., p. 331 ff., Burton, 15, who 
calls it (but inexactly) "the present 
for the future." The instrument of 
the betrayal 6 irapadidovs, xiv. 42 
was in the company, and the Lord 
could see the purpose already lying 
as an undeveloped thought in his 
heart (Jo. vi. 70 f.). On irapab^ovat 
see i. 14, note. Tlpodidovat trader e 
does not occur in the N. T., but its 
meaning is more or less imported by 
the circumstances into Trapadidovat, 
which even in class. Gk. is patient of 
a bad sense. Yet, as Origen (in Mt.) 
reminds us, irapadidovai may be used 
with quite another purpose ; in the 
eternal counsels of GOD, the Father 
delivered up the Son (Rom. viii. 32), 
and the Son delivered up Himself 
(Gal. ii. 20). Els x f W as dv6p. is less 
precise than the corresponding words 
in viii. 31 (1^770 TWV Trpeo-fivTeptov KOI 
Ttov dpx*p a>i/ Kal T<av ypa/z/zarecov). 
But on the other hand it is wider, and 
prepares the Twelve for the further 
revelation of x. 34 (napafttoo-ovo-iv O.VTOV 
rot? fdvea-iv : cf. xiv. 41, els T. x- T - 
a/Mapro>Ao3i>. On the form diroKTavOfjvai, 
and on /iTa rpei? r/p,epas = Trj Tpiiy 

see viii. 31, note. 



32 rifjiepas dva<TTri<TTai. 3a oi Se riyvoov v TO pfj/ULa, Kal 
e<po/3ovvTO avTOV 67rep(*)Trj(rai. 

33 33 Kal ?]\6ov ei9 Kacpapvaovfui. Kal ev Trj OLKLOL 
<yevo]ULevos eTrrjpwTa CH/TOUS Ti ev Trj 

34 yit ea Oe ; 34 oi 5e ecnwTTCDi/, Trpos a 

31 aj>a<TT77<reTcu] eyep6r}(reTai I 13 69 346 26 ev alP* uc 33 TjXtfoi/ KBD (- 

i 1 1 8 209 2P 6 alP auc a b c k vg syr? 68 * 1 ] rj\6ev ACLXriI2<l>Sl> al minP 1 f q S yrr 8inhcl arm 
me go aeth i<rij\dev 604 + is 1071 | difXoyifeo-de] pr (vel add) TT/JOS eavrovs ANXTA 
HS<I> min omnvid f syrr arm go aeth 34 e<n,uTn<]<rai> & 

32. of 8e yyvoovv TO p^pd] They 
remained in ignorance of the import 
of the Lord s words, especially of the 
saying about the Resurrection (cf. ix. 
10), for of the Passion they had some 
dim and sorrowful conception (Mt., /cat 
XVTTT; 6r}<rav o-(popa). Lc. explains that 
there was a Divine purpose in their 
temporary ignorance : 77 v irapaKeKaXvfj,- 
fj.vov aTT* avT<iov Iva fj.f] a i(rd(i3VTai avro. 
They shrank from seeking enlighten 
ment e()o(3ovvTO avTov 

Me. ; similarly Lc.), partly from a natural 
reluctance to enter upon a painful 
subject, partly perhaps from their 
recollection of the censure incurred 
by Peter (viii. 33). There is weight 
also in Bengel s remark : " de quavis 
re facilius interrogant lesum quam 
de ipso; sic fit inter familiares." 
Ay I/DC lv in the N. T. is chiefly a 
Pauline word (Me. 1 , Lc. ev - 1 > act - 2 , Paul. 25 , 
Heb. 1 , 2 Pet. 1 ). P^a, a common word 
in the LXX. and fairly frequent in the 
N.T., occurs in Me. only here and 
xiv. 72. 

i 5, Lc. ix. 4648). 

33- Kal ?/X$oi/ fls Kcxfrapvaovfji] Ca 
pernaum (i. 21, ii. i, Jo. vi. 59) had 
ceased to be the centre of the Min 
istry; but it was a convenient ter 
minus to the northern journey, and 
starting point for a fresh field of 
work in the south; and Simon s or 
Levi s house (i. 29, ii. 15) afforded a 
shelter there. The Galilean Ministry 

ends as it began at Capernaum. No 
subsequent visit to the town is men 
tioned in the Gospels, although after 
the Resurrection the Lord was seen 
by the shore of the lake (Jo. xxi. i ff.) 
and among the hills (Mt. xxviii. 16). 

Koi fv TT) OIKIO. ycvofjifvos KrX.] When 
they had reached the privacy of the 
house the Lord questioned the Twelve 
on a discussion He had overheard 
during the journey (lv rrj 68a>, Vg. 
in via, cf. viii. 3, 27). Evidently they 
had not thought Him to be within 
earshot (cf. X. 32 ija-av & ev rfj oSo>... 
Kal rjv Trpoaycoi/); but He had detected 
angry voices and knew the cause (Lc. 
fidvsTov 8ia\oyi(Tfjibv TTJS Kapftias avrcoi/). 

34. 01 fie eVt&>7T<Bi/] Cf. iii. 4, Lc. 
XX. 26. Euth. . e<7i<B7reoi> 
cos ij8r) KaTayvtocrOevTes. 
die\ex6r)(rav : the discussion was at an 
end and the silence which followed 
the Lord s question continued until it 
was broken by His words in v. 35. 
AieXe^^o-ar/. . .ris pfifav, they had 
discussed (Burton, 48) the question 
who is greater (than the rest) ; Lc., 
more fully, TO ris av e lij pei^tov avratv ; 
Mt., who represents the Twelve as 
themselves propounding the question 
to Jesus, writes Tt s apa peifav <TTIV 
ev TT) fiacriXeia TO>V ovpavwv ; The com 
parative has practically the force of a 
superlative, see Blass, Gr. pp. 33, 141 f., 
and on the other hand WM., p. 305 ; 
cf. Mt. xi. n, xxiii. n, i Cor. xiii. 13. 
The question TLS peifav was probably 
suggested by the selection of the 


SieXe^urjcrai/ ev Trj doo) TIS /ULeifav. 3<5 /ca* K 
efbtovrjcrev TOVS owoe/ca KCCI Aeyet avTols G l TIS 6e\ei 

>! >l \ / 


\apcov TraiSiov eorTrjcrei/ 
avTcov Kal evayKa\L(rdfj.evos avTo eljrev 





ev 36 

34 SieXex^crap] di-rfvexdrjaav i 604 2? e | om ev TTJ o5a> ADA a b f i q go | 
+ e(TTiv K res fi. yevrjTai avrwv D i*" TIS avr. p. en) 13 69 346 TIS ei?/ /i. mini* 1 " 5 rty 
17/4. 1071 35 om /cat Xe7ei aurots...5ia/covos Dk | eo-rw A | Sto/covoj] SoiAos M* 

36 TrcuSioi ] pr TO D | avayKdXiffa/JLevos C(DL) 

Three for the mysterious ascent of 
Hermon, and the prominence of Peter 
among the three (cf. Bede). Origen : 
ort fj.v yap OVK ecrnv IO-OTTJS ra>v a|t- 
ovfievtov TTJS fiao-tXfias TCOV ovpai>a>v 
Ka.Tei\i]<J)i<rav (comparing Mt. v. 29). 
See Dalman, Worte, i. p. 92 f. 

35- * a t Kadiaas e<f)(0vr)<TfV /crX.] The 

Lord assumes the attitude of the 
Teacher (Mt. v. i, xiii. i, Lc. v. 3, Jo. 
viii. 2), and calls the disciples (ec/xu- 
vrjo-ev, cf. X. 49, Tob. V. 9, not npoa-- 
eKaXeVaro, cf. iii. 13, 23, vi. 7, viii. I, 
34) all the Twelve (rou? dvdcKa), for 
the lesson He is about to give is 
needed by them all and by the whole 
future Church. How important it 
is appears from its repetition to 
wards the end of the Lord s life (Lc. 
xxii. 24 ff., Mt. xxiii. 8 ff. ; for other 
parallels see x. 42 ff., and the saying 
in x. 31). The intention of the Master 
is not to enact "a penal provision 
against seeking the mastery," but (cf. 
Lc. ix. 48) to point out the way to 
true greatness (Latham, Pastor past. 
p. 355). The spirit of service is the 
passport to eminence in the Kingdom 
of GOD, for it is the spirit of the 
Master Who Himself became SICLKOVOS 
TrdvTwv. The SiaKovos is properly the 
attendant at table (i. 31, Lc. xxii. 27, 
Jo. ii. 9, xii. 2) ; for the later Chris 
tian history of the word see Hort, 
Ecclesia, p. 202 ff. A lower depth is 
sounded and a higher dignity offered 
in the Trairooi/ SoOXop of x. 44) Q.- v - 
With 7rpcorof...eo-xaTo$- cf. X. 31. In 

quite another sense the Lord is at 
once o TTpvTos and o ca-xaros (Apoc. i. 
17, ii. 6, xxii. 13). 

36. Xa/3o>i> TraiSiov ea"rrj(Tfv avro 

KT\. The new rule of life just enun 
ciated is illustrated by a visible 
example. A child is playing near 
(? Peter s: see note on i. 30; on the 
late tradition that the child was Ig 
natius of Antioch 6 fcoQopos read as 
o 0e6(popos see Lightfoot, Ignatius, i. 
p. 27), and the Lord calls it to Him 
(TTpoa-KaXfaa/jLcvos, Mt.), places it by 
His side in the middle of the group 
(Xa/3aji/...OT7;o-6J/ avro iv /ie cra) aimSy, 
Lc. 7ri\a(B6fj.fvos.(rT. avT. nap 1 eav- 

TO>), and then takes it into His arms 
(evayKaXio-dfjLfvos avro, Me. only), cf. 
x. 1 6 ; the verb, which belongs to the 
later Gk., occurs in Prov. vi. 10, xxiv. 
48 (33) and the noun fvayKaXto-fjui in 
4 Mace. xiii. 21 (KA, but the text is 
possibly corrupt) ; Lc. (ii. 28) pre 
fers the paraphrase Se ^eo-tfai els ras 
dyKa\as. The act was accompanied 
by words of which Mt. preserves the 
fullest account. According to Mt. 
the Lord began, A/^ Xeyo> v^lv Eai/ 

fj.rf crrpa^TC Kai yevrjo-dc as TO. Tratdia 
KT\. (xviii. 3, 4). The words carry 
with them the assurance of their gen 
uineness, answering the question ris 
fififav ( the most childlike and trust 
ful, the least self-conscious and self- 
sufficient ) and preparing for the next 
sentence (os av ev rwv TOIOVTWV nat- 
8ia>v fcrX.), the substance of which is 
common to the three Synoptists. 



[IX. 37 

37 37tV Os av ev TCOV TOLOVTCOV TraiSicov Se^rjTai ITTL 
6vo/maTL JULOV, e/ue oe^eTat Kat os av e/me Se^^Tca, OVK 
e/uLe Se^eTai d\\d TOV dTrocrTeiXavTa p.e. 

38 3Sf G(f)rj avTcp 6 Itodvrjs Ai$derKa\e, eiSa/JLev Tiva ev 

37 ev] om DXr 124 alP* 110 e/c 13 69 346 2** ex b c ff i q unum ex a f vg similiter 
gyj.hci JJJQ gQ i 7-fcjj/ TOLOVTWV TTcuS. ABDLNXm2 < i > minpi latt Or] TWJ TrcuSiwj TOVTWV 
XCA minP* 110 faZewi puerum arm vid (cf. k syr sin ) | om e/j.e i ...Sex^Tcu k om KCU os a/ 
e/xe 5e%. syr sin | dextjrat (^)BL^- minP auc ] defrrai ACDNXrAII2$ al min? 1 38 e07? 
NBA^ 1071 syrP 6811 me] a-jreKpiO-r) (de) A(D)NXriI2$ aTroitpideis de e<fnj C /cai airoKpLdeis 
...eurev (\eyei) 69 (604) (bikr vg S yrr 8inhclhler arm) | o Iwa^s] om o ADNm al 
+ \eywv ALNXm alP 1 | ev] eiri U minP* 110 om AXm<I> al minP 1 

pp. 146 f. 3 196 f. For the absolute use 
of ro ovofj.a see Bp Westcott s note on 
3 Jo. 7, and Lightfoot on Ign. Eph. 3. 
Aegr]Tai...8exnTai: the particular act 
of recognition is evidence of a state of 
heart to which Christ Himself is a 
welcome guest. 

Kai os av ep.e $e\r)Tai. /crX.] The action 

passes into a region beyond that of 
the visible order ; to receive a lowly 
brother in Christ s Name is to receive 
Christ, and to receive Christ is to 
receive the Eternal Father in Whose 
Name He came. Cf. Mt. x. 40, Lc. x. 
1 6, Jo. xii. 44> 45 tiTrocrreiXas /tie 
(o Tre /^as /ue Jo. I.e., see Bp Westcott, 
Add. Note on Jo. xx. 21), sc. o 

Trarr/p, Jo. V. 36, vi. 57, X. 36, xvii. 1 8, 

xx. 21 ; the Son is o a7r6oToXos...T^s 
o/ioXoytas rm&v (Heb. iii. i). Other 
references to the Mission of the Son 
in the Synoptists will be found in Mt. 
x. 40, xv. 24, Me. i. 38 (note), xii. 6, 
Lc. iv. 1 8, 43, ix. 48, x. 16; the idea is 
in the background of the whole Minis 
try, which rests on egovo-ia, and sup 
ports itself by faith and prayer. On 
dexecrdai see vi. ii, note. OuK...dXXa, 
not so much... as: Blass, Gr. p. 267, 
n. 2. 

BY A NON-DlSCIPLE (Lc. IX. 4950). 

38. (pr) at o leoai/Tjs] This is the 
only remark attributed by the Synopt 
ists specifically to St John (cf. however 
x. 35 IaKo>/3os Kai la>dvT)s, xiii. 3 He rpos 
Kai laKa>/3os Kai ladvrjs Kai Ai/5pe as), 

37- OS O- v * v T> V TOIOVTQ3V 

KrX.] Mt. ev Traidiov roiouro, Lc. TOVTO 
TO TratStoi/, i.e. this child regarded as 
the representative of its class, or 
rather of the class of disciples whom 
it symbolises (see WM., p. 138). Cf. 

Orig. in Mt. : eav ovv, otrep Trapa TTJV 
rjXiKLav Tracr^ei ra 7raiSia...a7ro \6yov, 6 
TOV *Ir)(rov na6r)TT)S fTCLTreivuHTev eavrov... 
fid\i(rra 8e TOVS cos o A.6yos diredeit-e 
(rrpafpevTas . ..anode <reov Kai fjiip.r)Teov 
KT\. Chrys. Traidiov yap evravBa TOVS 
OVTO)S d(pe\els <pr)0~\ Kai Taireivovs Kai 
dTreppi/JLfJLevovs Trapa Tols TroXXoTf. He 

who recognises and welcomes such, 
because he sees in them the type of 
character which Christ Himself ap 
proved and exhibited (Mt. xi. 29, Phil, 
ii. 5 ff.), recognises and welcomes Christ 
Himself is a true and loyal disciple. 
On dexfo-Oai see vi. n, note, and 
Dalman, Worte, i. p. 101 f. ; eVt r< 
ovofiari /zou (cf. ix. 38 f., xiii. 6, and 
see i Regn. xxv. 5, Gal. iv. 14, Col. iv. 

IO, Didache 12 iras 8e o epx6/J,evos 
ev dvopaTi Kvpi ov Sf^^rco), ( On the 

ground of My Name, i.e. the act 
being based upon a recognition of his 
connexion with Me, cf. WM., p. 490. 
Other nearly equivalent phrases are 
8ia TO ovona (Jo. xv. 21, Me. xiii. 13, 
Apoc. ii. 3), virep TOV dvopaTos (Acts V. 
40, ix. 1 6, xv. 26, 3 Jo. 7) ; cf. ev ro> 
oi/o/iari (Me. ix. 38, I Pet. iv. 14), 8ia 
TOV ovofiaTos (Acts IV. 30), els TO oi/o/ua 

(Acts viii. 1 6). On the use of oW/xa 
in the papyri cf. Deissmann, B. St., 


TCO ovofJLCLTL (Tov K/3d\\ovTa Sai/moi/ia, Kai Ka)\vOjUiev 
avTOv, OTL OVK r]KO\ov6eL rifjuv. 39 d Se Iricrovs eiirev Mr) 39 
KcoXveTe a\)TOV ovdels yap e&Tiv 6s Troiricrei 



o yap OVK <TTIV Ka 



40 IT 

38 /cat eKd)\vofj.ev (e/cwAvcrctytei ACNXm al min^ 1 )] pr os oi>/c axoXovdei T][J.U> 
A(D)NXmS al minP 1 abcffiklqr vg syr hcl go arm (om NBCLA^> 1071 minP nuc 
f syrr 8111 ? 6811 me) |